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left by the tribes of the Saracons and on the right by the
6. Nicator Seleucus, after he had occupied that district, increased its prosperity to a wonderful degree, when, after the death of Alexander, king of Macedonia, he took possession of the kingdom of Persia by right of succession; being a mighty and victorious king, as his surnamo indicates. And making free use of his numorous subjecte, whom he govorned for a long time in tranquillity, he changed groups of rustio habitations into regular cities, important for their great wealth and power, the greater part of which at the present day, although they are called by Greek names which were given them by the choice of their founder, have nevertheless pot lost their original appellations which the original settlers of the villages gave them in the Assyrian language.
7. Aftor Osdroone, which, as I have already sid, I intend to omit from this description, the first province to be mentioned is Coramagona, now called Euphratensis, which has arisen into importanco by slow degroes, and is remarkable for the splendid cities of Hierapolis, tho ancient Ninus, and Samosata.
8. The next province is Syria, which is spread over a beautiful champaign country. This province is ennobled by Antioch, a city known over the whole world, with which no other can vie in respect of its riches, whetuer imported or natural : and by Laodicea and Apameia, and also by Seleucia, all cities which havo ever been most prosperous from their earliest foundation,
9. After this coinos Phoenicia, a province lying under Mount Lebanon, full of beauty and elegance, and docorated with cities of great sizo and splendour, among which Tyre excels all in the beauty of its situation and in its renown. And next come Sidon and Borytus, and on a par with them Emissa and Damascus, cities founded in remote agor.
10. These provinces, which the river Orontes borders, a river which passen by the foot of the celebrated and lofty mountain Cassius, and at last falls into the Lovant near the Gulf of Issus, were added to the Roman dominion by Cnæns Pompey, who, after he had conquered Tigranos, separated them from the kingdom of Armenia,
11. The last province of the Syrias is Palestine, a district of great extent, abounding in well-cultivated and beautiful land, and having several magnificent cities, all of equal importance, and rivalling one another as it were, in parallel lines. For instance, Cæsarea, which Herod built in honour of the Prince Octavianus, and Eleutheropolis, and Neapolis, and also Ascalon, and Gaza, cities built in bygone ages.
12. In these districts no navigble river is seen: in many places, too, waters naturally hot rise out of the ground well suited for the cure of various discasca. These regions also Pompey formed into a Roman province after ho had subdued the Jews and taken Jerusalem: and he made over their government to a local governor.
13. Contiguous to Palestine is Arabia, a country which on its other sido joins the Nabathæi-á land full of the most plenteous variety of merchandizo, and studded with strong forts and castles, which he watchful solicitude of its Ancient inhabitants has erected in suitablo defiles, in order to repress the inroads of the neighbouring nations. This province, too, besidos several towns, has some mighty cities, such as Bostra, Gerasa, and Philadelphia, fortified with very strong walls. It was the Emperor Trajan who first gave this country the name of a Ronian province, and appointed a governor over it, and compelled it to obey our laws, after having by repeated victories crushed tho arrogance of the inhabitants, when he was carrying bis glorious arms into Media and Parthia.
14. There is also the island of Cyprus, not very far from the continent, and abounding in excellent harbours, which, besides its many municipal towns, is especially famous for two renowned citios, Salamis and Paphos, the one celebrated for its temple of Jupiter, the other for its temple of Venus. This same Cyprus is so fertile, and so abounding in riehos of every kind, that without requiring any external assistance, it can by its own native resources build a merchant ship from the very foundation of the keel ur to the top sails, and send it to sea fully equipped with stores.
15. It is not to be denied that the Roman people invaded this island with more covetousness than justico. For when Ptolemy, the king, who was connected with us by
treaty, and was also our ally, was without any fault of his own proscribed, merely on account of the necessities of our treasury, and slow himself by taking poison, the island was made tributary to us, and its spoils placed on board our
fleet, as taken from an enemy, and carried to Rome by Cato. We will now return to the actions of Constantius in their due order.
$ 1. And all thoso various disasters, Ursioinus, who was the governor of Nisibis, an officer to whom the command of the emporür had particularly attached me as a servant, was sumnioned from that city, and in spite of his reluctance, and of the opposition which he made to the clamorous bands of Hutterers, was forced to investigate the origin of the pernicious strife which had arisen. He was indeed a soldier of great skill in war, and an approved leader of troops; but a man who had always kept himself aloof from the strife of the forum. He, alarmed at his own dar.ger when ho saw the corrupt accusers and judges who were associated with him, all omerging out of the samo lurkingplaces, wrote secret letters to Constantius informing him of what was going on, both publicly and in secret; and inploring such assistance as, by striking fear into Gallus, should somewhat curb his notorious arrogance.
