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ARGUMENT. I. The cruelty of the Cæsar Gallus.--II. The incursions of tho Isau.
rians.—III. The unsuccessful plans of the Persiang.-IV. The invasion of the Samcens, and the manners of that people.V. The punishment of the adherents of Magnentius.- VI. Tho vices of the senate and people of Rome.-VII. Tho ferocity and inhumanity of tho Cæsar Gallus.-VIII. A description of the provinces of the East.-IX. About the Cesar Constantius Gallus. X. The Emperor Constantius grants the Allemanni peace at their request.-X). The Cosar Constantius Gallus is sent for by the Emporor Constantius, and beheaded.
A.D. 353. § 1. After the events of an expedition full of almost insuperable difficulties, while the spirits of all parties in the state, broken by the variety of their dangers and toils, were still enfeebled; while the clang of trumpets was ringing in mon's cars, and the troops were still distributed in their winter quarters, the storms of angry fortunio surrounded the commonwealth with fresh dangers through the mani. fold and terrible atrocities of Cæsar Gallus :' who, whon just entering into the prime of life, having been raised with
i Gallus and his brother Julian wero the nephews of the great Con. stantinc, sons of his brothor Jnlius. When Constantiu,, who succooded Constantine on the throno, murdered his uncles and most of his cousins, he spared these two, probably on account of their tender age.
unexpected honour from the lowest depth of misery to the highest rank, exceeded all the legitimate bounds of the power conforred on him, and with proposterous violenco throw everything into confusion. For by his noar relationship to the royal family, and his connection with tho namo of Constantine, ho was so inflated with pride, that if he had had more power, he would, as it seemed, have ventured to attack even the author of his prosperity.
2. His wife added fuel to his natural ferocity; she was a woman immoderately proud of her sisterly relationship to Augustus, and had been furraerly given in marriago by the elder Constantine to King Hannibalianus,' his brother's son. She was an incarnate fury: nover weary of inflaming his savage temper, thirsting for human blood as insatiably as her husband. The pair, in process of time, becoming more skilful in the ction of suffering, employed a gang of underhand and crafty talebearers, accus. tomed in their wickedness to make random additions to their discoveries, which consisted in general of such falsehoods as they themselves delighted in; and there men loaded the innocent with calumnies, charging them with aiming at kingly power, or with practising infamous acts of magic.
3. And among his less remarkable atrocities, when his power had gone beyond tho bounds of moderato crimes, was conspicuous the horrible and sudden death of a certain noble citizen of Alexandria, named Clematius. llis mother-in-law, having conceived a passion for him, conld not prevail on him to gratify it; and in consequence, as
1 Hannibalianus was another nephew of Constantine. That emperor raised his own three sons, Constantine, Constantius, and Constans, to the dignity of Cæsar; and of his two favourite nephews, Dalmacius and Hannibalianus, ho raised the first, by the title of Casar, to an equality with his cousing ; " in favour of the latter ho invented the new and singular appellation of Fortitissimus, to which he annexed the flattering distinction of a robo of purple and gold. But of the wholo serics of Romon princes in any ago of the empire Hannibalianus alone was distinguished by the title of king, a name which the subjects of Tiberius would have detested as tho profane and cruel insult of capricious tyranny.”—Gibbon, cxviii. The editor of Bohn's edition adds in a note : "The title given to Hannibalianus did not apply to him as a Roman prince, but as king of a territory assigned to him in Asiu. This territory consisted of Pontus, Cappadocia, and the lesser Armenia, the city of Cæsarea being chosen for his residence."--Gibbon, Bolin's edition, vol. ii. pp. 256, 257.
was reported, she, having obtained an introduction by a socret door into the palace, won over the queen by iho present of a costly necklace, and procured a fatal warrant to bo sont to Honoratus, at that time count-governor of the East, in compliance with which Clematins was put to death, a man wholly innocent of any kind of wickedness, without being permitted to say a word in his deferice.
4. After this iniquitous transaction, which struck others also with fear lest they should meet with similar treatment, as if cruelty had now obtained a licence, many were condemned on mere vague suspicion; of whom some were put to death, others were punished by the confiscation of their property, and driven forth as exiles from their homes, so that having nothing left but their tears and complaints, they wero reduced to live on the contributions of their friends; and many opulent and famous houses wero shut up, the old constitutional and just authority being changed into a government at the will of a bloodthirsty tyrant.
