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who aro also called Galli; the Aquitani, and the Belgæ : all differing from each other in language, manners, and laws.
2. The Galli, who, as I have said, are the same as tho Celtæ, are divided from the Aquitani by the river Garonne, which rises in the mountains of the Pyrenees; and after passing through many towns, loses itself in the ocean.
3. On the other side they are separated from the Belgians by the Maine and the Seine, both rivers of considerable size, which flowing through the tribe of the Lugdunenses, after surrounding the stronghold a the Parisii named Lutetia, so as to make an island of it, proceed onwards together, and fall into the sea near the camp of Constantius.
4. Of all these people the Belgians are said by ancient writers to be the most warliko, becauso, being more remoto from civilization, and not having been rendered effeminate by foreign luxuries, they have been engaged in continual wars with the Germans on the other side of the Rhine.
5. For the Aquitaniana, to whose shores, as being nearest and also pacific, foreign merchandise is abundantly imported, were easily brought under the dominion of the Romans, because their character had become enervated.
6. But from the timo when the Guuls, after long and repeated wars, submitted to the dictator Julius, all their provinces wero governed by Roman officers, the country boing divided into four portions; one of which was the province of Narbonne ; containing the districts of Vienne and Lyons: a second province comprehended all the tribes ui tho Aquitanians; upper and lowor Germany formed a third jurisdiction, and the Belgians a fourth at that period.
7. But now the wholo extent of the country is portioned out into many provinces. The second (or lower) Germany is tho first, if you begin on the westorn side, fortified by Cologuo and Tongros, both oitios of groat wcalth and importance.
8. Next comes tho first (or high) Germany, in which, besides other municipal towns, there is Mayence, and Worms, and Spiers, and Strasburg, a city celebrated for the defoats sustained by the barbarians in its neighbourhood.
9. After those the first Belgio province stretches as far
as Metz and Treves, which city is the splendid abode of the chief governor of the country.
10. Next to that comes the second Belgic province, where we find Amiens, a city of conspicuous magnificence, and Chalons,' and Rheins.
11. In the province of the Sequani, the finest cities are Besançon and Baslo. The first Lyonnoso province contains Lyons, Châlons,' Sens, Bourges, and Autun, the walls of which are very extensive and of great antiquity.
12. In the second Lyonneso province are Tours, and Rouen, Evreux, and Troyes. The Grecian and l'enino Alps havo, besides other towns of less note, Avenche, a city which indeed is now deserted, but which was formerly one of no small importance, as even now is proved by its half-ruinous edifices. These are tho most important provinces, and most splendid cities of the Galli.
13. In Aquitania, which looks towards the Pyrenees, and that part of the ocean which belongs to the Spaniards, the first province is Aquitanica, very rich in large and populous citics ; passing over others, I may mention as pre-eminent, Bordeaux, Clermont, Saintes, and Poictiers.
14. The province called the Nine Nations is enriched by Ausch and Bazas. In tho province of Narbonne, tho citics of Narbonne, Euscs, and Toulouse are the principal places of importance. The Vienneso exults in the magnificence of many cities, the chiof of which are Vienne itself, and Arles, and Valenco; to which may be added Marseilles, by the alliance with and power of which we read that Rome itself was more than onco supported in moments of danger.
15. And noar to these cities is also Aix, Nice, Antibes, and the islands of Hieres.
16. And since we havo come in tho progress of our work to this district, it would be inconsistent and absurd to oinit all mention of the Rhono, a river of the greatest colobrity. Tho Rhono rinos in the l'oninc Alps, from sources of gront abundanco, and doscending with hendlong impetuosity into tho more champaign districts, it often overring its banks with its own waters, and then plunges into a lake called Lake Leman, and though it passes through it, yet it nevor mingles with any foreign waters, but, rushing over the top of those which flow with lees 1 Châlons sur Marne.
Chalons sur Snôno.
rapidity, in its search for an exit, it forces its own way by tho violence of its stream.
17. And thus passing through that lake without any damage, it runs through Savoy and the district of Franche Comté; and, after a long course, it forms the boundary between the Viennese on its left, and the Lyonnese on its right. Then after many windings it receives the Saône, a river which rises in the first Germany, and this latter river here merges its name in the Rhone. At this point is the beginning of the Gauls. And from this spot the distances are measured not by miles but by leagues.
