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was reported, she, having obtained an introduction by a secret door into the palace, won over the queen by the present of a costly necklace, and procured a fatal warrant to bo sent to Uonoratus, at that time count-governor of (he East, in compliance with which Clcmatius was put to death, a man wholly innocent of any kind of wickedness, without being permitted to say a word in his defence.

4. After this iniquitous transaction, which struck others also with fear lest they should meet with similar treatment, as if cruelty had now obtained a licence, many were condemned on more vaguo suspicion; of whom some were put to death, others were punished by the confiscation of their property, and driven forth as exiles from their homos, so that having nothing left but their tears and complaints, they wero reduced to live on the contributions of their friends; and many opulent and famous houses wero shut up, the old constitutional and just authority being changed into a government at tho will of a bloodthirsty tyrant.

6. Nor amid these manifold atrocities was any testimony of an accuser, not even of a suborned one, sought for, in order to give at least an appearance of these crimes being committed according to law and statute, as very commonly even tho most cruel princes have done: but whatever suited tho implacable temper of t'a'sar was insfnntly accomplished in haste, an if its accordance with human and divino law had been well considered.

6. After these deeds a fresh device was adopted, and a body of obscure men, such &a, by reason of the meanness of their condition, were little likely to excite suspicion, were sent through all the districts of Antioch, to collect reports, and to bring news of whatever they might hear. They, travelling about, and concealing their object, joined clandestinely in the conversational circles of honourable men, and also in disguise obtained entrance into tho houses of the rich. When they returned they wero secretly admitted by back doors into the palace, and then reported all that they had been able to hear or to collect; taking care with an unanimous kind of conspiracy to invent many things, and to exaggerate for the worse all thoy really know; at the 6ame time suppressing any praises of Caesar which had come to their ears, although these were wrung

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'? AJIMIANUS MARCELUNUS. [Be XIV. Ch. L

from many, against their consciences, by the dread of impending evils.

7. And it had happened sometimes that, if in his secret chamber, when no domostic servant was by, the master of the house had whispered anything into his wife's ear, the very next day, as if those renowned seers of old, Amphiaraus or Marcius, had been at hand to' report it, the emperor was informed of what had been said; so that even the walls of a man's secret chamber, the only witnesses to his language, were viewed with apprehension.

8. And Csesar's fixed resolution to inquire into theso and other similar occurrences was increased by the queen, who constantly stimulated his desire, and was driving on the fortunes of her husband to headlong destruction, while sho ought rather, by giving him useful advice, to have led him back into the paths of truth and mercy, by feminine gontlonoss, as, in recounting the*acts of tho Qordiani, wo have related to have been dono by tho wifo of that truculent emperor Maximinus.

9. At last, by an nnsurpassod and most pernicious baseness, Gallus ventured on adopting a course of fearful wickedness, which indeed Gallienus, to his own exceeding infamy, is said formerly to have tried at Rome; and, taking with him a few followers secrefy armed, he used to rove in the evening through the streets and among the shops, making inquiries in the Grook langua^o, in which he was well skilled, what wero tho feolings ot individuals towards Caesar. And he used to do this boldly in the city, where the brillanoy of the lamps at night often equalled the light of day. At last, being often recognized, and considering that if he went out in this way he should be known, he took care never to go out except openly in broad daylight, to transact whatever business whioh he thought of serious importance. And these things caused bitter though secret lamentation, and discontent to many.

10. But at that time Thalassius was the present prefect1 of tho palace, a man of an arrogant temper; and he, per

1 "There was among the commanders of the soldiery one prefect who wns especially entitled Present, or Prrosentalis, because his office was to be always in the oonrt or about the person of the prince, »nd because the emooror's body-guard was under his particular orders.' — H. Valesias.

A.D.353.) REBELLION OF THE ISA URIANS. 5

ceiving that the hasty fury of Gallus gradually increased to the danger of many of the citizens, did not mollify it by either delay or wise counsels, as men in high office have

very often pacified the anger of their princes; but by

untimely opposition and reproof. did often excite him the more to frenzy; often also informing Augustus of his actions, and that too with exaggeration, and taking care, I know not with what intention, that what he did should 1.ot be unknown to the emperor. And at this Caesar soon became more vehemently exasperated, and, as if raising more on high than ever the standard of his contumncy, without any regard to the safety of others or of himself, he bore himself onwards like a rapid torrent, with an impetuosity which would listen to no reason, to sweep away all the obstacles which opposed his will.

II.

