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R2 | AMMIANUS MARCELLINUs. [BK. XV. CII, xiii.

more accurate knowledge of the different sects in the empire, the Manicheans and other similar bodies, and no one could be found able sufficiently to explain them, Musonianus was chosen for the task, having been recommended as competent; and when he had discharged this duty with skill, the emperor gave him the name of Musonianus, for he had been previously called Strategius. After that he ran through many degrees of rank and honour, and soon reached the dignity of prefect; being in other matters also a man of wisdom, popular in the provinces, and of a mild and courteous disposition. But at the same time, whenever he could find an opportunity, especially in any controversies or lawsuits (which is most shameful and wicked), he was greatly devoted to sordid gain. Not to mention many other instances, this was esecially exemplified in the investigations which were made into the death of Theophilus, the governor of Syria, a man of consular rank, who gave information against the Caesar Gallus, and who was torn to pieces in a tumult of the people; for which several poor men were condemned, who, it was clearly proved, were at a distance at the time of the transaction, while certain rich men who were the real authors of the crime were spared from all punishment, except the confiscation of their property. 3. In this he was equalled by Prosper, at that time master of the horse in Gaul; a man of abject spirit and great inactivity; and, as the comic poet has it, despising the acts of secret robbing he plundered openly." 4. And, while these two officers were conniving together, and reciprocally helping each other to many means of acquiring riches, the chiefs of the Persian nation who lived nearest to the river, profiting by the fact that the

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very cradle to his last breath. Increasing rapidly in every desirable quality, ho soon became so conspicuous both n't home and abroad, that in respect to his prudence he was looked upon as a second Titus: in his glorious deeds of war ho was accounted equal to Trajan; in ntercy he was the prototype of Antoninus; and in the pursuit and discovery of true and perfect wisdom, ho resembled Marcus Aurolius, in imitation of whom he formed all his actions and character.

5. And since, as we are taught by Cicoro, that the loftiness of groat virtuos dolights us, as does that of high trees, while we are not equally interested in the roots and trunks; so, also, the first beginnings of his admirable disposition were kept concealed by many circumstances which threw a cloud over them; though in fact they ought to be preferred to many of his most marvellous actions of later life, in that he, who in his early youth had been brought up like Erectheus in the retirement sacred to Minerva, nevertheless when he was drawn forth from the quiet shades of the academy (and not from any military tent) into the labours of war, subdued Germany, tranquillized the districts of the frozen Rhine, routed the barbarian kings breathing nothing but bloodshed and slaughter, and forced them to submission.

II.

j 1. Therefore while passing a toilsomo winter in the city aforesaid, he learnt, among tho numerous reports which were flying about, that the ancient city of Antun, the walls of which, though of vast extent, were in a state of great decay from ago, wao now besieged by the barbarians, who had suddenly appeared before it in great forco; and while tho garrison remained panic-stricken and inactivo, tho

It own was defended by a body of votorans who woro behaving with great courago and vigilance; as it often happens tbat extreme despair repulses dangers which appear destructive of all hope or safety.

2. Thorcfore. without relaxing his anxiety about othor matters, and putting aside all the adulation of the courtiers with which they sought to divert his mind towards voluptuousness and luxury, he hastened his preparations, and when everything was ready he tet out, and on the 24th of

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A.D. 356.] JULIAN MARCHES AGAINST THE ALLEMANNI. 85

June arrived at Autun; behaving like a veteran general conspicuous RIlke for skill and prowess, and prepared to fall upon-the-barbarians, who were straggling in every direction over the country, the moment fortune afforded

him an opportunity, 3. Therefore £ Qn # plans, and consulted those who were acquainted with the country as to £ march for him to adopt, £ ferent routes, some recommending Arbois, others insisting on it that the best way was by Saulieu and Cure. But as some persons affirmed, that Silvanus, in command of a body of infantry, had, a short time before, made his way with 8,000 men by a road shorter than either, but dangerous as lying through many dark woods and defiles suitable for ambuscades, Julian became exceedingly eager to imitate the audacity of this brave man. 5. And to delay, taking with him only his | rchers, who would not have been sufficient efend his person had he been attacked, he took the same route as Silvanus; and 6. And there, having, according to his custom, devoted short time to rest, for the purpose of refreshing his men,

he proceeded onwards towards Troyes; and strengthened 18 £ that he might with the greater effect watch the rbarians, who attacked him in numerous bodies, which he voided as well as he could, thinking th 118 han they # were. Presently, however, having occupied ome favourable ground, he descen of hem, and routed it, an - -: whom their wn £delivered to him; and then he allowed the rest, who now devoted all their energies to flying with what peed they could, to escape unattacked, as his men could | ot pursue them by reason of the weight of their armour.

7. £ gave '' more hope of being able to resist any attack which they might make, and marching forwards with this confidence,—after-many-dangers he

reached.# so unexpectedly, that when he arrived at - e inhabitants for some time hesitated to give

the t him entrance into the city, so great was their fear of the straggling multitudes of the barbarians. 8. After a little delay, devoted to again refreshing his weary troops, thinking that there was no time to waste, he # to the city of Rheims, where he had ordered is whole army, carrying". . . . to assemble, and there to await his presence. The army at Rheims was under the COIllin ellus, the successor of Ursicinus; and Ursicinus himself was ordered to remain there till the termination of the expedition.

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barbarians, who were established in their suburbs, for the barbarians shunned fixing themselves in the towns themselves, looking upon them like graves surrounded with nets, he first of all entered Brumat, and just as he reached that place he was encountered by a body of Germans pre£ for battle. 13. Having arranged his own army in the form of all crescent, the engagement began, and the enemy were spee surrounded and utterly defeated. Some were taken prisoners, others were slain in the heat of the battle, the rest sought safety by rapid flight. III.

51. AFTER this, meeting with no resistance, he determined to proceed to recover Cologne, which had been destroyed

* The text is defective here, as it is wherever these marks occur.

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before his arrival in Gaul. In that district thcro is no city or fortress to be" seen" except that near Confluentes; a place so named because there the river Moselle becomes mingled with the Jv'hino thcro is also the villngo oi lthoinmagcn, and likewise a single tower near Cologne. . 'I. Afler having taken possear.inn of Cologno ho did not I leave it till the Frank kings began, through fear of him. to~abTto of_thcirTjjiy, when ho contracted a peace with them likely to be of future advantage to the republic-! Tn tto mean time he put the whole city into a state of complete defence.

'3. Then, auguring well from these first-fruits of victory, he departed, passing through the district of Treves, with the intention of wintering at Sens, which was a town very suitable for that purpose. 'W hen bearing, 60 to Fay, the weight of a world of wars upon his shoulders, he was occupied by perplexities of various kinds, and among them

| how to provide for establishing in places most exposed tc

- danger the soldiers who had quitted their former posts; how to defeat the enemies who had conspired together to

| injuro the Soman causo; and further, how to provido supplies for the army while employed in so many different

t quarters.

IV.

§ 1. WgTLg ho was anxiously revolving these things in his mind, he was attacked Tiy a numerous force ofthe enemy, who had conceived a hope of being able to take tho town. And thoy wcro the more confident of success becansn, from tho information of doserters, thoy had learnt that lie neither had with him his Scutarii nor his Gentiles, both of which bodies of troops had been distributed among the different municipal towns in order that they wight be the nioro easily supplied with provisions.

2. Therefore after tho gates of the city had been barricaded,~and the weakest "port ions of the walla carefully strengthened, Julian was seen night and day on tho hatflernent* and »m[»r(«l attended by a band of armed men, boiling over with anger and gnashing his teeth, because, often as he wished to sally forth, lie was pro

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