18. From this point also, the Rhone, being now enriched by other rivers, becomes navigable for large vessels, which are often tossed about in it by gales of wind; and at last, having finished the course which nature has marked out for it, foaming on it joins the Gallic Sea in the wide gulf which they call the Gulf of Lyons, about eighteen miles from Arles. This is enough to say of the situation of the province; I will now proceed to describe the appearance and character of the inhabitants.
XII. § 1. NEARLY all the Gauls are of a lofty stature, fair, and of ruddy complexion; terrible from the steinness of their eyes, very quarrelsome, and of great pride and insotence. A whole troop of foreigners would not be able to withstand a single Gaul if he called his wife to his assistance, who is usually very strong, and with blue eyes; especially when, swelling her nock, gnashing her teeth, and brandishing her sallow arms of enormous size, she begins to strike blows mingled with kicks, as if they were so many missiles sent from the string of a catapult.
2. The voices of the generality are formidable and throatening, whether they are in good humour or angry : they are all exceedingly careful of cleanliness and neatness, nor in all the country, and most especially in Aquitania, could any man or woman, however poor, be seen either dirty or ragged.
3. The men of every age are equally inclined to war, and the old man and the man in the prime of life.answer with equal zoal the call to arms, their bodies being
hardened by their cold weather and by constant exercise, so that they are all
inclined to despise dangers and terrors. Nor has any one of this nation ever mutilated his thumb from fear of the toils of war, as men have done in Italy, whom in their district are called Murci.
4. The nation is fond of wine, and of several kinds of liquor which resemble wino. And many individuals of tho lower orders, whose sensos have become impaired by continual intoxication, which the apophthegm of Cato defined to be a kind of voluntary madness, run about in all directions at random ; so that there appears to be some point in that saying which is found in Cicero's oration in defence of Fonteius, " that henceforth the Gauls will drink their wine less strong than formerly,” becanse forsooth they thought there was poison in it.
6. These countries, and especially such parts of them as border on Italy, fell gradually under the dominion of the Romans without much trouble to their conqnerors, having been first attacked by Fulvius, afterwards weakened in many trifling combats by Sextius, and at last entirely subdued by Fabius Maximus ; who gained an additional surname from the complete accomplishment of this task, after he had brought into subjection the fierce tribe of the Allobroges.
6. Cæsar finally subdued all the Gauls, except where their country was absolutely inaccessible from its morasses, as we learn from Sallust, after a war of ten years, in which both nations suffered many disasters; and at last he united them to us in etornal alliance by formal treaties. I have digressed further than I had intended, but now I will return to my original subject.
$ 1. AFTER Domitianus had perished by a cruel death, Musonianus his successor governed the East with the rank of prætorian profect; a man celebrated for his eloquonco and thorough knowledgo of both the Greek and Latin languages; from which he reaped a loftier glory than he expected.
2. For when Constantine was desirous of obtaining a
I. A panegyric of Juliun the Cæ:ar.-II. Julian attacks and defcats
tho Allemanni.-III. Ho recovers Cologne, which had been taken by tho Fonks, and concludes a peaco with the king of the Frunks, - IV. He is besieged in the city of Sens by the Allemanni.- V. His virtues.- VI. The prosecution and acquittal of Arbetio.-VII. The Cæsar Julian is defended before the emperor by his chamberlain Eutherius against tho accusations of Marcellus.–VIIL. Calumnies are rife in the camp of tho Emperor Constantius, and the courtiers are mpacious.--IX. The question of peace with the Persians.X.-The triumphal entry of Constantius into Rome.-XI. Julian attacks the Allemanni in the islands of the Rhine in which they had taken refugo, and repairs the fort of Saveme.-XII. He attacks the kings of the Allemanni on the borders of Gaul, and dcfcats them at Strasburg.
A.D. 356, § 1. While the chain of destiny was bringing these events to pass in the Roman world, Julian, being at Vienne, was taken by the emperor, then in his own eighth consulship, as a partner in that dignity; and, under the promptings of his own innate energy, dreamt of nothing but the crash of battles and the slaughter of the barbarians; preparing without delay to re-establish the province, and to reunite the fragments that had been broken from it, if only fortuno should bo favourable to him.
2. And because the great achievements which by his valour and good fortune Julian performed in the Gauls, surpass many of the most gallant exploits of the ancients, I will relate them in order as they occurred, employing all tho resources of my talents, moderate as they are, in the hope that they may suffice for the narr ve.
3. But what I am about to relate, though not emblazoned by craftily devised falsehood, and being simply a plain statement of facts, supported by ovident proofs, will havo all the effect of a studied panegyric.
4. For it would seem that some principlo of a more than commonly virtuous life guided this young prince from his