night; a measure which was not etTocted •without great difficulty, through the fear which his enemies had of the people, among whom he was exceedingly popular.


§ 1. These events, then, took place at Home, as I have already mentioned. Hut Conatantivs was agitated by frequent intelligence whirh 'assured him that thoHGauls wore in a lamentablo condition, sinco no adequate resistanco could be made to the barbarians who were now carrying thclr^flevastatlons with nre and sword over the whole country. And after deliberating a long timo, in great anxiety, what force ho could employ to repel these dangers (himself remaining in Italy, as ho thought it voiy dangerous to romovo into so remote a country), he at last determined on a wise plan, which was this: to associate with himself in the cares of the empire his cousin Julian, whom he had some time before summoned to court, and who still retained the robe he had worn in the Greek schools.

2. And when, oppressed by the heavy weight of impending calamities, he bad confessed to his deaiest fiiends that by himself he was unequal to the burden of such weighty and numerous difficulties—a thing which he had never felt before—they, being trained to excessive flattery, tried to fill him with foolish ideas, affirming that there was nothing in the world so difficult but what his preeminent virtue and his good fortune, equal to that of tho gods, would be able to overcome, as it always hitherto had done. And many of them added further, being stung by their consciousness of guilt, that henceforth he ought to beware of conferring the title of Ceesar on any one, enumerating the deeds whioh had been done in the time of Gallus.

3. They therefore opposed his design resolutely, and it was supported by no one but the queen, who, whether it was that she feared a journey to a distant country, or that, from her own natural wisdom, she saw tho best course for the common good, urged him that a relation like Julian ought to be preferred to every one else. Accordingly,

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after many undecided deliberations and long discissions, his resolution was at last taken decidedly, and having discarded all further vain debate, he resolved ou associating Julian with him in the empire.

4. He was therefore summoned; and when ho had arrived, on a fixed day, the whole of his fellow-comrades who were in the city wore ordered to attond, and a tribunal was erected on a lofty scaffolding, surrounded by the eagles and standards. And Augustus, mounting it, and holding Julian by the right hand, made this conciliatory speoch:—

6. "We stand here before you, most excellent defenders of the republic, to avengo with ono unanimous spirit tho common dangers of the stato. And how I propose to provide for it I will briefly explain to you, as impartial judges.

G. "After tho death of thoso rebellious tyrants whom rage and madness prompted to engage in tho enterprises which they undertook, tho barbarians, as if thoy meant to sacrifice unto their wicked manes with Roman blood, having violated the peace and invaded tho territories of tho Gauls, are encouraged by this consideration, that our empire, being spread ovor very remote countries, causes us to be beset with great difficulties.

7. "If, then, your decision and mine aro mutual to encounter this evil, already progressing beyond the barriers which were opposed to it, while there is still time to cheek it, the necks of these haughty nations will learn to ■ humble their pride, and the borders of the empire will remain inviolate. It remains for you to give, by your strength, prosperous effect to the hopes which I entertain.

8. "You all know my cousin Julian, whom I hero prosent to you; a youth endeared to us by his modesty as well as by his relationship; a youth of virtue already proved, and of conspicuous industry and energy. Him I have determined to raise to the rank of Cessar, and hope, if this seems expedient to you, to havo my decision confirmed by your consent."

9. ' Ho was proceeding to say more, but was prevented by the whole assembly interrupting him with friendly shouts, declaring that his decision was the judgment <•( the Supremo Deity, and not of any human mind; with such certainty that one might have thought them inspired with the spirit of prophecy.

10. Tho emperor stood without moving till they resumed silence, and then with greater confidence proceeded to explain what he had to say further.

"Because, therefore, your joyful acclamations show that you look favourably on tho design I havo announced, let this youth, of tranquil strength, whose temperate disposition it will be better to imitate than merely to praise, rise up now to receive the honours prepared for him. His excellent disposition, increased as it has been by all liberal Accomplishments, I will say no more of than is seen in tho fact that I havo chosen him. Therefore, now, with the manifost consent of the Deity, I will clothe him with tho imperial robe."

11. This was his speoch. And then, having immediately clothed Julian with the purple robe of his ancestors, and having pronounced him Cresar, to the great joy of the army, he thus addressed him, though Julian himself appeared by his grave countenance to be somewhat melancholy.

