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a.o. 353.] DEATH OF GALLUS. 43

lowest depth, leading them to a prosperous and happy
life. And it is on this account that the fables of antiquity
have represented her with wings, that she may be sup-
posed to be present at all events with prompt celerity.
And they have also placed a rudder in her hand and given
her a wheel under her feet, that mankind may be aware
that she governs the universe, running at will through all
the elements."
27. In this untimely manner did the Caesar, being himself
also already weary of life, die, in the twenty-ninth year of
his age, having reigned four years. He was born in the
country of the Etrurians, in the district of Veternum,"
being the son of Constantius, the brother of the Emperor
Constantine; his mother was Galla, the sister of Rufinus
and Cerealis, men who had been ennobled by the offices of
consul and prefect.
28. He was a man of splendid stature and great beauty
of person and figure, with soft hair of a golden colour, his
newly sprouting beard covering his checks with a tender
down, and in spite of his youth his countenance showed
dignity and authority. , IIe differed as much from the tem-
erate habits of his brother Julian, as the sons of Vespasian,
mitian and Titus, differed from each other.
29. After he had been taken by the emperor as his
colleague, and raised to the highest eminence of power, ho
experienced the fickle changeableness of fortune which
mocks mortality, sometimes raising individuals to the

* Ammianus here confounds Nemcsis with Fortuna. Compare Horace's description of the latter goddess, Lib. i. Od. 34:“. . . Valet ima summis Mutare, et insignia attenuat deus Obscura promens: hinc apicem rapax Fortuna cum stridore acuto Sustulit; hic posuisse gaudet." Or, as it is translated by Dr. Francis:“The hand of Jove can crush the proud Down to tho meanness of the crowd: And raiso the lowest in his stead: But rapid Fortune pulls him down, And snatches his imperial crown, To place, not fix it, on another's head.” * Near the modern city of Sienna.

stars, at others sinking thorn to the lowest depths of hell.

30. And though tho examples of such vicissitudes are beyond number, nevertheless I will only enumerable a few in a cursory manner. This changeable and fickle fortune made Agathoclos, tho Sicilian, a king from being a potter, and reduced Dionysius, formerly the terror of all nations, to be tho master of a grammar school. This same fortune emboldened Andriscus of Adramy ttium, who had been born in a fuller's shop, to assume the name of Philip, and compelled the legitimate son of Perseus' to descend to the trade of a blacksmith to obtain a livelihood. Again, fortune surrendered Mancinus* to the people of Numantia, after he had enjoyed the supreme command, exposed Veturius" to the cruelty of the Samnitos, Claudius4 to that of the Corsicans, and made Bcgulus* a victim to the ferocity of the Carthaginians. Through the injustice of fortnno, Pompoy,' after he had acquired the surname of tho Great by the grandeur of his exploits, was murdered in -flSgypt at tho pleasure of some eunuchs, whilo a fellow named EunuB, a slave who had escaped from a house of correction, commanded an army of runaway slaves in Sicily. How many men of tho highest birth, through the connivance of this same fortune, submitted to the authority of Viriathus and of Spartacus 1' IIow many heads at which nations once trembled have fallen under the deadly hand of the executioner I One man is thrown into prison, another is promoted to unexpected power,

1 Soo Plutarch's JAto of JEmillm, c, 87. Tho nomo of tho young prlnco was Alexander.

» Callod alto Hostilius; of. Veil. Pntoro.
» Cf. Liv. ix. c. x.; Cicero do Officii*, iii. 80.

* Of Val. Max. vL 8.

* Cf. Horoco, Od. It. ult.; Floras, ii. 1. The story of the crneltica inflicted on Bc^ulus is now, however, generally disbelieved.

* The fato of Pompey served also as an instance to Jnvenal in his sntiro on tho vanity of human wishes.

Provida Pompeio didorat Campania febres
Optandas, sea multss urbes et publica vota
Vicerunt; igitur Fortuna ipsius et urbis
Bervatum victo caput abstulit. Sat X. 283, &o.

'Spartacus was the oolebratod leader of tho slaves in the Servile War.

A.D. 364.] INDUSTRY OF The AUThor. 45

a third is hurled down from the highest rank and dignity. But he who would endeavour to enumerate all the various and frequent instances of the caprice of fortune, might as well undertake to number the sands or ascertain the weight of mountains.



