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A.p. 354.] The OUTBREAK OF THE LENTIENSES. 53

name and its unalloyed power, never having suffered from
the contact, and so proceeds till it mingles with the waves
of the sea.
5. And what is exceedingly strange, the lake is not
moved at all by this rapid passage of t'e river through
it, nor is it affected by the muddy soil beneath the waters
of the lake; the two bodies of water being incapable of
mingling with each other. A thing which would be sup-
posed impossible, did not the very sight of the lake prove
the fact.
6. In a similar manner, the Alpheus, rising in Arcadia,

being seized with a love for the fountain Arethusa, passing.

through the Ionian sea, as is related by the poets, proceeds
onward till it arrives at the neighbourhood of its beloved
fountain.
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7. Arbetio not choosing to wait till messengers arrived to. announce the approach of the barbarians, although-ha, knew the fierce way in which they begin their wars, callowed himself to be betrayed into a hidden ambush, where he stood without the power of moving, bewildered by the suddenness of his disaster.

8. In the mean time the enemy, showing themselves, sprang forth from their hiding-places and spared not one who came in their way, but overwhelmed them with every

being

kind of weapon. For none-of-our-men could offer the

smallest resistance, nor was there any hope of any of them being able to save their Tives except by a speedy flight. Therefore, being intent only on avoiding wounds, Our soldiers, losing all order, ran almost at random in every direction, exposing their backs to the blows of the enemy.

Nevertheless the greater part of them, scattering themselves.

among narrow paths, were saved from danger by the
protecting darkness of the night, and at the return of day
recovered their courage and rejoined their different legions.
But still by this sad and unexpected disaster a vast
number of common soldiers and ten tribunes were slain.
9. The Allemanni were greatly elated at this event, and
advanced with increased boldness, every day coming up to
the fortifications of the Romans while the morning mists
obscured the light; and drawing their swords roamed about
- "The Arethusa is in Sicily, near Syracuse.

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£"' teeth, and threatening us wit ughty shouts. Then -

Scutarii would rush forth, and after being stopped for a

# the resistance of the hostile squadrons, would call out all their comrades to join them in the engage

ment.

10.. £ were alarmed by the ecollection of their recent disaster, and Arbetio hesitated, thinking everything pregnant with danger. Upon this three tribunes at once sallied forth, Arintheus WI10

Seniauchus who commanded the cavalry of the Comites,' : £1.5 who had the command of £ Promoti" and of those troops who had been particularly intrusted to his

charge by the emperor.

11. Thes , looking on the common cause as their own, resolved to repel the violence of the enemy according to the example of their ancient comrades. And pouring down upon the foe like a torrent, not in a regular line of battle, but in desultory attacks like those of banditti, they put them all to fight in a disgrac ince the being in loose ord **-*-*- ing by their endeavours to escape, exposed their unprotected # to our weapons, and were slain by repeated blows of sword and spear.

12. Many too were slain with their horses, and seemed as they Tay on their backs to be so entangled as still to be sitt . A hi ur men who had previousl - to engage in battle with their comrades, poured forth out of the camp, and now, forgetful of all precautions, they drove before them the mob of barbarians, except such as flight had saved from destruction, trümpling on the heaps of slain, and covered with gore.

13. When the battle was thus terminated the emperor in triumph and joy returned to Milan to winter quarters.

"The Comites were a picked body of tr divided into several regiments £E by separate names, such as Seniores,Juniores,

Sarittarii f #:ked men, something like the Comites tho French translator calls them the #"g ––. A.D. 355.] THE STORY OF SILVANUs. 55

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§ 1. A FTER these unhappy circumstances, accompanied as they were with equal calamities in the provinces, a whirlwind of new misfortunes arose which seemed likely to £ the whole state at once, if Fortune, which regulates the events of human life, had not terminated a state of affairs which all regarded with great apprehension, by bringing the dangers to a speedy issue. 2. From the long neglect with which these provinces had been treated, the Gauls, having no assistance on which to rely, had borne cruel massacres, with plunder and conflagration, from barbarians who raged throughout their land with impunity. Silvan's, the commander of the infantry, being a man well suited to correct these evils, went, # at the command of the emperor, Arbetio at the same time urging with all his power that this task should be unt £ without delay, with the object of imposing the dangerous burden of this duty on his absent rival, whom he was vexed to see still in prosperity. . . . 3. There was a certain man named Dynamius, the superintendent of the emperor's beasts of burden, who had begged of Silvanus recommendatory letters to his friends as of one who was admitted to his most intimate friendship. Having obtained this favour, as Silvanus, having no suspicion of any evil intention, had with great simplicity granted what he was asked, Dynamius kept the letters, in order at a future time to plan something to his injury. 4. Therefore, when the aforesaid commander had gone to the Gauls i or V1 - ".

