who aro also called Galli; tho Aqnitani, and the Belgse: all differing from each other in language, manners, and laws.

2. Tho Galli, who, as I have said, are the same as tho CeltaB, aro divided from the Aqnitani by the river Garonne, which rises in the mountains of the Pyrenees; and after passing through many towns, loses itself in the ocean.

3. On tho other side they are separated from the Belgians by tho Maine and the Seine, both rivers of considerable size, which flowing through the tribe of the Lugduncnses, after surrounding tho stronghold of tho l'arisii named Lutetia, so as to make an island of it, proceed onwards togother, and fall into tho sea near the cainp of Constantius.'

4. Of all these people tho Belgians aro said by anciont writers to bo the most warlike, becauso, boing more remoto from civilization, aad not having been rendered effeminate by foreign luxuries, they have been engaged in continual wars with the Germans on the other side of the Rhine.

5. For the Aquitanians, to whose shores, as being nearest and also pacific, foreign merchandise is abundantly imported, were easily brought under tho dominion of the Romans, because their character had become enervated.

6. But from the timo when tho Gauls, after long and repeated wars, submitted to the dictator Julius, all thoir provinces wcro governed by Roman officers, the country Doing divided into four portions; one of which was the province of Narbonne; containing the district* of Vienne and Lyons: a second provinco comprehended all tho tribes «./ tho Aquitanians; ujqicr and lower Germany

"formed a third jurisdiction, and tho Belgians a fourth at that period.

7. But nr w tho wholo extent of the country is portioned out into many provinces. Tho second (or lowor) Germany in tho first, if you begin on tho wostorn side, fortified by Cologne and Tongros, both oitios of groat wealth and importance.

8. Next oomes tho first (or high) Germany, in which, besides other municipal towns, there is Mayence, and Worms, and Spiers, and Strasburg, a city celebrated for the defeats sustained by the barbarians in its neighbourhood.

0. After those the first Belgio province stretches as far


as Metz and Treves, which city is the splendid abode of the chief governor of the country. 10. Next to that comes the second Belgic province, where we find Amiens, a city of conspicuous magnificence, and Chalons, and Rheims. 11. In the province of the Sequani, the finest cities are Besançon and Basle. The first Lyonnese province contains Lyons, Châlons, Sens, Bourges, and Autun, the walls of which are very extensive and of great antiquity. 12. In the second Lyonnese province are Tours, and Rouen, Evreux, and Troyes. The Grecian and Penine Alps have, besides other towns of less note, Avenche, a city which indeed is now deserted, but which was formerly one of no small importance, as even now is proved by its half-ruinous edifices. These are the most important provinces, and most splendid cities of the Galli. 13. In Aquitania, which looks towards the Pyrenees, and that part of the ocean which belongs to the Spaniards, the first province is Aquitanica, very rich in large and populous cities; passing over others, I may mention as pre-eminent, Bordeaux, Clermont, Saintes, and Poictiers. 14. The province called the Nine Nations is enriched by Ausch and Bazas. In the province of Narbonne, the citics of Narbonne, Euses, and £ are the principal places of importance. The Viennese exults in the magnificence of many cities, the chief of which are Vienne itself, and Arles, and Valence; to which may be added Marseilles, by the alliance with and power of which we read that Rome itself was more than once supported in moments of danger. 15. And near to these cities is also Aix, Nice, Antibes, and the islands of Hieres. 16. And since we have come in the progress of our work to this district, it would be inconsistent and absurd to omit all mention of the Rhone, a river of the greatest colebrity. Tho Rhone rises in the l’onine Alps, from sources of great abundance, and descending with headlong impetuosity into the more champaign districts, it often overruns its banks with its own waters, and then plunges into a lake called Lake Leman, and though it passes through it, yet it never mingles with any foreign waters, but, rushing over the top of those which flow with less * Châlons sur Marne. * Châlons sur Saône.

rapidity, in its search for an exit, it forces its own way by the violence of its stream.

17. And thus passing through that lake without any damage, it runs through Savoy and the district of Franche Comte; and, after a long course, it forms the boundary between the Viennese on its loft, and the Lyonncse on its right, 'llicti after many windings it receives the Sa&no, a river which rises in the first Germany, and this latter river here merges its name in the Rhone. At this point is the beginning of the Gauls. And from this spot the distances are measured not by miles but by leagues.

18 From this point also, the Rhone, being now enriched by other rivors, becomes navigable for large vessels, which are often tossed about in it by gales of wind; and at last, having finished the course which nature has marked out for it, foaming on it joins the Gallic Sea in the wide gulf which they call the Gulf of Lyons, about eighteen miles from Aries. This is enough to say of the situation of the province; I will now proceed to describe the appearance and character of the inhabitants.


