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erents of various kinds; but as they are not now publicly expiated, as they were among the ancients, they are unheard of and unknown to people in general.

XIII. § 1. During this period the Isaurians, who had been tranquil for some time after the transactions already mentioned, and the attempt to take the city of Seleucia, gradually reviving, as serpents come out of their holes in the warmth of spring, descended from their rocky and pathless jungles, and forming into large troops, harassed their neighbours with prodatory incursions; escaping, from their activity as mountaineers, all attompts of the soldiers to take them and from long use moving casily over rocks and through thickets.

2. So Lauricius was sent among them as goremor, with the additional title of count, to reduce them to order br fair means or foul. He was a man of sound civil wisdom, correcting things in general by threats rather than by severity, so that while be governed the province, which he did for some time, nothing happened deserving of particular notice.

BOOK XX.

ARGUMENT. I. Lupicinus is sent as commander-in-chief into Britain with an army

to check the incursions of the Picts and Scots.--II. Ursicimus, commander of the infantry, is attacked by calumnics, and dismissed.-III. An eclipse of tho sun-A discussion on the two suns, and on the causes of solar and lunar eclipses, and the various changes and shapes of the moon.-IV. The Cæsar Julian, ngamst his will, is saluted as emperor at Paris, where he was wintering. by bis Gallican soldiers, whom Constantius had ordered to bu taken from him, and sent to tlie East to act against the Persians. -V. Ho harangues his soldiers. - VI. Singam is besieged and taken by Sapor: the citizens, with the auxiliary cavalry and two legions in garrison, are carried off to Persia - The town is rued to the ground.–VII. Supor storms the town of Buzabde, which is

success,

defended by three logions; repairs it, and places in it a garrison and magazines; he also attacks the fortross of Victa, without

-VIII. Julian writes to Constantius to inform him of what had taken place at Paris.-IX. Constantius desires Julian

to bo content with the title of Cæsar; but the Gallican legions | Julian unexpoctedly attacks & Frank tribe, known unanimously refuse to allow him to be so. — X. The Emperor

the Attuarii, on the other sido of the Rhino; slays some, takes others prisoners and grants poace to the rest, on their petition.-XI. Constantius attacks Bezabdo with his whole force, but fails-A discussion on the rainbow.

I.

A.D. 360. $1. THESE were the events which took place in Illyricum and in the East. But the next year, that of Constantius's tenth and Julian's third consulship, the affairs of Britain became troubled, in consequence of the incursions of the savage nations of Picts and Scots, who breaking the peace to which they had agreed, were plundering the districts on their. borders, and keeping in constant alarm the provinces exhausted by former disasters, Cæsar, who was wintering at Paris, having his mind divided by various cares, feared to go to the aid of his subjects across the channel (as we have related Constans to have done), lest he should leave the Gauls without a governor, while the Allemanni were still full of fierce and warlike inclinations.

2. Therefore, to tranquillize these districts by reason or by force, it was decided to send Lupicinus, who was at that time commander of the forces; a man of talent in war, and especially skilful in all that related to camps, but very haughty, and smelling, as one may say, of the tragic buskin, while parts of his conduct made it a question which predominated-his avarice or his cruelty.

3. Accordingly, an auxiliary force of light-armed troops, Heruli and Batavi, with two legions from Moesia, were in the very depth of winter put under the command of this general, with which he marched to Boulogne, and having procured some vessels and embarked his soldiers on them, he sailed with a fair wind, and reached Richborough on the opposite coast, from which place be proceeded to London, that he might there deliberate on the aspect of affairs, and take immediate measures for his campaign.

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II.

$ 1. In the mean time, after the fall of Amida, and after Ursicinus had returned as commander of the infantry to the emperor's camp (for we have already mentioned tbat he had been appointed to succeed Barbatio), he was at onco attacked by slanderers, who at first tried to whisper his character away, but presently openly brought forward false charges against him,

2. And the emperor, listening to them, since he commonly formed his opinions on vain conjecture, and was always ready to yield his judgment to crafty persons, appointed Arbetio and Florentius, the chief stoward, as judges to inquire how it was that the town was destroyed. They rejected the plain and easily proved causes of the disaster, fearing that Eusebius, at that timo high chainberlain, would be offended if they admitted proofs which showed undeniably that what had happened was owing to the obstinato inactivity of Sabinianus; and so distorting the truth, they examined only some points of no consoquence, and having no bearing on the transaction.

