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Census of the United States, 1840.
We have received from Washington an epitome of the Census of the United States. For want of room, the insertion of the tables must be deferred till next number for the present, we insert the following summary. Unwilling to make statements founded upon the incorrect returns of the marshals, various calculations which have appeared in the newspapers from time to time, based upon them, have not been inserted. Having now the corrected returns, in our future numbers, we shall proceed to make our own calculations from them so far as respects the population-the returns of the products of the States not yet being completed.
White persons included in the foregoing, who are
Of sixty and under seventy
Of seventy and under eighty
Of one hundred and upwards
7,249,266 Total number of persons employed in mining
White persons included in the foregoing, who are insane and idiots at private charge
Prince De Joinville.
The Prince De Joinville arrived in the city of Philadelphia on Monday last, 27th ult., and was warmly greeted by a number of citizens. The Prince was welcomed at the landing by Charles Picot, Esq., acting French Consul, and two members of the committee appointed to represent the French citizens of Philadelphia. These gentlemen accompanied him to his lodgings at Jones' Hotel, on foot-the Prince declining the offer of a carriage. At four o'clock, the French citizens assembled, in pursuance of a previous call, at the residence of the French Consul, and headed by that gentleman, repaired to the Prince's lodgings, for the purpose of paying their respects. At five o'clock, a committee of the city councils, headed by the Mayor of the city, proceeded to the lodgings of the Prince, and were received at the door of his room by a committee, conducted into his presence, and then were severally introduced by Mr. Picot, the French Consul. The Mayor then welcomed the Prince to Philadelphia, in the name of the Corporation, and tendered him the hospitalities of the city. Allusion was made to the connexion of France with the early struggle for our Independence, and the debt of gratitude thence due to her. Philadelphia was always happy to receive a native of France, and especially a son of Louis Phillippe, a King who had distinguished himself by condescension and favors to Americans, and won their hearty gratitude. The Prince replied in a few words expressive of his appreciation of the civilities of the city authorities, and his gratitude for the honor done to his father. He was under orders as an officer, and was compelled to leave the city before he could enjoy any of those hospitalities proposed to him.
On Tuesday morning he visited the Navy Yard at Philadelphia, escorted by a Committee of the City Councils and a number of citizens, and was received with naval honors. On Tuesday afternoon the Prince left Philadelphia for Washington, when, after an interview with the President, he will go to Norfolk on a visit to Admiral Arnous Dessaulaiers, of the French squadron now in that harbor. Thence it is said he intends to proceed via Philadelphia to Fittsburg, on his tour to the Rocky Mountains via St. Louis; thence he proposes to return north, and ascend the Mississippi through the Wisconsin Territory to Lake Superior, taking the Lakes Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario on his way back to Boston, Albany and New York.
U. S. Gaz.
The Prince De Joinville at Washington.
The Prince de Joinville arrived at Washington on Wednesday.
The Madisonian says the President received him on Wednesday at 2 o'clock.
On Thursday he visited the Navy Yard in the President's carriage, conducted by Mr. John Tyler, jr., and Commodore Nicholson, and was received with a complimentary salute of twenty-one guns. At six o'clock he dined with the President in a large party, composed of the Corps Diplomatique, the members of the Cabinet now in this city, Lord Prudhoe, brother of the Duke of Northumberland, and Sir Henry Hart, both of the Royal Navy, and many distinguished officers of our own Army and Navy.
In the evening, several hundred invitations having been sent out, a very numerous assemblage of citizens of all parties were collected at the President's house, for whose reception all the apartments were thrown open.
A band of music from the Navy Yard was in waiting, and immediately after dinner struck up the National air of "Hail Columbia," followed by the "Parisienne," and continued to play throughout the evening, which closed with some dancing.
Taylor's Submarine Armor.