''' began to distrust their own power, and to be filled with 0.

arm, Dynamius, being restless, like a man of cunning and practised deceitfulness, devised a wicked plot; and in this it is said he had for his accomplices Lampadius, the refect of the praetorian guard, Eusebius, who had en the superintendent of the emperor's privy purse, and was known by the nickname of Mattyocopa, and

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yEdcsius, formerly keeper of the records, whom this

Erefect had contrived to have elected consul, as being is dearest friend. He then with a spongo effaced the contents of the letters, leaving nothing but the address, and inserted a text materially difforing from the original writing, as if Silvanus Lad asked, by indiroct hints, and entreated his friends who wore within the palace and thoso who had no office (among whom was Albinus of Etruria, and many othors), to aid him in projects of loftier ambition, as one who would soon attain the imperial thixine. This bundle of letters he thus made up, inventing at his leisure, in order with them to endanger the life of this innocent man.

5. Dynamius was appointed to investigate these charges on behalf of the emporor; and while he was artfully weaving these and similar plans, he contrived to enter alone into the imperial chamber, choosing his opportunity, and hoping to entangle firmly in his meshes the most vigilant guardian of the emperor's safety. And being full of wicked cunning, after he had read tho forged packet of letters in the council chamber, the tribunes wore ordored to bo committed to custody, and also sovoral privato individuals were commanded to be arrested and brought up from the provinces, whose names were montionod in those letters.

6. Bat presently Malarichns, tho commander of tho Gentilos, being struck with tho iniquity of the business, and taking his collonguos to his counsel, spoko out loudly that men dovotcd to tho preservation of the emperor ought not to be circumvented by factions and treachery. He accordingly demanded that he himself, his nearest relations being left as

hostages, and Mallobawlffl, thn trirmtin of tha hftuvy-i^nnPii

uoldiers. giving hail that he would return, might be commissioned to go with speed to bring back Silvanus, who he was certain had novor entertained the idea of any such attempt as theso bittor plotters had imputed to him. Or, as an alternative, ho entreated that he might becomo security for Mallobaudes, and that their officers might bo permitted to go and do what he had proposed to fake upon himself.

7. For he affirmed that he knew bsyond all question that, if any strangor were sent, Silvanus, who was inclined to be somewhat apprehensive of danger, oven when no

A.D. 355.] THE STORY OF SILVANUS. 57

circumstances were really calculated to alarm him, would very likely throw matters into confusion. 8. But, although the advice which he gave was useful and necessary, he spoke as to the winds, to no purpose. For by the counsels of Arbetio, Apodemius, who was a persevering and bitter enemy to all good men, was sent with letters to summon Silvanus to the presence. When he had arrived in Gaul, taking no heed of the commission with which he was charged, and caring but little for anything that might happen, he remained inactive, without either seeing Silvanus, or delivering the letters which commanded him to appear at court. And having taken the receiver of the province into his counsels, he began with arrogance and malevolence to harass the clients and servants of the master of the horse, as if that officer had been already condemned and was on the point of being executed. 9. In the mean time, while the arrival of Silvanus was looked for, and while Apodemius was throwing everything, though quiet before, into commotion, Dynamius, that he might by still more convincing proofs establish belief in his wicked plots, had sent other forged letters (agreeing with the previous ones which he had brought under the emperor's notice by the agency of the prefect) to the tribune of the factory at Cremona: these were writter: in the names of Silvanus and Malarichus, in which the tribune, as one privy to their secrets, was warned to loso no time in having everything in readiness. 10. But when this tribune had read the whole of the letters, he was for some time in doubt and perplexity as to what they could mean (for he did not recollect that those persons whose letters he had thus received had ever spoken with him upon private transactions of any kind); and accordingly he sent the letters themselves, by the courier who had brought them, to Malarichus, sending a soldier also with him; Rnd entreated Malarichus to explain in intelligible language what he wanted, and not to use such obscure terms. For he declared that he, being but a plain and somewhat rude man, had not in the least understood what was intimated so obscurely. 11. Malarichus the moment he received the letters, being already in sorrow and anxiety, and alarmed for his own

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