taken place, as you think, the soldier who has been paining his life in many terrible wars without reward, has only completed what he has long had under consideration, being indignant and impatient at being only under a chief of the second duns, as knowing that from a Crexar no adequate reward for his continued exertions and frequent victories could possibly be procured.

8. " And while angry at the feeling that he could neither expect promotion nor annual pay, he had this sudden aggravation to his discontent, that he, a man used to cold climates, was ordered to march to the most remote districts of the East, to be separated from his wife and children, and to be dragged away in want and nakedness. This made him fiercer than usual; and so the troops one night colloctcd and laid siege to the palace, saluting with loud and incessant outcries Julian as emperor.

9. "I shuddered at their boldness, I confesr and withdrew myself. And retiring while I could, 1 so.i^ht. safety in concealment and disguise—and as they would not desist, armed, so to say, with the shield of my own free heart, I came out before them all, thinking that the tumult might be appeased by authority, or by conciliatory language.

10. "They bocamo wonderfully excited, and proceeded to such lengths that, whon I endeavoured to overoomo their pertinacity with my entreaties, they came close up to me, threatening me with instant death. At last I wag overoomo, and arguing with myself that if I were murdered by them somo one else would willingly accept tho dignity of emporor, I consented, hoping thus to pacify their armed violence.

11. "This is tho plain account of what has been done; and I entreat you to listen to it with mildness. Do not believe that anything else is the truth; and do not listen to malignant men who deal in mischievous whispers, always eager to seek their own gain by causing ill will between princes. Banish flattery, which is the nurse of vice, and listen to the voice of that most excellent of all virtues, justice. And receive with good faith the equitable condition which I propose, considering in your mind that such things are for the interest of the Roman state, and of us also who are united by affection of blood, and by an equality of superior fortune. •'

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12. "And pardon me. These reasonable requests of mine I am not so anxious to see carried out, as to see them approved by you as expedient and proper; and I shall with eagerness follow all your instructions.

13. " Whitt requires to bo done 1 will briefly explain. I will provide you somo Spanish draught horses, and sorao youths to mingle with the Gentiles and Scutarii of the Letian tribe, a race of barbarians on tho side of tho Rhine; or else of thoso people which have come over to our side. And I promise till the end of my life to do all I can to assist you, not only with gratitude, but with eagerness.

14. "Your clemency will appoint us prefects for our prsetorium of known equity and virtuo: the appointment of tho ordinary judges, and the promotion of the military officers it is fair should bo left to mo; as also tho soloction of my guard. For it would bo unreasonable, when it is possible to bo gunrdod against, that thoso persons should bo placed about an emperor of whoso manners and inclinations ho is ignorant.

15. "Thoso things I can further assure you of positively. The Gauls will neithor of thoir own accord, nor by any amount of compulsion, be brought to send recruits to foreign and distant countries, sinco they have boon long harassed by protracted annoyances and heavy di.sastcrs, lost the youth of tho nation should bo destroyed, and tho wholo people, whilo rocollccting their past sufferings, ihould abandon themselves to despair for tho future.

16. " Nor is it fit to seek from henco assistance against the Parthians, when even now tho attempts of the barbarians against this land aro not brought to an end, and while, if you will suffer mo to tell the truth, those provinces are still exposed to continual dangers on being deprivod of all foreign or adequato assistance.