12. "Most beloved of all my brothers, you thus in early youth have received the splendid honour belonging to your birth, not, I confess, without some addition to my own glory; who thus show myself as just in conferring supremo powor on a noble character nearly related to me, as I appear also sublime by virtue of my own power. Come thou, therefore, to be a partner in my labours and dangers, and undertake the defence of the government of tho Gauls, devoting thyself with all beneficence to alleviate the calamities of those afflicted countries.

13. "And if it should be necessary to engage with the enemy in battle, do thou take thy place steadily among tho utandard-bearers themselves, as a prudent encourager of daring at the proper opportunity; exciting the warriors by leading thorn on with caution, supporting any troops which may be thrown into disorder by reserves, gently reproving those who hang back, and being present as a trustworthy witness of the actions of all, whether bravo or timid.

14. "Think that a serious crisis is upon us, and so show yourself a great man, worthy to command brave men. We ourselves will stand by you in the energetic constancy

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of affection, or will join you in the labours of war, so that wo may govern together the whole world in peace, it only God will grant us, an wo pray ho may, to govern with equal moderation and piety. You will ovorywhero ropvesont mo, and I also will never desort you in whatever task you may be engaged. To sum up: Go forth; go forth supported by the friendly prayers of men of all ranks, to defend with watchful care the station assigned to you, it may be said, by tho republic itself."

15. After the emperor hod thus ended his speech, no ono held his peace, but all the soldiers, with a tremendous crash, rattled their shields against their knees (which is an abundant indication of applause; while on tho other hand to striko tho shield with tho spear is a testimony of angor and indignation), and it was marvellous with what excessive joy they all, except a very fow, showed their approbation of tho judgment of Augustus: and they received tho CiBsar with well-deserved admiration, brilliant as he was with tho splendour of tho imperial purple.

16. And while they gazed earnestly on his eyes, terrible in their beauty, and his countenance more attractive than ever by reason of his present excitement, they augured from his looks what kind of ruler ho was likely to prove, as if they had been searching into those ancient volumes which teach how to judgo of a man's moral disposition by tho external signs on his person. And that he might be regarded with tho greater reverence, they neither praised him abovo measure, nor yet below his desert. And so tho voices raised in his favour were looked upon as tho judgment of censors, not of soldiers.

17. After tho ceremony was over, Julian was taken up into the imperial chariot and received into the palace, and was heard to whisper to himself this verso of Homer—

"Now pnrple death hath seized on me,
And powerful strength of destiny."

These transactions took place on the sixth of November, in the year of the consulship of Arbetio and Lollianus.

18. A few days afterwards, Helen, the maiden sister of Constantius, was also given in marriage to the Caesar. And everything being got ready which the journc)* required, he started on tho first of December with a small retinue; and having been escorted on his way by Augustus himself as far as tlio spot, marked by two pillars, which lies between Ijaumcllum and Ticinum, he proceeded straight on to the country of the Tanrini, where he received disastrous intelligence, which had recently roached the cmporor's court, but still had been intentionally kopt back, lest all the preparations made for his journey should bo wasted.

19. And this intelligence was that Colonia Agrippina,' a city of great renown in lower Germany, haa been carried by a vigorous siege of the barbarians, who appeared bofore it in great force, and had utterly destroyed it.

20. Julian being greatly distressed at this news, looking on it as a kind of omen of misfortunes to come, was often heard to murmur in querulous tones, " that he had gained nothing except tho fate of dying amid greater trouble and employment than before"

21. But whon he arrived at Vionno, people of every nge and class went forth to moet him on his entrance to the city, with a view to do him honour by their reception of him as one who had been long wished for, and was now granted to their prayers. And when he was seen in the diKtanco tho whole population of the city and of the adjacent neighbourhood, going before his chariot, celebrated his praises, saluting him as Emperor, clement and prosperous, greet

lawful prince. And thoy placod all their hopes of a remedy for tho evils which affeotcd the whole province on his arrival, thinking that now, when their affairs were in a most desperate condition, some friendly genius had come to shine upon them.

22. And a blind old woman, when in reply to hor question "Who was entering the city?" she received for answer "Julian the Cajsar," cried out that *' He would restore the temples of the gods."

f 1. Now tben, sinoe, as the sublime poet of Mantua has sung, "A greater series of incident rises to my view; in a more arduous task I engage,"— I think it a propor oppor


procession in honour of a

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1 Cologne.

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