lowest depth, leading them to a prosperous and happy life. And it is on this account that the fables of antiquity have represented her with wings, that she may be surposed to be present at all events with prompt celerity. And they have also placed a rudder in her hand and given hor a wheel under her foot, that mankind may bo awaro that sho governs tho universo, running nt will through all tho olomonts.'

27. In this untimely manner did tho Cresar, being himself also already weary of life, dio, in the twenty-ninth year of his age, having reigned four years. He was born in the country of the Etrurians, in the district of Veternum," being the son of Constantius, the brother of the Emperor Constantine ; his mother was Galla, ihe sister of Rufinus and Cerealis, men who had been ennobled by the offices of consal and prefect.

28. Ho was a man of splendid stature and great beanty of person and figuro, with soft hair of a golden colour, his newly sprouting board covering his checks with a tender down, and in spite of his youth his countenance showed dignity and authority. Ile differed as much from the temperate habits of his brother Julian, as the sons of Vespasian, Domitian and Titus, differed from each other.

29. After he had been taken by tho emperor as his colleague, and raised to the highest eminence of power, ho experienced the fickle changeableness of fortune which mocks mortality, sometimos raising individuals to the

I Ammianus hero confounds Nemcsis with Fortuna. Compare Horaco's description of the latter goddess Lib. i. Od. 34:

“... Valet ima summis
Mutare, et insignia attenuat deus
Obscura promens : hinc apicem rapax

Fortuna cun stridore acuto

Sustulit; hic posuisse gandet."
Or, as it is translated by Dr. Francis :-

" "The hand of Jove can crush the proud
Down to tho mcanness of the crowd :

And riso tho lowest in his stead :
But rapid Fortuno pulls him down,
And snatches his imperial crown,

To place, not fix it, on another's lond." & Near the modern city of Sienna.

stare, at others sinking them to the lowest depths of hell.

30. And though the examples of such vicissitudes are beyond number, nevertheless I will only enumerable a few in a cursory manner. This changeable and fickle fortune made Agathocles, the Sicilian, a king from being a potter, and reduced Dionysius, formerly the terror of all nations, to be tho master of a grammar school. This same fortune emboldened Andriscus of Adramyttium, who had been born in a fuller's shop, to assume the name of Pbilip, and compelled the legitimato son of Perseus' to descend to the trado of a blacksmith to obtain a livelihood. Again, fortuno surrendered Mancinus' to the people of Numantia, after he had enjoyed the supreme command, exposod Veturius' to the cruelty of the Samnites, Claudius to that of the Corsicans, and made Regulus a victim to the ferocity of the Carthaginians. Through the injustice of fortuno, Pompey,' after he had acquired the surname of the Great by the grandeur of his exploits, was murdered in Ægypt at the pleasuro of some eunuchs, whilo a fellow named Eunus, a slave who had escaped from a house of correction, commanded an army of runaway slaves in Sicily. How many mon of the highest birth, through the connivance of this same fortuno, submitted to the authority of Viriathus and of Spartacus!? How many heads at which nations once trembled have fallen under the deadly band of the executioner! One man is thrown into prison, another is promoted to unexpected power,

i Soo Plutarch's Lilo of Æmillus, o. 87. Tho namo of tho young princo was Aloxandor.

Callod also Hostiline; cf. Vell. Patero. ii. 1. • Cf. Liv. ix. c. x.; Cicero do Omiciis, iis. 80. 4 or Val. Max. vi. 8.

. Cf. Horace, Od. iv. ult. ; Florus, ii, 1. The story of the cruelties inflicted on Regulus is now, however, generally disbelieved.

6. The fato of Pompey served also as an instance to Juvenal in his satiro on the vanity, of human wishes.

Provida Pompeio diderat Campania fobres
Optandas, sed multæ urbes et publica rota
Vicerunt; igitur Fortuna ipsius et urbis
Bervatum victo caput abstulit.

Sat. X. 283, &c. 1 Spartacus was the colebratod loader of the slaves in the Servilo Was.

a third is hurleå down from the highest rank and dignity. But he who would endeavour to enumerate all the various and frequent instances of the caprico of fortune, might as well undertake to number the sands or ascertain the weight of mountains.


ARGUMENT. I. The death of the Cesar Gallus is announced to the emperor.

