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vented from taking such a step by the scantiness of the force which he had with him.
3. At last, after thirty days, the barbarians retired) disappointed, murmuring that they had been so vain and weak as to attempt the siege of such a city. It deserves however to be remarked, as a most unworthy circumstance, that when Julian was in great personal dangor, Marcellus, the master of the horse,
who was posted in the immediate neighbourhood, omitted to bring him any assistance, though the dunger of the city itself, even if the prince had not been there, ought to have excited his en. deavours to relieve it from the peril of a siege by so formidable an enemy
4. Being now delivered from this fear, Julian, ever prudent and active, directed his anxious thoughts incessantly to the care of providing that, after their long labours, his soldiers should have rest, which, however brief, might be snfficient to recruit their strength. In addition to the exhaustion consequent on their toils, they were distressed by the deficiency of crops on the land, which through the frequent devastations to which they had been exposed afforded but little suitable for human food,
5. But these difficulties he likewise surmounted by his over wakeful diligence, and a more confident hope of future success opening itself to his mind, be rose with higher spirits to accomplish his other designs.
v § 1. In the first place (and this is a most difficult task
for erery one), he imposed on himself a rigid temporance, and maintained it as if he had been living under the obligation of the sumptuary laws. These were originally brought to Rome from the edicts of Lycurgus and the tables of laws compiled by Solon, and were for a long time strictly observed. When they had become somewhat obsolete, thoy were re-established by Sylla, who, guided by the apophthegms of Democritus, agreed with him that it is Fortuno which spreads an ambitious table, but that Virtuo is content with a sparing one.
2. And likewiso Cato of Tusculum, who from his pure and temperate way of life obtained the sumame of the
Censor, said with profound wisdom on the same subject, " When thero is great care about food, there is very little care about virtue.
3. Lastly, though he was continually realling the little treatise which Constantius, when sending him as his step: son to prosecute his studies, had written for him with his own hand, in which he made extravagant provision for the dinner-expenses of the Cæsar, Julian now forbade phcasants, or sausages, or even sow's udder to be served up to him, contenting himself with the cheap and ordinary food of the common soldiers.
4. Hereupon arose his custom of dividing his nights into three portions, one of which he allotted to rest, ono to the affairs of the state, and one to the study of literature; and we read that Alexander the Great had been accustomed to do the same, though he practised the rulo with less self-relianco. For Alexander, having placed a brazen shell on the ground bonenth him, usod to hold a silver ball in his hand, which he kept stretched outside his bed, so that when sleep pervading his whole body had relaxed the rigour of his muscles, the rattling of the ball falling inight banish slumber from his eyes.
5. But Julian, without any instrument, awoke whenever he pleased ; and always rising when the night was but half spent, and that pot from a bed of feathers, or silken cover. lots shining with varied brilliancy, but from a rough blanket or rug, would secretly offer his supplications to Mercury, who, as the theological lessons which he had recoived had taught him, was the swift intelligenco of the world, exciting the different emotions of the mind. And thus removed from all external circumstances calculated to distract his attention, he gave his whole attention to the affairs of the republic.
6. Then, after having ended this arduous and important business, he turned and applied himself to the cultivation of his intellect. And it was marvellous with what excessive ardour he investigated and attained to the sublimo knowledge of the loftiest matters, and bow, seeking as it were some food for his mind which might give it strength to climb up to the sublimost truths, ho ran through every branch of philosophy in profound and subtle discussions.
7. Nevertheless, whilo engaged in amassing knowledge of this kind in all its fullness and power, he did not despise the humbler accomplishments." He was tolerably fond of poetry and rhetoric, as is shown by the invariable and pure elegance, mingled with dignity, of all his speeches and letters. And he likewise studied the varied history of our own state and of foreign countries. To all theso accomplishments was added a very tolerable degree of cloquonco in the Latin language.
8. Thoroforo, if it bo truo, as many writers affirm, that Cyrus tho king, and S'inonidos tho lyric poct, and Hippias of Elis, the most aouin uf the Sophists, excelled as they did in memory because they had obtained that faculty through drinking a particular medicine, we must also believe that Julian in his early manhood had drunk the whole cask of memory, if such a thing could over be found. And theso are the nocturnal signs of his chastity and virtue.
9. But as for the manner in which he passed his dnye, whether in convorsing with eloquence and wit, or in making preparations for war, or in actual conflict of battle, or in his administration of affairs of tho stato, correcting all defects with magnanimity and liberality, these things shall all be set forth in their proper place.
