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Bs we have already related, that Cclse in Phoenicia was laid waste, was deservedly and legally accused of treason, and no one saw how ho could possibly bo acquitted. He was also manifestly proved to have sent an intimate friend with a eip (with winch ho used to cover his own head) which had beon enchanted by forbidden acts to tho temple of prophecy,1 on purpose to ask expressly whether, according to his wish, a firm enjoyment of tho wholo empire was portended for him.
8. And in these days a twofold misfortune occurred: first, that a heavy penalty had fallen upon Theophilus who was innocent; and, secondly, that Serenianus who deserved universal execration, was acquitted without tho general feeling being able to offer any effectual remonstrance.
9. Constantius then hearing from time to time of these transactions, and having been further informed of some particular occurrences by Thalossius, who however had now died by the ordinary course of nature, wrote courteous letters to the Cajsar, but at the same time gradually withdrew from him his support, pretending to bo uneasy, least as tho leisure of soldiers is usually a disorderly time, tho troops might bo conspiring to his injury: and ho desired him to content himself with the schools.of the Palatine,* and with those of tho Protectors, with the Scutarii, and Gentiles. And he ordered Domitianus, who had formerly been the Superintendent of the Treasury, but who was now promoted to bo a prefect, as soon as he arrived in Syria, to address Gallus in persuasive and respectful language, exhorting him to repair with all speed to Italy, to which provinco the emperor had repeatedly summoned him.
not territorial possessions, but military commands; and it i« worth noticing that tbe rank of Count was tlio higher of the two.
1 Constantino, on his conversion to Christianity, had issued an edict forbidding the consultation of oracles; but the practice was not wholly abandoned till the timo of Theodosius.
1 Schools was tho nnmo given at Itomo to buildings where men were wont to meet for any purpose, whether of study, of truflic, or of tho practice of any art. The schools of tho Falatino were the station of the cohorts of the guard. The " Protectors or Guards" were a body of soldiers of higher rank, receiving also higher pay; called also "Domestic! or household troops," as especially set apart for the protection of tho imperial palace and person. The "Scutarii" (slilchl-liriirersl belonged to tho l'ulutine schools; and the (Icntiles were troops enlisted from among those nations which were still accounted barbarous.
10. And when, with this object, Doniitianns had reached Antiocb, having travelled express, he passed by the gates of the palace, in contempt of the Caesar, -^hom, however, ho ought to have visited, and proceeded to the general's camp with ostentatious pomp, and there pretended to be sick; he neither visited the palace, nor ever appeared in public, but keeping himself private, he devised many things to bring about the destruction of the Cwsar, adding many superfluous circumstances to the relations which he was continually sending to the emperor.
■11. At last, being expressly invited by the Crosar, and being admitted into the princo's council-chamber, without making the slightest preface ho began in this inconsiderate and light-minded manner: "Depart," said he, "as you have been commanded, 0 Catsar, and know this, that if you make any delay I Bhall at onco order all the provisions allotted for the support of yoursolf and your court to bo carried away." And then, having said nothing more than these insolent words, he departed with every appcaranco of rage; and would never afterwards come into his sight though frequently sent for.
12. The Caesar being indignant at this, as thinking ho had been unworthily and unjustly treated, ordered his faithful protectors to take the prefect into custody; and when this became known, Montius, who at that time was quaestor, a man of deep craft indeed, but still inclined to moderate measures,' taking counsel for the common good, sent for the principal members of the Palatine schools and addressed them in pacifio words, pointing out that it was neither proper nor expedient that such things should be dono; and adding also in a reproving tone of voice, that if snob, conduct as this were approved of, then, after throwing down the statues of Constantius the prefoct would begin to think how he might also with the greater socurity tuko his life also.
13. When this was known Galius, like a serpent attacked with stones or darts, being now reduced to the extremity of despair, and eager to insure his safety by any possible
1 Gibbon here propose* for lenitatcm to read leritatem, fickleness; himself describing Moutius as "a statesman whose art and experioaia were frequently betrayed by the lerity of his disposition.''—Cap. xix., p. 298, vol. iii, Bonn's edition.
means, ordorcd all his troops to be collected in arms, and when tbey stood around him in amazement ho gnashed his teeth, and hissing with rage, said,—
14. "You aro present here as brave men, come to the aid of me who am in one common danger with yon. MontiiiB, with a novel and unprecedented arrogance, accuses us of rebellion and resistance to the majesty of the ompcror, by roaring out all these charges against us. Being offended forsooth that, as a matter of precaution, I ordered a contnmacious prefect, who pretended not to know what the stato of affairs required, to bo arrested and kept in custody."
15. On hearing theso words the soldiers immediately, being always on tho watch to ruiso disturbances, first of all attacked Montius, who happened to be living close at hand, an old man of no great bodily strength, and enfeebled by discaso; and having bound his legs with coarse ropes, tbey dragged him straddling, without giving him a moment to take breath, as far as the general's camp.
