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10. And when, with this object, Domitianus had reached Antioch, having travelled express, he passed by the gates of the palace, in contempt of the Cæsar, vhom, however, he ought to have visited, and proceeded to the general's camp with ostentatious pomp, and there pretended to bu sick; he reither visited the palace, nor ever appeared in public, but keeping himself private, he devised many things to bring about the destruction of the Cæsar, adding many superfluous circumstances to the relations which he was continually sending to the emperor.

11. At last, being expressly invited by the Cæsar, and being admitted into the prince's council-chambor, without making the slightest preface he began in this inconsiderato and light-minded manner : “ Depart," said he," as you have been commanded, O Causar, and know this, that if you make any delay I shall at once order all the provisions allotted for the support of yourself and your court to be carried away." And then, having said nothing more than these insolent words, he departed with every appearance of rage; and would never afterwards come into his sight though frequently sent for.

12. The Cæsar being indignant at this, as thinking ho had been unworthily and unjustly treated, ordered his faithful protectors to take the prefect into custody; and when this became known, Montius, who at that time was quæstor, a man of deep craft indeed, but still inclined to moderate measures,' taking counsel for the common good, sent for the principal meinbers of the Palatino schools and addressed them in pacifio words, pointing out that it was neither proper nor expedient that such things should be dono; and adding also in a reproving tono of voice, that if such conduct as this were approved of, then, after throwing down the statues of Constantius the prefect would begin to think how he might also with the greater security tüke his life also.

13. When this was known Gallus, like a serpent attacked with stones or darts, being now reduced to the extremity of despair, and eager to insure his safety by any possible

· Gibbon here proposes for lenitatem to read levitatem, fickleness ; himself describing Montius as “ a statesman whoso art and experieaca were frequently betrayed by the lovity of his disposition."--Cap. xix., p. 298, vol. iii., Bobn's edition.

means, ordered all his troops to be collected in 2rms, and when they stood around him in amazement ho grashed his teeth, and kissing with rage, said,

14. “You are present here as brave men, come to the aid of me who am in one conimon danger with you. Montius, with a novel and unprecedented arrogance, accuses us of rebellion and resistance to the majesty of the emperor, by roaring out all these charges against us. Being offended forsooth that, as a matter of precaution, I ordered a contaimacious prefect, who pretended not to know what the stato of affairs required, to be arrested and kept in custody."

15. On hearing these words the soldiers immediately, being always on the watch to raiso disturbances, first of ali attacked Montiua, who happened to be living close at band, an old man of no great bodily strength, and enfeehled by disease; and having bound his legs with coarse ropes, they dragged him straddling, without giving him a moment to take breath, as far as the general's camp:

16. And with the saniu violence they also bound Domitianus, dragging him head first down the stairs; and then having fastened the two men together, they dragged them through all the spacious streets of the city at full speed. And, all their limnhs and joints being thus dislocated, they trampled on their corpses after they were dead, and mutilated them in the most unsecmly manrer; and at last, having glutted their rage, they threw them into the river.

17. But there was a certain man named Luscus, the governor of the city, who, suddenly appearing among tho soldiers, had inflamed them, always ready for mischief, to the nefarious actions which they had thus committed; exciting them with repeated cries, like the musician who gives tho tune to the mourners at funerals, to finish what they had begun: and for this deed he was, not long after, burnt alive.

18. And becauso Montius, when just abont to expiro under the lands of those who were tearing him to pieces, repeatedly named Epigonius 'and Eusebius, without indicating either their rank or their profession, a great deal of trouble was taken to find out who they were; and, lest the search should have timo to cool, they sent for a philo. Bopher named Epigonius, from Lycia, and for Eusebius tho orator, surnamed Pittacos, from Enissa ; though they were

not ihose whom Montius had meant, but some tribunes, superintendents of the manufactures of arms, who had promised him information if they heard of any revolutionary measures boing agitated.

19. About the same timo Apollinaris, the son-in-law of Domitianns, who a short time beforo had been the chief stoward of the Cæsar's palace, being sent to Mesopotamia by his father-in-law, took excoeding pains to inquire among the soldiers whether :hey had received any secret despatches from the Cæsar, indicating his having meditated any deeper designs than usual. And as soon as he heard of the events which had taken place at Antioch, he passed through the lesser Armenia and took the road to Constantinople; but he was seized on his journey by the Protectors, and brought back to Antioch, and thero kept in close confinoment.