I. The death of the Caesar Gallus is announced to the emperor.— II. Ursicinus, the commander of the cavalry in the East; Julian, the brother of the Cacsar Gallus; and Gorgonius, the high chamberlain, are accused of treason.–III. The adherents and servants of the Caesar Gallus are punished.-IV. The Allemanni of the district of Lintz are defeated by the Emperor Constantius with great loss.-W. Silvanus, a Frank, the commander of the infantry in Gaul, is saluted as emperor at Cologne; and on the twenty-eighth day of his reign is destroyed by stratagem.—VI. The friends and adherents of Silvanus are put to death.--VII. Seditions of the Roman people are repressed by Leontius, the prefect of the city; Liberius, ' bishop, is driven from his see.—VIII. Julian, the brother of Gallus, is created Cacsar by the Emperor Constantius, his uncle; and is appointed to command.-IX. On the origin of the Gauls, and from whence they derive the names of Celts and Gauls; and of their treatics.-X. Of the Gallic Alps, and of the various passes over them.—XI. A brief description of Gaul, and of the course of the River Rhone.-XII. Of the manners of the Gauls.-XIII. Of Musonianus, prefect of the Praetorium in the East.

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§ 1. HAviNG investigated the truth to the best of our power we have hitherto related all the transactions which either our age permitted us to witness, or which we could learn from careful examination of those who were concerned in them, in the order in which the several events took place. The remaining facts, which the succeeding books will set forth, we will, as far as our talent permits, explain with the greatest accuracy, without fearing those who may be inclined to cavil at our work as too long; for brevity is only to lie praised when, whilo it puts an end to un^oasonnblo dolays, it suppresses nothing which is well authenticated.

2. Gfkllus had hardly breathed his last in Noricum, when Apodemius, who as long as he lived had been a fiery instigator of disturbances, caught up his shoes and carried them off, journeying, with frequent relays of horses, so rapidly as oven to kill somo of them by excess of speed, and so brought tho first news of what had occurred to Milan. And having made his way into tho palaco, ho threw down tho shoes before the feet of Constantius. as if ho woro bringing the spoils of a king of the I'urthians who hud been slain. And when this suddon news arrived that an affair eo unexpected and difficult had been executed with entire facility in complete accordance with the wish of the emperoT, tho principal courtiers, according to their custom, exerting all their zeal in the path of flattery, extolled to the skies the virtue and good fortune of the emperor, at whose nod, as if they had bucn mere common soldiers, two princes had thus been dtprivod of their power, namely, Veteranio and Gallus.

3. And Constantius being exceedingly eluted at the exquisite, taste of this adulation, and thinking that ho himself for the future should be free from all the ordinary inconveniences of mortality, now began to depart from the path of justice so evidently that he even at times laid claim to immortality; and in writing letters with his own hand, would style himself lord of the whole world; a> thing which, if othors had said, any one ought to have been indignant at, who laboured with proper diligence to form his life and habits in emulation of the constitutional princes who hod preceded him, as he professed to do.

4. For even if he had under his power the infinities of worlds fancied by Democritus, as Alexander the Great, under the promptings of Anaxarchus, did fancy, vet either by reading, or by hearing others speak, he might have considered that (as mathematicians unanimously agree) the circumference of the whole earth, immense as it seems to us, is nevertheless not bigger than a pin's point as compared with the greatness of the universe.



§ 1. AND now, after the pitiable death of the Casar, the trumpet of judicial dangers sounded the alarm, and Ursicinus was impeached of treason, envy gaining more and more strength every day to attack his safety; envy which is inimical to all powerful men. 2. For he was overcome by this difficulty, that, while the ears of the emperor were shut against all defences which were reasonable and easy of proof, they were open to all the secret whispers of calumniators, who pretended that his name was almost disused among all the districts of the East, and that Ursicinus was urged by them both privately and publicly to be their commander, as one who could be formidable to the Persian nation. 3. But this magnanimous man stood his ground immovably against whatever might happen, only taking care not to throw himself away in an abject manner, and grieving from his heart that innocence had no safe foundation on which to stand. And the more sad also for this consideration, that before these events took place many of his friends had gone over to other more powerful persons, as in cases of official dignity the lictors go over to tho successors of former officers. 4. His colleague Arbetio was attacking him by cajoling words of feigned good-will, often publicly speaking of him as a virtuous and brave man; Arbetio being a man of great cunning in laying snares for men of simple life, and one who at that season enjoyed too much power. For as a serpent that has its hole underground and hidden from the sight of man observes the different passers-by, and attacks whom it will with a sudden spring, so this man, having been raised from being a common soldier of the lowest class to the highest military dignities, without having received any injury or any provocation, polluted : #" from an insatiable desire of doing misChlet. 5. Therefore, having a few partners in his secrets for accomplices, he had secretly arranged with the emperor when he asked his opinion, that on the next night Ursicinus should be seized and carried away from the sight of the soldiers, and so be put to death uncondemned, just as

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