vented from taking such a step by the scantiness of tha fnrcjTwhich he hm\ with him

3. At last, after thirty da^s. the barbarians retired disappointed, mumruring that they had been so vain and weak aa to attempt tho siege of such a city. It desuivoy hiiwovor to be remarked, as a most unworthy circumstance, that when Julian was 'in great personal dangor. Marcellua. the master of tho horse, who wag pouted in tho immediate neighbourhood, omitted to bring him any assistance, though tho danger of tho city itself, even if tho prince had not been there, ought to have excited his endeavours to relievo it from tho peril of a siege by so formidable an enemy.

4. Being now delivered from this fear, Julian, ever prudent and active, directed his anxious thoughts incessantly to the caro of providing that, after thoir long labours, his soldiors should havo rest, which, however brief, might bo sufficient *o mnnijt thoir ■toonath. In addition to tho exhaustion consequent on thoir toils, they woro distressed by the deficiency of. crops on the land, •which through tho frequent devastations to which they had been exposed afforded but little suitable for human food.

6. But these difficulties he likewise surmounted by his ever wakeful diligence, and a more confident hope of future success opening itself to his mind, be rose with higher spirits to accomplish his other designs.


v I 1. In tho first place (and this is a most difficult task for every one), he imposed on himself a rigid temperance, and maintained it as if he had been living under tho obligation of the sumptuary laws. These were originally brought to Borne from the edicts of Lycurgus and the tables of laws compiled by Solon, and were for a long time strictly observed. When they had become somewhat obsolete, they were To-established by Sylla, who, guided by the apophthegms of Democritns, agreed with him that it is Fortune which spreads an ambitious table, but that Virtue is content with a sparing one.

<t 2. And likewise Cato of Tusculum, who from his pure and temperate way of lifo obtained the surname of the

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equal to Ihe crimo, because the criminal had not been condemned to death, he replied, "Let tbo laws blaioe my clemency; but it is fitting that an emperor of a nvst merciful disposition should be superior to all other laws."

13. Once when he was about to set forth on an expedition, he was interrupted by several people complaining of injuries which they had received, whom he referred for a hearing to the governors of their respective provinces. And after he had returned, he inquired what had been done in each case, and with genuino clemency mitigated the punishments which had been assigned to the offences.

14. Last of all, without here making any mention of the victories in which he repeatedly defeated the barbarians, and the vigilance with which ho protected his army from all harm, the benefits which ho conferred on the Galli, previously exhausted by extreme want, are most especially cvidont from this fact, that when ho first entered tho country he found that tbnr-and-twonty nieces of gold were exacted, under tho name of tributo, in the way of poll-tax, from each individual. But when ho quitted tho country seven pieces only were required, which mado up all the payments due from them to the state. On which account they rejoiced with festivals and dances, looking upon him as a serene sun which had shone upon them after melancholy darkness.

15. Moreover we know that up to the very end of his reign and of his life, he carefully and with great benefit observed this rule, not to remit the arreare of tribute by edicts which fhoy call indulgences. For he know that by such conduct ho should bo giving something to tho rich, whilst it is notorious everywhere that, tho moment that taxes are imposed, the poor are compelled to pay thorn all at once without any relief.

16. But while he was thus regulating and governing the country'in a manner deserving the imitation of all virtuous princes, the rage of tho barbarians again broke out more v iolonjlxtJia.niver.

17. And as wild beasts, which, owing to the carelessness of the shepherds, have been wont to plunder their flocks, oven when theae careless keepers are exchanged for more watchful ones, still cling to their habit, and being furious with hunger, will, without any regard for their own safety,

7. Nevertheless, while ongagcd in amassing knowledge of this kind in all its fullness and power, he did not despise the humbler accomplishments. He was tolerably fond of pootry and rhetoric, as is shown by the invariable and pure elegance, mingled with dignity, of all his speeches and letters. And he likewise studied the varied history of our own state and of foreign countries. To all these accomplishments was added a very tolerable degrco of eloquence in tho Latin language.

8. Thoroforc, if it bo true, as many writers affirm, that C3TU8 tho king, and S'monidos tho lyric jwet, and Hippias of Elis, tho most aoulo of tho Sophists, excelled as they did in memory because they had obtained that faculty through drinking a particular medicine, we must also believe that Julian in his early manhood had drank tho whole cask of memory, if such a thing could over be found. And these aro tho nocturnal signs of his chastity and virtue.