20. And while these things were taking place there was discovered at Tyre a royal robe, which had been secretly made, though it was quite uncertain who had placed it where it was, or for whose use it had been made." And on that account the governor of the province, who was at that time the father of Apollinaris, and bore the same name, was arrested as an accounplice in his guilt; and great num. bers of other persons were collected from different cities, who were all involved in serious accusations.

21. And now, whon tho trumpets of intomal war and slaughter began to sound, the turbulent disposition of the Cæsar, indifferent to any consideration of the truth, bogan also to break forth, and that not secretly as before. And without making any solemn investigation into the truth of •the charges brought against the citizens, and without separating the innocent from the guilty, he discarded all ideas of right or justice, as if they had been expelled from the seat of judgment. And while all lawful defence on trials was silent, the torturer, and plunderer, and the executioner, and every kind of confiscation of property, raged unrestrained throughout the eastern provinces of the empire, which I think it now a favourable moment to enumerate, with the exception of Mesopotamia, which I have already described when I was relating the Parthian ware; and also with the exception of Egypt, which I am forced to postpone to another opportunity.

VIII.

$ 1. AFTER passing over the summit of Mount Taurus, which towar:ls the cast rises up to a vast height, Cilicia spreado itself out for a very great distanco-a land rick in all valuable productions. It is bordered on its right by Isauria, which is equally fertile in vines and in many kinds of grain. The Calycadnus, a navigablo river, flows through the middle of Isaurus.

2. This province, besides other towns, is particularly adomed by two cities, Seleucia, founded by King Seloucus, and Claudiopolis, which the Emperor Claudius Cæsar established as a colony. For the city of Isauria, which was formerly too powerful, was in ancient times overthrown as an incurable and dangerous rebel, and so completely destroyed that it is not casy to discover any traces of its pristino splendour.

3. The province of Cilicia, which exults in the river Cydnus, is ornamented by Tarsus, a city of great magnificence. This city is said to have been founded by P'erseus, the son of Jupiter and Danaë; or else, and more probably, by a cortain emigrant who came from Ethiopia, by name Sandan, a man of great wealth and of noblo birth. 1: is also adorned ly tho city of Anazarbus, which bears the namo of its founder; and by Mopsucstia, the abode of tho colobratod scer Mopsus, who wandered from his conurades the Argonauts when they wero returning after having carried off the Goldon Flecco, and strayed to the African coast, whero he died a sudden death. llis heroic remains, though covered by Punic turf, have ever since that time cured a great variety of discases, and have generally restored men to sound health.

4. These two provinces being full of handitti wero formerly subdued by the pro-consul Survilus, in piratical war, and were paskod under the yoko, and mudo tributary to tho empire. Thoso districts being placed, as it were, on a prominent tongue of land, are cut off froin the main continent by Mount Amanus.

5. The frontier of the East stretching straight forward for a great distance, reached from the banks of the river Euphrates to those of the Nile, being bounded on the

left by the tribes of the Saracens and on the right by the sea.

6. Nicator Seleucus, after he had occupied that district, increased its prosperity to a wonderful degree, when, after the death of Alexander, king of Macedonia, he took possession of the kingdom of Persia by right of succession; being a mighty and victorious king, as his surnamo indicates. And making froo use of his numorous subjecte, whom he govorned for a long time in tranquillity, he changed groups of rustic habitations into regular cities, important for their great wealth and power, the greater part of which at the present day, although they are called by Greek names which were given them by the choice of their founder, have nevertheless not lost their original appellations which the original settlers of the villages gave them in the Assyrian language.

7. Aftor Osdroone, which, as I have already sid, I intend to omit from this description, the first province to be mentioned is Coromagena, now called Euphratonsis, which has arisen into importanco by slow dogrocs, and is remarkable for the splendid cities of Hierapolis, tho ancient Ninus, and Samosata.

8. The next province is Syria, which is spread over a beautiful champaign country. This provinco is ennobled by Antioch, a city known over the whole world, with which no other can vie in respect of its riches, whetisor imported or natural: and by Laodicea and Apameia, and also by Soloucia, all cities which havo over been most prosperous from their earliest foundation.

9. After this comes Phoenicia, a province lying under Mount Lebanon, full of beauty and elegance, and docorated with cities of great sizo and splendour, among which Tyre exccls all in the beauty of its situation and in its renown. And next come Sidon and Borytus, and on a par with them Emissa and Damascus, citios founded in remote agor.

10. These provinces, which the river Orontes borders, a river which passes by the foot of the celebrated and lofty mountain Cassius, end at last falls into the Lovant near the Gulf of Issus, were added to the Roman dominion by Cnens Pompey, who, after he had conquered Tigranos, separated them from the kingdom of Armonia,

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