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11. The last province of the Syrias is Palestine, a district of great extent, abounding in well-cultivated and beautiful land, and having several magnificent cities, all of equal importance, and rivalling one another as it were, in parallel lines. For instance, Cæsarea, which Herod built in honour of the Prince Octavianus, and Eleutheropolis, and Neapolis, and also Ascalon, and Gaza, citics built in bygone ages.

12. In these districts no navignble river is seen: in many places, too, waters naturally hot rise out of the ground well suited for the cure of various diseasca. These regions also Pompey formed into a Roman province after ho had subdued the Jews and taken Jerusalem: and he mado over their government to a local governor.

13. Contiguous to l'alestine is Arabia, a country which on its other sido joins the Nabathæi-a land full of the most plenteous variety of merchandizo, and studded with strong forts and castles, which he watchful solicitude of its ancient inhabitants has erected in suitablo defiles, in order to repross the inroads of the neighbouring nations. This province, too, besidos soveral towns, has some mighty cities, such as Bostra, Gerasa, and Philadelphia, fortified with very strong walls. It was the Emperor Trajan who first gave this country the name of a Ronian province, and appointed a governor over it, and compelled it to obey onr laws, after having by repented victories crushed the arrogance of the inbabitants, when he was carrying bis glorious arms into Media and l'arthia.

14. There is also the island of Cyprur, not very far from the continent, and abounding in excellent harbours, which, besides its many municipal towns, is ospecially famous for two renowned cities, Salamis and Paphos, the one celebrated for its temple of Jupiter, the other for its temple of Venus. This same Cyprus is so fertile, and so abounding in riches of every kind, that without requiring any ex. tornal assistance, it can by its own native resources build a merchant ship from the very foundation of the keel up to the top sails, and send it to sca fully equipped with stores.

16. It is not to be denied that the Roman people invaded this island with more covetousness than justice. For when Ptolemy, the king, who was connected with us by

treaty, and was also our ally, was without any fault of his own proscribed, merely on account of the necessities of onr treasury, and slew himself by taking poison, the island was made tributary to us, and its spoils placed on board our fleet, as if taken from an enemy, and carried to Ronie by Cato. We will now return to the actions of Constantius in their due order.

IX.

$ 1. Amid all thoso various disnstors, Ursicinus, who was the governor of Nisibis, an officor to whom the command of tho emporör had particularly attached me as a servant, was sumnioned from that city, and in spite of his reluctance, and of the opposition which he made to the clamorous bands of Hutterers, was forced to investigate the origin of the pernicious strifo which had arisen. He was indeed a soldier of great skill in war, and an approved leader of troops; but

a man who had always kept himself aloof from the strife of the forum. He, alarmed at his own darger when ho saw the corrupt accusers and judges who wero associated with him, all emerging out of the same lurkingplaces, wrote secret letters to Constantius informing him of what was going on, both publicly and in secret ; and inploring such assistance as, by striking fear into Gallus, should somewhat curb his notorious arrogance.

2. But through excessivo caution he had fallen into a worso snaro, as we shall relato hereafter, since his enemies got tho opportunity of laying numerous anaros for him, to poison tho mind of Constantius against him; Constantius, in other respects a princo of moderation, was severe and implacablo if any person, however moan and unknown, whispered suspicion of dangor into his ears, and in such matters was wholly unlike himself,

3. On the day appointed for this fatal examination, the master of the horse took his scat under the pretence of being the judge ; others being also set as his assessors, who were instructed beforehand what was to be done : and there were prosent also notaries on each side of him, who kept the Cesar rapidly and continually informed of all the questions which were put and all the answers which were given; and by his pitiloss orders, urged as he was by

the persuasions of the queen, who kept her ear at tho curtain, many were put to doath without being permitted to noften the accusations brought against them, or to say a word in their own defence.

4. The first persons who were brought before them wero Epigonius and Eusebius, who were ruined because of the similarity of their names to those of other people; for wo have already mentioned that Montius, when just at tho point of death, had intended to inculpato tho tribunes of inanufactures, who wore called by theso names, as men who had promised to be his supports in somo futuro onterpriso.

6. Epigonius was only a philosopher as far as his dress went, as was evident, when, having tried entreatics in vain, his sides having been torn with blows, and the fear of instant death being presented to him, he affirmed by a base confession that his companion was privy to his plans, though in fact he had no plans; nor had he ever seen or heard anything, being wholly unconnected with forensic affairs. But Eusebius, confidentiy denying what he was accused of, continued firm in unshaken constancy, loudly declaring ihat it was a band of robbers boforo whom he was brought, and not a court of justice.