5. Nor amid these manifold atrocities was any testimony of an accuser, not even of a suborned ono, sought for, in order to give at least an appearance of these crimes being committed according to law and statute, as very commonly even tho most cruel princes have done : but whatever suited tho implacable temper of Casar was instantly acconplished in haste, as if its accordance with human and divine law had beon well considered.
6. After these deeds a fresh device was adopted, and a body of obscure men, such as, by rcason of the meanness of their condition, were little likely to excite suspicion, were sent through all the districts of Antioch, to collect reports, and to bring news of whatever they might hicar. Thay, travelling about, and concealing their object, joined clandestinely in the conversational circles of honourablo men, and also in disguise obtained entrance into the houses of the rich. When they returned they were secretly admitted by back doors into the palace, and then reported all that they had been able to hear or to collect; taking care with an unanimous kind of conspiracy to invert many things, and to exaggerate for the worse aŭ they really knew; at the same time suppressing any praises of Cæsar which had come to their ears, although these were wrung
from many, against their cousciences, by the dread of impending evils.
7. And it had happened sometimes that, if in his secret chamber, when no domestic servant was by, the master of the house had whispered anything into his wife's ear, the very next day, as if those renowned scers of old, Amphia. raus or Marcius, had been at hand to report it, the emperor was informed of what had been said; so that even the walls of a man's secret chamber, the only witnesses to his language, were viewed with apprehension.
8. And Cæsar's fixed resolution to inquire into theso and other similar occurrences was increased by the queen, who constantly stimulated his desire, and was driving on the fortunes of her husband to headlong destruction, while sho ought rather, by giving him useful advice, to have led him back into the paths of truth and mercy, by feminino gentleness, as, in recounting tho'acts of tho Gordiani, wo have related to have been dono by the wife of that trucu. lont emperor Maximinus.
9. At last, by an unsurpassed and most pernicious baseness, Gallus ventured on adopting a course of fearful wickedness, which indeed Gallienus, to his own exceeding infamy, is said formerly to have tried at Rome; and, taking with him a fow followers secret'y armed, he used to rovo in the evening through the streets and among the shops, making inquiries in the Grook language, in which he was well skilled, what were the feelings of individuals towards Cæsar. And he used to do this boldly in the city, where the brillancy of the lamps at night often equalled the light of day. At last, being often recognized, and considering that if he went out in this way he should be known, he took care never to go out excopt openly in broad daylight, to transact whatever business which he thought of serious importance. And these things caused bitter though
secret lamentation, and discontent to many. 10. But at that time Thalassius was the present.prefect' of the palace, a mau of an arrogant temper; and he, per
" " There was among the commanders of the soldiery ono prefect who wns especially entitled Præsens, or Proosentalis, because his office was to be always in the court or about the person of the prince, end because the emperor's body-guard was under his particular orders.' H. Valesius.
ceiving that the lasty fury of Gallus gradually increased to the danger of many of the citizens, did not mollify it by either delay or wise counsels, as men in high office havo very often pacified the anger of their princes; but by untimely opposition and reproof, did often excité him the moro to frenzy; often also informing Augustus of his actions, and that too with exaggeration, and taking care, I know not with what intention, that what he did shoulal n.ot be unknown to the emperor. And at this Cæsar soon became more vehemently exasperated, and, as if raising more on high than ever the standard of his contumacy, withont any regard to the safoty of others or uf himself, he bore himself onwards like a rapid torrent, with an impotuosity which would listen to no reason, to sweep away all the obstacles which opposed his will.
II. $ 1. Nor indeed was the East the only quarter which this plague affected with its various disasters. For tho İsaurians also, a people who wero accustomed to frequent alternations of peace, and of turbulence which threw everything into confusion with sudden outbreaks-impunity having fostered their growing audacity and encourged it to evil- broke out in a formidablo war. Being especially excited, as Thoy gave out by this indignity, that some of their allies, having been taken prisoners, were in an unprecedented mannor exposed to wild beasts, and in the games of the amphitheatre, at Iconium, a town of Pisidia.
2. And as Cicero' says, that "even wild beasts, when reminded by hunger, generally return to that place where they have been fed before.” So they all, descending like a whirlwind from their high and pathlees mountains, came into the districtsbordering on the sea, in which hiding themselves in roads full of lurking-places, and in defiles, when the long nights were approaching, the moon being at that time now, and so not yet giving her full light, they lay wait for the sailors; and when they perceived that they were wrapped in sleep, they, crawling on their hands and feet along the cables which held the anchors, and raising themselves up by them, swung themselves into the boats,
Tho passage is found in Cicero's Oration pro Cluentio, c. 25.