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tunity to dcscribo the situation and diffeient countries of the Gauls, lest, among tho narration of fiery preparations and the various chances of battles, I should seem, while speaking of matters not understood by every ouo, to resemble those negligent sailors, who, when tossed about by dangerous wavos and storms, begin to repair their sails and ropes which they might have attended to in calm weather.
2. Ancient writers, pursuing their investigations into the earliest origin of the Gauls, left our knowledge of the truth very imperfect; but at a later period, Timagenes, a thorough Greek both in diligence and language, collected from various writings facts which had been long unknown, and guided by his faithful statements, we, dispelling all obscurity, will now give a plain and intelligible relation of them.
3. Some persons affirm that the first inhabitants over seen in these regions were called Celts, after the name of their king, who was vory popular among them, and sometimes also Galataj, after the name of his mother. For Galatse is the Greek translation of the Roman term Galli. Others affirm that they are Dorians, who, following a more ancient Hercules, selected for their home the districts bordering on the ocean.
4. The Druids affirm that a portion of the people was really indigenous to the soil, but that other inhabitants poured in from the islands on the coast, and from tho districts across the Rhino, having been driven from their former abodes by frequent wars, and sometimes by inroads of the tempestuous sea.
6. Some again 'maintain that after the destruction of Troy, a few Trojans fleeing from the Greeks, who were then scattered over the whole world, occupied these districts, which at that time had no inhabitants at all.
6. But the natives of theso countries affirm this more positively than any other fact (and, indeed, wo ourselves have road it ongravod on their monuments), that Hercules, tho son of Amphitryon,, hastening to the destruction of thoso cruol tyrants, Goryon and Tauriscus, one of whom was oppressing the Gauls, and the other Spun, after he had conquered both of them, took to wife some women of noble birth in those countries, and became the father of many children; and that his sons called the dintricta of which they became the kings after their own names.
7. Also an Asiatic tribe coming from Phoctoa in order to escapo the cruelty of Harpalus, tho lieutenant of Cyrus the king, Bought to sail to Italy.' And a part of thorn founded Velia, in Lucania, others settled a colony at Marseilles, in tho territory of Vienne; and then, in subsequent ages, those towns increasing in strength and importance, founded other cities. But wo must avoid a variety of do tails which are commonly apt to weary.
8. Throughout these provinces, tho people gradually becoming civilized, the study of liberal accomplishments flourished, having been first introduced by the Bards, the Eubages," and the Druids. Tho Bards were accustomed to employ themselves in celobrating the brave achievements of their illustrious mon, in epio verse, accompanied with sweet airs on the lyre. Tho Eubages investigated the system and sublime secrets of nature, and sought to explain them to their followers. Between theso two came tho Druids, mon of loftier genius, bound in brotherhoods according to the precepts and examplo of Pythagoras; and their minds were elevated by investigations into secret and sublime matters, and from the oontempt which they entertained for human affairs they pronounced the soul immortal.
| 1. This country then of the Gauls was by reason of its lofty mountain ranges perpetually covered with terrible snows, almost unknown to the inhabitants of the rest of the world, except where it borders on tho ocoan; vast fortresses raised by nature, in the place of art, surrounding it on all sides.
2. Op the southern side it is washed by the Etruscan and Gallic sea: where it looks towards the north it is separated from the tribes of the barbarians by the river Rhine; whore it is placed under tho western star it is bounded by the ocean, and the lofty chain of tho Pyrenees;
1 This story of the PhocaensM ii told by Herodotus, i. 166, and alluded to by Horace, Kpod. xr. 10.
> The Eubngos, or Owot«t», as Strabo calls them, appear to bare been a tribe of priests.
where it has an eastern aspect it is bounded by the Cottian' Alps. In these mountains King Cottius, after the Gauls had been subdued, lying by himself in their defiles, and relying on the rugged and pathless character of the country, long maintained his independence; though afterwards he abated his pride, and was admitted to the friendship of the Emperor Octavianus. And subsequently he constructed immense works to serve as a splendid gift to the emperor, making roads over them, short, and convenient for travellers, between other ancient passes of the Alps; on which subject we will presently set forth what discoveries have been made. 3. In these Cottian Alps, which begin at the town of Susa, one vast ridge rises up, scarcely passable by any one without danger. 4. For to travellers who reach it from the side of Gaul it descends with a steepness almost precipitous, being terrible to behold, in consequence of the bulk of its overhanging rocks. In the spring, when the ice is melting, and the snow beginning to give way from the warm spring breezes, if any one seeks to descend along the mountain, men and beasts and wagons all fall together through the fissures and clefts in the rocks, which yawn in every direction, though previously hidden by the frost. And the only remedy ever found to ward off entire destruction is to have many vehicles bound together with enormous ropes, with men or oxen hanging on behind, to hold them back with great efforts; and so with a crouching step they get down with some degree of safety. And this, as I have said, is what happens in the spring. 5. But in winter, the ground being covered over with a smooth crust of ice, and therefore slippery under foot, the traveller is often plunged headlong; and the valleys, which seem to open here and there into wide plains, which are merely a covering of treacherous ice, sometimes swallow up those who try to pass over them. On account of which danger those who are acquainted with the country fix projecting wooden piles over the safest spots, in order that a series of them may conduct the
." The Cottian Alps are Mont Genevre. It is unnecessary to point out how Ammianus mistakes the true bearing of these frontiers of Gaul.