9. But as for the manner in which ho passed his days, whether in conversing with eloquence and wit, or in making preparations fur war, or in actual conflict of battle, or in his administration of affairs of tho state, correcting all defects with magnanimity and liberality, these things shall all bo sot forth in, their propor place.

10. When ho was compelled, as being a prince, to apply himself to the study of military discipline, having been previously confined to lessons of philosophy, and when he ■was learning the art of marching in time while the pipes wero playing the Pyrrhic air, he often, calling upon the name of Plato, ironically quoted that old proverb, " A packsaddlo is placed on an ox; this is clearly a burden which does not belong to mo."

11. On one occasion, whon some secretaries wero introduced into the council-chambor, with solemn ceremony, to receive some gold, one of their company did not, as is tho usual custom, open his robe to recoive it, but took it in the hollow of both his hands joined together; 01 which Julian said, secretaries only know how to seize things, not how to accept them.

12. Having been approached by the parents of a virgin who had bcon ravished, socking for justice, ho gave sentence that tho ravisher, on conviction, should be banished; and when the parents oomplainod of this sentence as un


as if he had received a great injury, began to plot against Julian, relying upon the disposition of the emperor to open his ears to every accusation. 2. Therefore, when he departed, Eutherius, the chief chamberlain, was immediately sent after him, that he might convict him before the emperor if he propagated any falsehoods. But Marcellus, unaware of this, as soon as he arrived at Milan, began talking loudly, and seeking to create alarm, like a vain chatterer half mad as he was. And when he was admitted into the council-chamber, he began to accuse Julian of being insolent, and of preparing for himself stronger wings in order to soar to a greater height. For this was his expression, agitating his body violently as he uttered it. 3. While he was thus uttering his imaginary charges with great freedom, Eutherius being, at his own request, introduced into the presence, and being commanded to say what he wished, speaking with great respect and moderation showed the emperor that the truth was being overlaid with falsehood. For that, while the commander of the heavyarmed troops had, as it was believed, held back on purpose, the Caesar having been long besieged at Sens, had by his vigilance and energy repelled the barbarians. And he sledged his own life that the Caesar would, as long as he !' be faithful to the author of his greatness. 4. The opportunity reminds me here to mention a few facts concerning this same Eutherius, which perhaps will hardly be believed; because if Numa Pompilius or Socrates were to say any hing good of a eunuch, and were to confirm what they said by an oath, they would be accused of having departod from the truth. But roses grow up among thorns, and among wild beasts some are of gentle disposition. And therefore I will briefly mention a few of his most important acts which are well ascertained. 5. He was born in Armenia, of a respectable family, and having while a very little child been taken prisoner by the enemies on the border, he was castrated and sold to some Roman merchants, and by them conducted to the palace of Constantine, where, while growing up to manhood, he began to display good principles and good talents, becom: ing accomplished in literature to a degree quite sufficient for his fortune, displaying extraordinary acuteness in dis. covering matters of a doubtful and difficult complexion; being remarkable also for a marvellous memory, always eager to do good, and full of wise and honest counsel. A man, in short, who, if the Emperor Constantius had listened to his advice, which, whether he gave it in youth or manhood, was always honourable and upright, would have been prevented from committing any errors, or at least any that were not pardonable. 6. When he became high chamberlain he sometimes also found fault even with Julian, who, as being tainted with Asiatic manners, was apt to be capricious. Finally, when he quitted office for private life, and again when he was recalled to court, he was always sober and consistent, cultivating those excellent virtues of good faith and constancy to such a degree that he never betrayed any secret, except for the purpose of securing another's safety; nor was he ever accused of covetous or grasping conduct, as the other courtiers were. 7. From which it arose that, when at a late period he retired to Rome, and fixed there the abode of his old age, bearing with him the company of a good conscience, he was loved and respected by men of all ranks, though men of that class generally, after having amassed riches by iniquity, love to seek secret places of retirement, just as owls or moths, and avoid the sight of the multitude whom they have injured. 8. Though I have often ransacked the accounts of antiquity, I do not find any ancient eunuch to whom I can compare him. There were indeed among the ancients some, though very few, faithful and economical, but still they were stained by some vice or other; and among the chief faults which they had either by nature or habit, they were apt to be either rapacious or else boorish, and on that account contemptible; or else ill-natured and mischievous; or fawning too much on the powerful; or too elated with power, and therefore arrogant. But of any one so universally accomplished and prudent, I confess I have neither ever read nor heard, # for the truth of this judgment on the general testimony of the age. 9. But if any careful reader of ancient histories should oppose to us Menophilus, the eunuch of King Mithridates, I would warn him to recollect that nothing is really known

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