§ 1. NoR indeed was the East the only quarter which this
plague affected with its various disasters. For the
Isaurians also, a people who were accustomed to frequent
alternations of peace, and of turbulence which threw
everything into confusion with sudden outbreaks-impu-
nity having fostered their growing audacity and encouraged
it to evil—broke out in n formidable war. Being especially
excited, as they gave out by this indignity, that some of
their allies, having been taken prisoners, were in an unpre-
cedented manner exposed to wild beasts, and in the games
of the amphitheatre, at Iconium, a town of Pisidia.
2. And as Cicero' says, that “even wild beasts, when
reminded by hunger, generally return to that place where
they have been fed before.” So they all, descending like a
whirlwind from their high and pathless mountains, came
- - - *** --1- din
themselves in roads full of lurking-places, and in defiles,
When the long nights were approaching, the moon being at
that time new, and so not yet giving her full light, they

lay wait for the sai - W t erceived that they were # in # '' £ '_t d

feet alon s, and raising themselves up by them, swung themselves into the boats, * The passage is found in Cicero's Oration pro Cluentio, c. 25.

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and so came upon the crews unexpectedly, and, their natural ferocity being inflamed by covetousness, they spared not even those who offend no rimintATinn, ImUlau? theiu all, and carried off a snlnndid hnnty with no more trouble than if it had been valueless.

3. This conduct did not last long, for when the deaths of the orews thus plundered and slaughtered became known, no ono afterwards brought a vessel to the stations on that coast; but, avoiding them as they would have avoided the deadly precipices of Sciron,' they sailed on, without halting, to the shores of Cyprus, which lie opposite to the rocks of Isauria.

4. Thorefore as time went on, and no foreign vessels went there any more, they quitted the sea-const, and betook: themselves to Lvcaoma, a country which Jies on^ the borders "of 1 sauna. And there, occupying the roads with thick barricades, tlieyoought a living by plundering the inhabitants of the district, as well as travellers. These outrages aroused the soldiers who were disporsod among tho many municipal towns and forts which lie on the borders. And_tht:y. endeavouring to tho utmost of their •strength to repel these banditti, who were spreading every /day more widely, sometimes in solid bodies, at others in" ) email straggling parties, wore overcomo by their vast

i' numbers^"

5. Since tho Isaurians. having been born and brought up amid tho entangled defiles of lofty mountains, could bound over them as over plain and easy paths, and attacked all who camo In thoir way with missiles from a distance. WE5B55 at Mm jama time, arilh gnvgn yftl1"

6. And very often oar infantry were compelled in pursuit of them to climb lofty crags, and, when their feet tilippod, to catch hold of the shrubs and briars to raise themselves to the summits; without ever being ableto deploy into battle array, by reason of the narrow and difficult nature of the ground, nor even to stand firm; while their enemy running round in ey^ry flirpntipn hurled down upon them fragments of rock from abovo tifl thoy_rotired down the declivities with great danger.

1 Sciron woa a pirate slain by Theseus, v. Or. Metam. vii. 44, and the Epistle of Ariadne to These na.

"Cum fuerit Sciron lectus, torraaque Procrustes."

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A.D. dod.] REBELLION OF The ISAUltiANS. 7

Or else, sometimes, in the last necessity fighting bravely,
they were overwhelmed with fragments of immense bulk
ight.
7. On this account they subsequently were forced to
observe more caution, and whenever the plunderers began
to retire to the high ground, our soldiers yielded to the

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whenever they could be met with in the plain, which often
happenGI, then charging them without giving them time
to combino their strength, or even to brandish the javelins
of which they always carried two or three, they slaughtered
them like defenceless sheep.
8. So that these banditti, conceiving a fear of Lycaonia,
which is for the most part a champaign country, since
they had learnt by repeated proofs that they were unequal
to our troops in a pitched battle, betook themselves by

unfrequented tracks to Pamphylia. This district had Tong

been free from the evils of war, but nevertheless had been
fortified in all quarters by strong forts and garrisons, from
the dread entertained by the people of rapine and slaugh-
ter, since soldiers were scattered over all the neighbouring
districts.
9. Therefore hastening with all speed, in order by their
£
their motions, trusting to their strength and activity of
body, they travelled by winding roads until they reached
the high ground l • | was -
ness of which delayed their march more than they had
expected. And when at last, having surmounted all the
difficulties of the mountains, they came to the precipitous
banks of the Melas, a deep river and one full of dangerous
currents, which winds round the district, protecting the
inhabitants like a wall, the night which had overtaken

them increased their fears, so that they halted for a while awaiting the daylight. For they expected to be able to cross

without hindrance, and then, in consequence of the suddenness of their inroad, to be able to ravage all the country

around:..but they had incurred great toil to no purpose.
10. For when the sun rose they were prevented from
crossing by the size of tho river, which though narrow was
very deep. And while they were searching for some
#. or preparing to commit £ to the

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