6. And when, like a man well acquainted with the law, ho demanded that his accuser should be produced, and claimed the usual rights of a prisoner; the Cæsar, having heard of his conduct, and looking on his freedom as pride, ordered bin to be put to the torturs as an audacious calumniator; and when Eusebius had been tortured so soverely that he had no longer any limbs left for torments, imploring heaven for justice, and still smiling disdainfully, he remained immovable, with a firm heart, not permitting his tonguo to accuso himself or any ono else. And so at length, without having either mado any confession, or being convicted of anything, he was condemned to death with the spiritless partner of his sufferings. He was then led away to death, protesting against the ini: quity of the times; imitating in his conduct the celebrated Stoio of old, Zeno, who, after he had been long subjected to torture in order to extract from him somo falso confession, tore out his tongne by the roots and threw it, bloody as it was, into the face of the king of Cyprus, who was examining him.

7. After these events the affair of the royal robe was cxamined into. And when those who wore employed in dyeing purple had boon put to the torturo, and had confessed that thoy had woven a short tunio to covor the chest, without sleeves, a certain person, by name Maras, was brought in, a deacon, as the Christians call him ; letters from whom wore produced, written in the Greek language to the superintendent of the weaviny manufactory at Tyre, which pressed him to have the beautiful work finished speedily; of which work, however, these letters gave no further description. And at last this man also was tortured, to the danger of his life, but could not be made to confess anything.

8. Aftor the investigation had boon carried on with the examination, under torture of many persons, when some things appeared doubtful, and others it was plain were of a very unimportant character, and aftor many persons had been put to death, the two Apollinares, father and son, were condemned to banishment; and when they had come to a place which is called Crateræ, a country house of their own, which is four-and. twenty miles from Antioch, there, according to the order which had been given, their logs wero broken, and they were put to death.

9. After thoir death Gallus was not at all less forocious than bofore, but rather like a lion which has once tasted blood, he made many similar investigations, all of which it is not worth while to relate, lest I should exceed the bounds which I lave laid down for myself; an error which is to be avoided

X. $1. While the East was thus for a long time suffering under the:90 calamities, at the first approuch of open weather, Constantius being in his seventh consulship, and the Cæsar in his third, the emperor quitted Arles and went to Valentia, with the intention of making war upon the brothers Gundomadus and Vadomarius. chiefs of the Allemanni; by whose repeated inroads the territories of the Gauls, which lay upon their frontier, were continually laid waste.

2. And while he was staying in that district, as he dia

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VIII.

$ 1. After passing over the summit of Mount Taurus, which towards the cast rises up to a vast height, Cilicia sprcado itself out for a very great distanco-a land rick in all valuable productions. It is bordered on its right by Isauria, which is equally fertile in vines and in many kinds of grain. The Calycadnus, a navigablo river, flows through the middle of Isaurus.

2. This province, besides other towns, is particularly adorned by two cities, Seleucia, founded by King Seleucus, and Claudiopolis, which the Emperor Claudius Cæsar established as a colony. For the city of Isauria, which was formerly too powerful, was in ancient times overthrown as an incurable and dangerous rebel, and so completely destroyed that it is not easy to discover any traces of its pristino splendour.

3. The province of Cilicia, which exults in the river Cydnus, is ornamented by Tarsus, a city of great magnificence. This city is said to have been founded by Perseus, the son of Jupiter and Danaë; or else, and more probably, by a certain emigrant who came from Ethiopia, by name Sandan, a man of great wealth and of noblo birth. It is also adorned kiy the city of Anazarbus, which bears the namo of its founder; and by Mopsucstia, the abode of the celobratod scor Mopsus, who wandered from his conrndes the Argonauts when they wero returning after having carried off the Goldon Flecco, and strayed to the African coast, where he died a sudden death. ilis heroic remains, though covered by Punic tuif, have ever since that time cured a great variety of discases, and have generally restored men to sound bealth.

4. These two provinces being full of banditti wero formerly subdued by the pro-consul Servikus, in a piratical war, and were paskod under the yoko, and mudo tributary to tho empire. Thoso districts being placed, as it were, on a prominent tongue of land, are cut off froin the main continent by Mount Amanus.

5. The frontier of the East stretching straight forward for a great distance, reached from the banks of the river Euphrates to those of the Nile, being bounded on the

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