3. Ursicinus felt the iniquity of this proceeding; and said, “ Although the emperor despises me, still the importance of this affair is such that it cannot bo judged of and punished by any decision lower than that of the emperor. Novertheless, let him know what I venture to prophesy, that whilo ho is concerning himself about this disaster at Amida, of which ho has received a faithful account; and while he gives himself up to the influence of the eunuchs, he will not in the ensuing spring,' even if he himself should come with the entire strength of his army, be able to provent the dismemberment of Mesopotamia.” This speech having been related to the emperor with many additions, and a malignant interpretation, Constantins becamo enraged beyond mcasure ; and without allowing

!" The minuto interval which may be interposed between the hyeme adulld and the primo vere of Amminnus, instead of allowing a sufficient space for a march of three thousand milog, would render tho orders of Constantius as extravagant as they wero unjust : the troops of Gaul could not have reached Syria till tho end of autumn. Tho mcmory of Ammianus must have been inaccurate, and his languago incorrect." Gibbon, c. xxii.

the affair to be discussed, or those things to bo explained to him of which he was ignorant, he belioved all the calum. nies against Ursicinus, and deposing him from bis office, ordered him into retirement; promoting Agilo, by a vast leap, to take his place, he having been before only a tribune of a native troop of Scutarii.

III.

§ 1. At the same time one day the sky in the enst was perceived to be covered with ả thick darkness, and from daybreak to noon the stars were visible throughout; and, as an addition to these terrors, while the light of heaven was thus withdrawn, and the world almost buried in clouds, men, from the length of the eclipse, began to believe that the sun had wholly disappeared. Presently, however, it was seen agaiu like a new moon, then like a half-moon, and at last it was restored entire.

2. A thing which on other occasions did not happen so visibly except when after several unequal revolutions, the moon returns to exactly the same point at fixod intervals; that is to say, when the moon is found in tho samo sign of the zodiac, exactly opposite to the rays of the sun, and stops there a few minutes, which in geometry are called parts of parts.

3. And although the changes and motions of both sun und moon, as the inquiries into intelligible causes have remarked, perpetually return to the same conjunction at the end of each lunar month, still the sun is not always eclipsed on these occasions, but only when the moon, as by a kind of balance, is in the exact contre between the sun and our sight.

4. In short, the sun is eclipsed, and his brilliancy removed from our sight, when he and the moon, which of all the constellations of heaven is the lowest, proceeding with equal pace in their orbits, are placed in conjunction in spite of the height which soparates them (as Ptolemy

learnedly explains it), and afterwards return to the dimen. · sions which are called ascending or descending points of the ecliptic conjunctions: or, as the Greeks call them, defective conjunctions. And if these great lights find themselves in the neighbourhood of these points or knots, the eclipse is small.

5. But if thoy are exactly in tho knots which form the points of intersection between the ascending and descending path of the moon, then the sky will be covered with donser darkness, and the whole atmosphere becomes so thick that we cannot see what is close to us.

6. Again, the sun is conceived to appear double when a cloud is raised higher than usual, which from its proximity to the eternal fires, shines in such a manner that it forms the brightness of a second orb as from a purer mirror.

7. Now let us come to the moon. Tho mioon sustains a clear and visiblo oclipse when, being at the full, and exactly opposito to the sun, she is distant from his orb one hundred and eighty degrees, that is, is in the soventh sign; and although this happens at every full moon, still there is not always one sclipsc.

3. But since she is always nearest to the earth as it revolves, and the most distant from the rest of the other stars, and sometimes exposes itself to the light which strikes it, and sometimes also is partially obscured by the intervention of the shado of night, which comes over it in tho form of a cone ; and thon she is involved in thick dark. noss, when the sun, being surrounded by the centre of the lowest sphere, cannot illuminato her with his rays, because the mass of the earth is in the way; for opinions agreo that the moon has no light of her own.

9. And when she returns to the same sign of the zodiac which the sun occupies, she is obscured (as has been said), her brightness being wholly dimmed, and this is called a conjunction of the moon.

10. Again the moon is said to be new when she has the sun above her with a slight variation from tho perpendicnlar, and then she appears very thin to mankind, even when leaving the sun she reaches the second sign. Then, when she has advanced further, and shines brilliantly with a sort of horned figure, she is said to be crescent shaped ; but when sho begins to be a long way distant from tho sun, and reaches the fourth sign, she gets a greater light, the sun's rays being turned upon hor, and then she is of tho shape of a semicircle.

11. As she goes on still further, and reaches the fifth sign, she assumes a convex shape, a sort of hump appearing from each side. And when she is exactly opposite the

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