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A.D. 353.] DISCONTENT OF THE SOLDIERS. 33

for some time while waiting for supplies, the importation of which from Aquitania was prevented by the spring rains, which were this year more severe than usual, so that the rivers were flooded by them, Herculanus arrived, a principal officer of the guard, son of Hermogenes, who had formerly been master of the horse at Constantinople, and had been torn to pieces in a popular tumult as we have mentioned before. And as he brought a faithful account of what Gallus had done, the emperor, sorrowing over the miseries that were passed, and full of anxious fear for the future, for a time stilled the grief of his mind as well as he could.

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3. IBut in the mean time all the soldiery being assembled at £ get furious, being so much the more exas cause they yet having arrived.

4. And in consequence of this state of things, Rufinus,

at that time prefect of the camp, was exposed to the most imminent danger. For he himself was compelled to go among the soldiers, whose natural ferocity was inflamed by their want of food, and who on other occasions are by nature generally inclined to be savage and bitter against men of civil dignities. ... He was compelled, I say, to go among them to appeaso them and explain on what account the arrival of their corn was delayed.

5. And the task thus imposed on him was very cunningly contrived, in order that he, the uncle of Gallus, might perish in the snare : lest he, being a man of great power and energy, should rouse his nephew to confidence, and lead him to undertake enterprises which might be mischievous. Great caution, however, was used to escape this; and, when the danger was got rid of for a while, Eusebius, the high chamberlain, was sent to Cabillon with a large sum of money, which he distributed secretly among the chief leaders of sedition; and so the turbulent and arrogant disposition of the soldiers was pacified, and the safety of the prefect secured. Afterwards food having arrived in abundance the camp was struck on the day appointed.

6. After great difficulties had been surmounted, many

* Châlons sur Saône. D

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of the roads being buried in snow, the army came near to
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titude of the L great resistance, so that
fierceness the Romans were prevented from fixing
their bridge of boats, darts bein - -
all sides # hail; and, when it seemed impossible to
succeed in that attempt, the emperor being taken by sur-

prise, and full of anxious thoughts, began to consider what to do.

7. When sudd - uainted with the country arrive pointed out a ford-by night, where the river could be crossed, and the army #' enemy had their attention. irected elsewhere, might without any one £ such a step, have and waste the whole country, if a few men of the same nation to whom the higher posts in the Roman

army were intrusted had not (as some people believe) informed their fellow-countrymen of the design by secret

illessen-ela.

8. # disgrace of this suspicion fell chiefly on Latinus, a commander of the domestic guard, and on Agilo, an eqüerry, and on Scudio, the commander of the Scutarii, men who at that time were looked up to as those who supported the republic with their right hands.

9. But the barbarians, though taking instant counsel On £ türmed Out unfavourable, or because the authority of the sacrifices prohibited an instant engagement, abated their energy, # the confidence with which they had hitherto resisted; and sent some of their chiefs to beg pardon for their offences, and sue for peace.

10. Therefore, having detained for some time the envoys of both the kings, and having long deliberated over the affair in secret, the emperor, when he had decided that it was ex

pedient to grant £ his ££ short speech, and mounting the tribunal, surrounded with a staff of officers of high rank, spoke in the following manner:

11. “I hope no one will wonder, after the long and toilsome marches we have made, and the vast supplies and magazines which have been provided, from the confi

* Near Basle.

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dcnco which I felt in jou, that now although we aro close to the villages of the barbarians, I have, Oh if I had suddenly changed my plans, adopted more peaceful counsels.

12. "For if every one of you, having regard to his own position and his own feelings, considers the case, ho will find this to bo the truth: that the individual soldier in all cases, however strong and vigorous he may be, regards and defends nothing but himself and his own lifo; while tho general, looking on all with impartiality as tho guardian of thoir general safety, is awaro that tho common interest of the people cannot bo separated from his own safety; and he is bound to seizo with alacrity every remedy of which the condition of affairs admits, as being put into his hand by the favour of the gods.

13. "That thercforo I may in a few words sot beforo you and explain on what account I wished all of you, my most faithful comrades, to assemble here, I entreat you to listen attentively to what I will stato with all the brevity possible. For tho language of truth is always concise and simple.