§ 1. Nearly all the Gauls are of a lofty stature, fair, and of rndd~Y complexion; terrible from the sternness ot their eyes, very qiiairehsome, and o{' great insolence. A "Whole' troop of foreigners would not be able to withstand a single Gaul if ho called his wife to his assistance, who is usually very strong, and with blue eyes; especially when, swelling her nock, gnashing her teeth, and brandishing her sallow arms of enormous size, she begins to strike blows mingled with kicks, as if they wero so many missiles sent from the string of a catapult.

2. The voices of the generality are formidable and threatening, whether they are in good humour or angry: they are all exceedingly careful of cleanliness and neatness, nor in all the country, and most especially in Aquitania, could any man or woman, however poor, be seen either dirty or ragged.

3. Tho men of every age are equally inclined to war, and the old man and the man jn the prime of lifp antiwar with equal zeaTthe caJl^Jajm8,^tair_Jiodi

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hardened hy_thfiir ""Id weather and by constant exercise. so^fliaTtTicy arc allincj incd_ tojhTsjys^dangcrs and terrors. I\or has any one of this nation ever mutilated his thumb from foar of the toils of war, as men have done in Italy, whom in their district are called Murci.

4. The nation fa fond of wine, and of several kinds of liquor which rescmblo wine. And many individuals of tho lower orders, whoso senses have become impaired by continual intoxication, which the apophthegm of Cato defined to bo a kind of voluntary madneKS, run about in all directions at random ;' so that thero appears to be some point in that saying which is found in Cicero's oration in defence of Fontcius, "that henceforth tho Gauls will drink their wine less strong than formerly," because forsooth they thought there was poison in it.

6. Those countries, and especially such parts of them as border on Italy, fell gradually under tho dominion of tho Romans without much troublo to their conquerors, having been first attacked by Fulvius. afterwards weakened in many trifling combats by Sextius, and at last entirely subdued by Fabius Maximus; who gained an additional surname from tho comploto accomplishment of this task, after ho had brought into subjection tho fierce tribe of the Allobrogos.

6. Coesar finally subdued all the Gauls, except where their country was absolutely inaccessible from its morasses, as we learn from Sallust, after a war of ten years, in which both nations suffered many disasters; and at last he united them to us in eternal alliance by formal treaties. I havo digressed further than I had intended, but now I will return to my original subject.


§ 1. After Domitianus had perished by a cruel death, Musonianus his successor governed the East with the rank of prrotorian prefect; a man celebrated for his eloquonco and thorough knowledge of both tho Greek and Latin languages; from which he reaped a loftier glory than he expected.

2. For when Constantino was desirous of obtaining a


a.o. 256.] 83

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I. A. : ric of Julian the Caesar.—II. Julian attacks and defeats the £ He recovers Cologne, which had been taken by the Franks, and concludes a peace with the king of the Franks. -IV. He is besieged in the city of Sens by the Allemanni-V. His virtues.—VI. The prosecution and acquittal of Arbctio.—VII. The Caesar Julian is defended before the emperor by his chamberlain Eutherius against the accusations of Marcellus.—VIII. Calumnies are rife in the camp of the Emperor Constantius, and the courtiers are rapacious.--IX. The question of peace with the Persians.— X-The triumphal entry of Constantius into Rome.—XI. Julian attacks the Allemanni in the islands of the Rhine in which the had taken refuge, and repairs the fort of Saverne.—XII. I attacks the kings of the Allemanni on the borders of Gaul, and defeats them at Strasburg.

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§ 1. While the chain of destiny was bringing these events to pass in the Roman world, Julian, being at Vienne, was taken by the emperor, then in his own eighth consulship, as a partner in that dignity; and, under the promptings of his own innate energy, dreamt of nothing but the crash of battles and the slaughter of the barbarians; preparing without delay to re-establish the province, and to reunite the fragments that had been broken from it, if only fortune should be favourable to him. 2. And because the great achievements which by his valour and good fortune Julian performed in the Gauls, surpass many of the most gallant exploits of the ancients, I will relate them in order as they occurred, employing all the resources of my talents, moderate as they are, in the hope that they may suffice for the narrative. 3. But what I am about to relate, though not emblazoned by craftily devised falsehood, and being simply a lain statement of facts, supported by evident proofs, will £ all the effect of a studied panegyric. 4. For it would seem that some principle of a more than commonly virtuous life guided this young prince from his

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