travollcr unhurt to his destination; though if those piles got covered with snow and hidden, or thrown down by molting torrents descending from the mountains, then it is difficult for any one to pass, even if natives of tho district lead the way.
6. But on the summit of this Kalian mountain there is a plain, seven miles in extent, reaching as far as the station
known by the namo of Mars; and after that comes another ridge, still more steop, and scarcely possible to be climbed, which stretches on to the summit of Mons Matrona, named no from an event whioh hnpponcd to a noble lady.
7. From this point a path, steop indeed, but easily passable, leads to tho fortross of Virgantia.' Tho sepulchre of this petty prince whom wo havo spoken of as the makor of those roads is at Susa, close to tho walls; and his remains are honoured with religious veneration for two reasons: first of all, because he governed his people with equitable moderation; and secondly, because, by becoming an ally of the Roman republic, he procured lasting tranquillity for his subjects.
8. And although this road whioh I havo been speaking of runs through tho centre of tho district, and is shorter and more froquentod now than any other, yet othor roads also were made at much earlior periods, on different occasions.
0. The first of them, near tho maritime alps, was made by tho Theban Horculos, when ho was proceeding in a leisuroly manner to destroy Gcryon and Tauriscus, as has already been mentioned; and ho it was who gave to these alps tho namo of tho Grecian Alps.' In the same way he consecrated the citadel and port of Monaccus to keep alive tho recollection of his namo for over. And this was the reason why, many ages afterwards, those alps were called the l'er.ino Alps.*
10. Publius Corneliu8 Scipio, the father of the elder Africanus, when about to go to the assistance of the citizens
* The Grain Alps arc the Little St. Bernard ; and it was over them that Hannibal really passed, as hat been conclusively proved by Dr. J. A. Cramer.
* From the god Pon, or Peruana, Liv. xxi. 88. The Alpes Peninn are the Great St. Bernard.
of Saguntum—colcbratcd for the distresses which they endured, and for their loyalty to Koine, at the thno when they were besieged with great resolution by the Carthaginians—led to the Spanish coast a fleet having on board a numerous army. But after the city had been destroyed by the valour of the Carthaginians, ho. being unable to overtake Hannibal, who htid crossed the Khono, and had obtained three days' start of him in the march towards Italy, crossed tho sea, which at that point was not wide, making a rapid voyage; and taking his station near Genoa, a town of the Ligurcs, awaited his dot-cent from the mountains, so that, if chance should afford him an opportunity, ho might attack him in tho plain whilo still fatigued with tho ruggedness of the way by which he had come.
11. But still, having regard to the interests of the republio, ho ordered Cnasus Scipio, his brother, to go into Spain, to prevent Hasdrubal from makings similar expedition from that country. But Hannibal, having received information of their design by some deserters, being also a man of great shrewdness and readiness of resources, obtained soiuo guides from the Taurini who inhabited those districts, and passing through the Tricastini and through the district of the \ocontii, he thus reached the defiles of the Tricorii.1 Then starting from this poiut. he made another march ovor a line previously impassable. And having cut through a rock of immense height, which he melted by means of mighty fires, and pouring over it a quantity of vinegar, ho proceeded along tho Druentia, a river full of danger from its eddies and currents, until ho reached the district of Etroria. This is enough to say of the Alps; now lot us return to our original subject.
§ 1. In former times, when these provinces were little known, aa being barbarous, they were considered to be divided into three races :* namely, the Celtaj, tho same
1 Compare Livy's account of Hannibal's mnrch, from which, » holly erroneous as it is, this description seems lo have been taken; not that eren Livy has made such a cross mistake about the Druentia, or Duranco, which falls into tho Rhone.
'Cesar's account of his expedition begins with the statement that "Gaul is divided into three provinces.''