2. But through excessivo caution ho had fallen into a worso sparo, as we shall relate hereafter, since his enemies got the opportunity of laying numerous snares for him, to poison the mind of Constantius against him; Constantius, in other respects a piinco of moderation, was sovere and implacablo if any person, however moan and unknown, whispered suspicion of danger into his ears, and in such matters was wholly unlike himself.
3. On the day appointed for this fatal examination, the inaster of the horse took his seat under the pretence of being the judge ; others being also set as his assessors, who were instructed beforehand what was to be done : and there were prosent also notaries on each side of him, who kept the Cæsar rapidly and continually informed of all the questions which were put and all the answers which were given; and by his pitiloss orders, urged as he was by
the porsuasions of the queon, who kept her oar at tho curtain, many were put to death without being permitted to soften the accusations brought against them, or to say a word in their own defence.
4. The first persons who were brought before them wero Epigonius and Eusebius, who wero ruined because of tho similarity of their names to those of other people; for wo have already mentioned that Montius, when just at the point of death, had intended to inculpato tho tribunes of inanufactures, who wore called by thoso names, as men who had promised to be his supports in somo futuro enterpriso.
5. Epigonius was only a philosopher as far as his dress wont, as was evident, when, having tried cntreatics in vain, his sides having been torn with blows, and the fear of instant death being presented to him, he affirmed by a base confession that his companion was privy to his plans, though in fact he had no plans; nor had he ever seen or heard anything, being wholly unconnected with forensic affairs. But Eusebius, confidently denying what he was accused of, continued firm in unshaken constancy, loudly declaring ihat it was a band of robbers boforo whom he was brought, and not a court of justice.
6. And when, like a man well acquainted with the law, ho demanded that his accuser should be produced, and claimed the usual rights of a prisoner; the Cæsar, having heard of his conduct, and looking on his freedom as pride, ordered bins to be put to the torturs as an audacious calumniator; and when Eusebius had been tortured so severely that he had no longer any limbs left for torments, imploring heaven for justico, and still smiling disdainfully, he romained immovable, with a firm heart, not permitting his tongue to accuso himself or any ono elsc. And so at length, without having either made any confession, or being convicted of anything, he was condemnedl to death with the spiritless partner of his sufferings. llo was then led away to death, protesting against the ini quity of the times ; imitating in his conduct the celebrated Stoio of old, Zeno, who, after he had been long subjected to torture in order to extract from him somo falso confession, tore out his tongne by the roots and threw it, bloody as it was, into the face of the king of Cyprus, who was examining him.
7. After these events the affair of the royal robe was examined into. And when those who wore employed in dyeing purple had been put to the torture, and had confessed that thoy had woven a short tunio to covor tho chest, without sleeves, a certain person, by name Maras, was brought in, a deacon, as the Christians call him ; letters from whom wore produced, written in the Greek language to the superintendent of the weaving manufactory at Tyre, which pressed him to have the beautiful work finished speedily; of which work, however, these letters gave no further description. And at last this man also was tortured, to the danger of his life, but could not be made to confess anything.
8. Aftor the investigation had boon carried on with the examination, under torture of many persons, when some things appeared doubtful, and others it was plain were of a very unimportant character, and after many persons had been put to death, the two Apollinares, father and son, were condemned to banishment; and when they had come to a place which is called Crateræ, a country house of their own, which is four-and. twenty miles from Antioch, there, according to the order which had been given, their legs were brokon, and they were put to death.
9. After thoir death Gallus was not at all less ferocious than before, but rather like a lion wbich has once tasted blood, he made many similar investigations, all of which it is not worth while to relate, lest I should exceed the bounds which I have laid down for myself; an error which is to be avoided
X. § 1. While the East was thus for a long time suffering under these calamities, at the first approuch of open weather, Constantius being in his soventh consulship, and the Cæsar in his third, the emperor quitted Arles and went to Valentia, with the intention of making war upon the brothers Gundomadus and Vadomarius, chiefs of the Allemanni; by whose repeated inroads the territories of the Gauls, which lay upon their frontier, were continually laid waste.
2. And while he was staying in that district, as he did