14. "The kings and people of the Allcmanni, viewing with apprehension tho lofty steps of your glory (which fame, increasing in magnificence, has diffused throughout tho most distant countries), now by their ambassadors humbly implore pardon for thoir past offences, and peace. And this indulgence I, as a cautious and prudent adviser of what is useful, think expedient to grant them, if your consent be not wanting: being led to this opinion by many considerations, in tho first place that so wo may avoid tho doubtful issues of war; in the second place, that instead of enemies wo may have allies, as they promiso wo shall find them; further, that without bloodshed we may pacify

chicvous in our provinces; and last of all, recollecting that the man who falls in battle, overwhelmed by superior weapons or strength, is not tho only enemy who has to bo subdued; and that with much greater safety to tho state, oven while tho trumpet of war is silont, he is subdued who makes voluntary submission, having learnt by experience that we lack neither courage against rebels, nor mercy towards suppliants.

16. "To sum up, making you as it were the arbitrators, I wait to see what you determine; having no doubt myself, as an emperor always desirous of peace, that it is best to employ moderation while prosperity descends upon us. For, believe mo, this conduct which I reommend, and which is wisely chosen, will not be imputed to want of courage on your part, but to your moderation and humanity."

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1G. As soon as ho had jEnishod speaking, tho whole assembly being ready to agroo to what tho emperor desired, and praising his advice, give their votes for peaco; being principally influenced by this consideration, that they had already learnt by frequent expeditions that the fortune of the emperor was only propitious in times of civil troubles; but that when foreign wars were undertaken they had often proved disastrous. On this, therefore, a treaty being made according to tho customs of tho Allomanni, and all the solemnities being completed, tho emperor retired to Milan for tho winter.

XI.

f 1. At Milan, having discarded the woight of other cares, tho emperor took into his consideration that most difficult go» lian knot, how by a mighty effort to uproot tho Caviar. And while ho was deliberating on this matter with his friends in secret conference by night, and considering what force, and what contrivances might be employed for tho purpose, before Gallus in his audacity should more rcsolutoly set himself to plunging affairs into confusion, it aecmcd best that Gallus should bo invited by civil letters, under pretence of somo ptiblio affairs of an urgent nature requiring his advice, so that, being deprived of all support, he might be put to death without any hindrance.

2. But as several knots of light-minded flatterers opposed this opinion, among whom was Arbotio, a man of keen wit and always inclined to treachery, and Eusebius, a man always disposed to mischief, at that timo the principal chamberlain, they suggested that if the Ceosar were to quit those countries it would be dangerous to leave Ursicinus in the East, with no one to check his designs, if he should cherish ambitious notions.

3. And these counsels were supported by the rest of the

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royal eunuchs, whose avarice and covetousness at that period had risen to excess. These men, while performing their private duties about the court, by secret whispers supplied food for false accusations; and by raising bitter suspicions of Ursioinus, ruined a most gallant man, creating by underhand means a belief that his grown-up sons began to aim at supreme power; intimating that they were youths in the flower of their age and of ndmirable personal beauty, skilful in tho use of every kind of weapon, well trained in all athletic and military exercises, and favourably known for prudence and wisdom. Thoy insinuated also that Gallus himself, being by nature fierce and unmanageable, had been excited to acts of additional cruelty and ferocity by persons placed about him for that purpose, to the end that, when he had brought upon himself universal detestation, the ensigns of power might bo transferred to the children of the master of the horse.

4. When those and simliar suspicions wore poured into tho oars of Constantius, which were always open to reports of this kind, tho emperor, revolving different plans in his mind, at last chose the following ts the most advisable course. He commanded Ursicinus in a most complimentary manner to come to him, on the pretence that the urgent state of certain affairs required to be arranged by tho aid of his counsel and concurrence, and that he had need of such additional support in order to crush the power of tho Parthian tribes, who were threatening war.

5. And that he who was thus invited might not suspect anything unfriendly, the Count Prosper was sent to act as his deputy till he returned. Accordingly, when Ursicimts had received the letters, and had obtained a sufficient supply of carriages, and moans of travelling, wo'

6. Tho noxt thing was to contrive to summon tho Cffisar, and to induce him to make the like haste. And to remove all suspicion in his mind, Constantius used many hypocritical endearments to persuade his own sister, Callus's wife, whom he protondod he hod long been wishing to see, to aooompany him. And although she hesitated

1 It will be observed that Ammianai here speak* of himself as iu attendance upon Urricinus.

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