1G. And with the same violence they also bound Domitianus,dragging him head first down the stairs; and then having fastened the two men together, they dragged them thixugh all the spacious streets of the city at full speed. And, all their liinhs and joints being thus dislocated, they trampled on their corpses aftor tboy wore dend, and mutilated them in the most unseemly manner; and at lost, having glutted their rago, they threw them into the river.
17. But there was a certain man named Luscus, tho governor of tho city, who, suddonly appearing among tho soldiers, had inflamed them, always ready for mischief, to the nefarious actions which they had thus committed; exciting them with repeated cries, like the musician who gives the tune to the mournors at funerals, to finish what they had begun: and for this deed he was, not long aftor, burnt alive.
18. And bccaiiso Montius, when just about to expire under the hands of those who were tearing him to pieces, repeatodly named Epigonius 'and Eusebius, without indicating either their rank or their profession, a great dosl of trouble was taken to find out who they were; tnd, lest the search should have timo to cool, they sent for a philosopher named Epigonius, from Lytia, and for Eusebius tho orator, surnamed l'ittocos, from Emissa; though they were not those whom Monlius had meant, but some tribunes, superintendents of the manufactures of arms, who had promised him information if they heard of any revolutionary measures boing agitated.
19. About the same timo Apollinaris, the son-in-law of Domitianiis, who a short timo beforo had been the chief steward of the Caesar's palace, boing sent to Mesopotamia by his father-in-law, took exceeding pains to inquire among the soldiers whether '■ bey had received any secret despatches from the Cajsar, indicating his having meditated any deeper designs than usual. And as soon as he heard of the events which had taken place at Antioch, he passed through the lesser Armenia and took the road to Constantinople; but he was seized on his journey by the Protectors, and brought back to Antioch, and thero kopt in closo confinement.
20. And while these things were taking place there was discovered at Tyre a royal robo, which had been secretly made, though it was quite uncertain who had placed it where it was, or for whose use it had been made. And on that account the governor of the province, who was at that time the father of Apollinaris, and bore the same name, was arrested as an accomplice in his guilt; and great numbers of other persons wero collected from different cities, who were all involved in serious accusations.
21. And now, when tho trumpets of intomnl war and slaughter began to sound, tho turbulent disposition of tho Cajsar, indifferent to any consideration of the truth, began also to break forth, and that not secretly as before. And without making any solemn investigation into the truth of ■the charges brought against the citizens, and without separating the innocent from the guilty, he discarded all ideas of right or justice, as if they had been expelled from the seat of judgment. And while all lawful defence on trials was silent, the torturer, and plunderer, and tho executioner, and evory kind of confiscation of property, raged unrestrained throughout the eastorn provinoes of tho empire, which I think it now a favourable moment to enumerate, with tho exception of Mesopotamia, which I have already described when I was relating the Parthian wars; and also with the exception of Egypt, which I am forced to postpone to another opportunity.
A.D. 353.] - DESCRIPTION OF CILICiA. 27
§ 1. AFTER passing over the summit of Mount Taurus, which towards the east rises up to a vast height, Cilicia spreads itself out for a very great distance—a land rich in all valuable productions. It is bordered on its right by Isauria, which is equally fertile in vines and in many kinds of grain. The Calycadnus, a navigable river, flows through the middle of Isaurus. 2. This province, besides other towns, is particularly adorned by two cities, Seleucia, founded by King Seleucus, and Claudiopolis, which the Emperor Claudius Caesar established as a colony. For the city of Isauria, which was formerly too powerful, was in ancient times overthrown as an incurable and dangerous rebel, and so completely destroyed that it is not easy to discover any traces of its pristine splendour. 3. The province of Cilicia, which exults in the river Cydnus, is ornamented by Tarsus, a city of great magnificence. This city is said to have been founded by Perseus, the son of Jupiter and Danaë; or else, and more probably, by a certain emigrant who came from Ethiopia, by name Sandan, a man of great wealth and of noble birth. It is also adorned by the city of Anazarbus, which bears the name of its founder; and by Mopsuestia, the abode of the celebrated seer Mopsus, who wandered from his comrades the Argonauts when they were returning after having carried off the Golden Fleece, and strayed to the African coast, where he died a sudden death. His heroic remains, though covered by Punic turf, have ever since that time cured a great variety of diseases, and have generally restored men to sound health. 4. These two provinces being full of banditti were formerly £ war, and were I'e. under the yoko, and mude tributary to the empire. lese districts being placed, as it were, on a prominent tongue of land, are cut off from the main continent by Mount Amanus. 5. The frontier of the East stretching straight forward for a great distance, reached from the banks of the river Euphrates to those of the Nile, being bounded on the