10. When he was compelled, as being a prince, to apply himself to the study of military discipline, having been previously confined to lessons of philosophy, and when he was learning the art of marching in time while the pipes were playing the Pyrrhic air, he often, calling upon the name of Plato, ironically quoted that old proverb, “A packsaddlo is placed on an ox; this is clearly a burden which doos not belong to mo.”
11. On one occasion, when some secretaries woro introduced into the council-chambor, with solenin ceremony, to receive some gold, one of their company did not, as is the usual custom, open his robe to recoive it, but took it in the hollow of both his hands joined together; on which Julian said, secretaries only know how to seize things, not how to acoept them.
12. Having been approached by the parents of a virgin who had beon ravishod, soeking for justice, ho gave sentence that tho ravisher, on conviction, should be banished; and when the parents oomplained of this sentence as un
equal to the crime, because the criminal had not been condemned to death, he replied, “Let tbe laws blame my clemency; but it is fitting that an emperor of a most merciful disposition should be superior to all other laws."
13. Once when he was about to set forth on an expedition, he was interrupted by several people complaining of injuries which they had received, whom he referred for a hearing to the governors of their respective provinces. And after he had returned, he inquired what had been done in each caso, and with genuino clemency mitigated the punishments which had been assigned to the offences,
14. Last of all, without here making any mention of the victories in which he repeatedly defeated the barbarians, and the vigilance with which the protected his army from all harm, the benefits which he conferred on the Galli, previously exhausted by extreme want, are most especially evident from this fact, that when he first entered the country he found that four-and-twenty pieces of gold were exacted, under the name of tribute, in the way of poll-tax, from each individual. But when he quitted the country. seven piecos only were required, which made up all the payments due from them to the state. On which account they rejoiced with festivals and dances, looking upon him as a serene sun which had shone upon them after melancholy darkness.
15. Moreover we know that up to the very end of his reign and of his life, he carefully and with great benefit observed this rule, not to remit the artears of tribute by cdicts which thoy call indulgences. For he know that by such conduct ho should to giving something to tho rich, whilst it is notorious everywhero that, the moment that taxes are imposed, the poor are compelled to pay them all at once without any
relief. 16. But while he was thus regulating and governing the country in a manner deserving the imitation of all virtuous princes, the rage of the barbarians again broke out more violently than ever.
17. And as wild beasts, which, owing to the carelessness of the shepherds, have been wont to plunder their flocks, even when these careless keepers are exchanged for more watchful ones, still cling to their habit, and being furions with hunger, will, without any regard for their own safety,
7. Novertheless, whilo engaged in amassing knowledge of this kind in all its fullness and powor, he did not despise the humbler accomplishments. He was tolerably fond of poetry and rhetoric, as is shown by the invariablo and pure clogance, mingled with dignity, of all his speeches and lettors. And he likewise studied the varied history of our own state and of foreign countries. To all theso accomplishments was added a very tolerable degree of eloquence in the Latin language.
8. l'herefore, if it be true, as many writers affirm, that Cyrus the king, and Simonides tho lyric poet, and Hippias of Elis, the niost acuia uf the Sophists, excelled as they did in memory because they had obtained that faculty through drinking å particular medicine, we must also believe that Julian in his onrly manhood had drunk tho whole cask of memory, if such a thing could ovor bo found. And theso are tho nocturnal signs of his chastity and virtuo.
9. But as for the manner in which o passod his days, whother in convorsing with eloquence and wit, or in making preparations for war, or in actual conflict of battle, or in his administration of affairs of the stato, correcting all defects with magnanimity and liberality, these things shall all be sot forth in their proper place.
10. When ho was compelled, as being a prince, to apply himself to tho study of military disciplino, having been previously confined to lessons of philosophy, and when he wus learning the art of marching in timo while the pipes were playing the Pyrrhic air, he often, calling upon the namo of Plato, ironically quoted that old proverb, “ A pack. saddlo is placed on an ox; this is clearly a burden which doos not belong to mo."
11. On one occasion, when some secretaries were introduced into the council-chambor, with solemn ceremony, to receive some gold, one of their company did not, as is tho 118ual custom, open his robo to receive it, but took it in the hollow of both his hands joined together; on which Julian said, secretarios only know how to soize things, not how to accept them.
12. Having been approached by the parents of a virgin who had been ravishod, socking for justice, bo gave sentence that the ravishor, on conviction, should be banished ; and when the parents complained of this sentence as un