17. " In speaking thus, 1 do think I have written to you in a manner suited to the interests of the state, both in my demands and my entreaties. For I well know, not to speak in a lofty tone, though such might not misbecome an emperor, what wretched states of affairs, even when utterly desperate and given up, have been before now retrieved and re-established by the agreement of princes, each yielding reciprocally to one another. While it is also plain from the example of our ancestors, that rulers who acknowledge and act upon such principles do somehow ever find the means of living prosperously and happily, and leave behind them to the latest posterity an enviable fame.” 18. To these letters he added others of a more secret urport, to be given privily to Constantius, in which he £ and reproached him; though their exact tenor was not fit to be known, nor if known, fit to be divulged to the public. 19. For the office of delivering these letters, men of great dignity were chosen; namely, Pentadius, the master of the ceremonies, and Eutherius, at that time the principal chamberlain; who were charged, after they had delivered the letters, to relate what they had seen, without suppress. ing anything; and to take their own measures boldly on all future emergencies which might arise. 20. In the mean time the flight of Florentius, the prefect, aggravated the envy with which these circumstances were regarded. For he, as if he foresaw the commotion likely to arise, as might be gathered from general conversation, from the act of sending for the troops, had departed for Vienne (being also desirous to get out of the way of Julian, whom he had often slandered), pretending to be compelled to this journey for the sake of providing supplies for the army. 21. Afterwards, when he had heard of Julian's being raised to the dignity of emperor, being greatly alarmed, and giving up almost all hope of saving his life, he availed himself of his distance from Julian to escape from the evils which he suspected; and leaving behind him all his family, he proceeded by slow journeys to Constantius; and to prove his own innocence he brought forward many charges of rebellion against Julian. 22. And after his departure, Julian, adopting wise mea. sures, and wishing it to be known that, even if he had him in his power, he would have spared him, allowed his relations to take with them all their property, and even granted them the use of the public conveyances to retire with safety to the East.

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$1. The envoys whom I have mentioned took equal care to discharge their orders; but while eager to pursue their journey they were unjustly detained by some of the superior magistrates on their road; and having been long and vexatiously delayed in Italy and Illyricum, they at last passed the Bosphorus, and advancing by slow journeys, they found Constantius still staying at Caesarea in Cappadocin, a town formerly known as Mazaca, admirably situated at the foot of Mount Argaeus, and of high reputation. 2. Being admitted to the presence, they received permission to present their letters; but when they were read the emperor became immoderately angry, and looking askance at them so as to make them fear for their lives, he ordered them to be gone without asking them any questions or permitting them to speak. 3. But in spite of his anger he was greatly perplexed to decide whether to move those troops whom he could trust against the Persians, or against Julian; and while he was hesitating, and long balancing between the two plans, ho yielded to the useful advice of some of his counsellors, and ordered the army to march to the East. 4. Immediately also he dismissed the envoys, and ordered his quaestor Leonas to go with all speed with letters from him to Julian; in which he asserted that he himself would permit no innovators, and recommended Julian, if he had any regard for his own safety or that of his relations, to lay aside his arrogance, and resume the rank of Caesar. 5. And, in order to alarm him by the magnitude of his reparations, as if he really was possessed of great power, e appointed Nebridius, who was at that time Julian's quaestor, to succeed Florentius as prefect of the practorium, and made Felix the secretary, master of the ceremonies, with several other appointments. Gumoharius, the commander of the heavy infantry, he had already appointed to succeed Lupicinus, before any of these events were known. 6. Accordingly Leonas reached Paris, and was there received as an honourable and discreet man; and the next day, when Julian had proceeded into the plain in front of

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the camp with a great multitude of soldiers and common people, which he had ordered to assemble on purpose, he mounted a tribune, in order from that high position to be more conspicuous, and desired Leonas to present his letters; and when he had opened the edict which had been sent, and began to read it, as soon as he arrived at the passage that Constantius disapproved of all that had been done, and desired Julian to be content with the power of a Caesar, a terrible shout was raised on all sides,

7. “Julian emperor, as has been decreed by the authority of the province, of the army, and of the republic, which is indeed re-established, but which still dreads the renewed attacks of the barbarians.”

8. Leonas heard this, and, after receiving letters from Julian, stating what had occurred, was dismissed in safety: the only one of the emperor's appointments which was allowed to take effect was that of Nebridius, which Julian in his letters had plainly said would be in accordance with his wishes. For he himself had some time before appointed Anatolius to be master of the ceremonies, having been formerly his private secretary; and he had also made such other appointments as seemed useful and safe.

9. And since, while matters were going on in this matter, Lupicinus, as being a proud and arrogant man, was an object of fear, though absent and still in Britain; and since there was a suspicion that if he heard of these occurrences while on the other side of the channel, he might cause disorders in the island, a secretary was sent to Boulogne to take care that no one should be allowed to cross; and as that was contrived, Lupicinus returned without hearing of any of these matters, and so had no opportunity of giving trouble.

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§ 1. BUT £ and at th ence of the soldiers in him, not to let his good fortune cool, or to give any colour for charging him with inactivity or £ after he had sent '

envoys to Constantius, marched to the frontier of the pro


ince of lowerGermany; and having with him all the force

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