II. Ursicinus, the commander of the cavalry in the East; Julian, the brother of the Cosar Gallus; and Gorgonins, the high chamberlain, are accused of treason.—III. The ndherents and servants of the Caesar Gullus aro punished.-IV. The Allemanni of the · district of Lintz aro defeated by the Emperor Constantius with great loss. - V. Silvanus, a Frank, the commander of the infantry in Gaul, is saluted ns cinperor at Cologne; and on the twenty-eighth day of his reign is destroyed by stratagem.-VI. The friends nnd adherents of Silvanus are put to death.--VII. Scditions of the Roman people aro repressed by Leontius, the prefect of the city ; Liberius, the bishop, is driven from his sce.-VIII. Julian, the brother of Gallus, is created Cæsar by the Emperor Constantius, his unclo; and is appointed to command.-IX. On the origin of the Gauls, and from whenco they derive the names of Celts and Gauls; and of their treaties.--X. Of the Gallic Alps, and of the various passes over them.-XI. A brief descriptio of Gaul, and of the courso of the River Rhono.-XII. Of the manners of the Gaule.—XIII. Of Musonianus, prefect of the Prætorium in the East.


A.D. 354. $1. HAVING investigated the truth to the best of our power we have hitherto related all the transactions which either our age permitted us to witness, or which wo could learn from careful examination of those who were concorned in thom, in the order in which the several eveuts took place. The remaining facts, which the succeeding books will set forth, we will, as far as our talent permits, explain with the greatest accuracy, withont foaring thoso who may be inclined to cavil at our work as too long;

for brevity is only to bo praised when, whilo it puts an end to unsoasonablo delays, it suppresses nothing wbich is well authenticated.

2. Gallus had hardly breathed his last in Noricum, when Apodemus, who as long as he lived had been a fiery instigator of disturbances, caught up his shoes and carried them off, journeying, with frequent relays of horses, 80 rapidly as even to kill some of them by excess of speed, and so brought the first news of what had occurred to Milan. And having made his way into the palace, ho threw down the shoes before the feet of Constantins, as if ho wore bringing the spoils of a king of the Parthians who had been slain. And when this sudden nowe arrived that an affair so unexpected and difficult had been executed with entire facility in complete accordance with the wish of the emperor, the principal courtiers, according, to their custom, exerting all their zeal in the path of Battery, extolled to the skies the virtue and good fortune of the emperor, at whose nod, as if they had been mere common soldiers, two princes had thus been deprived of their power, namely, Veteranio and Gallus.

3. And Constantius being exceedingly elated at the oxquisite taste of this adulation, and thinking that he himself for the future should be free from all the ordinary inconveniences of mortality, now began to depart from the path of justice so evidently that he even at times laid claim to immortality; and in writing letters with his own hand, would style bimself lord of the whole world ; a thing which, if others had said, any one ought to have been indignant at, who laboured with proper diligence to form his life and habits in emulation of the constitutional princos who had preceded him, as he profeesed to do.

4. For even if he had under his power the infinities of worlds fancied by Democritus, as Alexander the Great, under the promptings of Anaxarchus, did fancy, yet either by reading, or by bearing others speak, he might have considered that (as mathematicians unanimously agree) the circumference of the whole earth, immense as it seems to us, i8 novertheless not bigger than a pin's point as compared with the greatness of the universe.

II. $ 1. And now, after the pitiable death of the Casar, the trumpet of judicial dangers sounded the alarm, and Ursicinns was impcached of treason, envy gaining more and more strength every day to attack his safety; envy which is inimical to all powerful men.

2. For he was overcome by this difficulty, that, whilo the ears of the emperor wero shut ngninst all defences which wero reasonablo and easy of proof, they were open to all the secret whispers of calumniators, who pretended that his name was almost disused among all the districts of the East, and that Ursicinus was urged by them both privatoly and publicly to bo their commander, as one who could be formidable to the Persian nation.

3. But this magnanimous man stood his ground immovably against whatever might happen, only taking care not to throw himself away in an abject manner, and grieving from his heart that innocence had no safe foundation on which to stand. And the more sad also for this consideration, that bofore theso erents took placo many of his friends had gone over to other more powerful persons, as in cases of official dignity tho lictors go over to tho successors of former officers.

4. His colleague Arbetio was attacking him by cajoling words of feigned good-will, often publicly speaking of him as a virtuous and brave man; Arbetio being a man of great cunning in laying snares for men of simple life, and one who at that season enjoyed too much power. For as a serpent that has its holo underground and hidden from the sight of man observes the different passers-by, and attacks whom it will with a eudden spring, so this man, having been raised from being a cominon soldior of the lowest class to the highest military dignitics, without having received any injury or any provocation, polluted his conscience from an insatiable desiro of doing mischief.

5. Therefore, having a few partners in his secrets for accomplices, he had secretly arranged with the emperor when he asked his opinion, that on the next night Ursicinus should be seized and carried away from the sight of the soldiors, and to be put to death uncondemned, just as

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