A large party of gentlemen assembled yesterday, on the invitation of the Committee of the Mechanics' Association on New Inventions, to witness an experiment by Captain The armor consists of Taylor, with his submarine armor. a dress of India rubber cloth, supported by ribs and hoops of copper ingeniously arranged so as to resist the immense pressure of the water, when lowered to any depth. A helmet or head piece of metal covers the head and shoulders of the diver, if we may call him so, and to this the other parts of the armor are carefully screwed. This helmet is large enough to contain a considerable supply of air, which is constantly renewed by means of a forcing pump at the surface of the water, connected with a long India rubber tube, the other end of which is attached to the helmet. A lantern forms a part of the apparatus, the light in which is supplied with the air which passes out from the helmet to make way for the constant fresh supply.
After Captain Taylor had dressed himself in the armor, the weight of which when in the air is very considerable, he was swung off by a whip attached to the main yard of the Columbus, and lowered to the surface of the water, where a boat was provided, in which were the forcing pump and assistants. Some delay ensued here before the experi ment could begin, but it was of such a nature as to show the safety of the apparatus, arising simply from a deficiency in the quantity of the weights provided to sink the diver, for without some ballast the machine floats with its head out of water.
Additional weights having been procured, Captain Taylor was lowered under water again, and remained for some minutes, examining the ship's bottom, and sinking to a considerable depth. The helmet which covers his head is provided with a glass window, so that he can make accurate observations of anything at whatever depth, provided he has a light in his lantern. Yesterday, by a slight defect in the apparatus, the lantern was not fully supplied with air, so that Capt. T. was not able to carry a light with him. When bottom, from which he brought up some curious specimens near the ship, however, he had suffieient light to inspect her of sea weed. After some minutes spent under water he The apparatus when above the surface appears unwieldly, was again hauled up, and his armor or shell was taken off. but the greater buoyancy of the water, renders it, we understand, easily manageable when it is sunk. Should any difficulty occur in the management of the ropes or breathing apparatus, Capt. T. by throwing off his ballast would at once rise to the surface.
The experiment was interesting as showing how far and for what purposes this machine may prove useful. Capt. Taylor deserves credit for his ingenuity in its management. An opportunity was also given by this trial, for the gentlemen who were present to examine the arrangements and accommodations of the Columbus, which, by the attention of her officers, was made very agreeable, and very gladly improved. Besides the crew of the vessel, there are now on board of her two hundred of the Naval apprentices, who are receiving an education which will make them thorough seamen. The manœuvres and appearance of these boy's form vessel.-Boston Daily Advertiser. a very interesting feature in the internal arrangements of the
We saw exhibited at the Merchants Exchange, to-day, a large mass of this metal, weighing near 1200 ounces, the produce of the Washington mine, in Davidson county, North Carolina. This is the third specimen exhibited; the quality is about 990-1000, with an addition of 10-1000, of gold. The ores of lead and silver are, we understand, very abundant, the veins having been proved from the depth of 160 We are gratified to be able to state that the whole enter- feet up to the surface. The mine is worked by an incortainment was exceedingly brilliant and agreeable, and alto-porated company, of which Wm. Blackburn, Esq. of Phigether worthy of what was in some sort, an act of national ladelphia, is the president. The cake we saw is from the hospitality. refinery of George Greenfield, Brooklyn.
The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Mr. James S. Farmer of this city, presented to The Historical Society of Pennsylvania at the last meeting of its Council, a medal struck by the British Government on the occasion of the evacuation of Rhode Island by the Americans and distributed among the Dutch sailors in the English fleet.
On one side is the plot of an island which is presumed to be that of Rhode Island. Here is perceived a score of men with guns on their shoulders traversing at a pace much exceeding double quick the Island from West to East. The height of each figure is about one-sixth of that of the whole Island. On the right are nine full and four empty boats.On the left are three ships of war, Legend, * D'vlugtende, Americaanen van Rohde Yland, Aug. 1778. On the excrgue are two palm boughs crossed at their lower extremities. On the reverse is a double decker with the English ensign displayed. Legend, † De admiraals flag, van Admiraal Howe, 1779.
This curious relic is in brass, 2 inches and two-tenths in It diameter and is utterly without merit as a work of art. is pierced with a hole in the centre and was thus by means of a ribbon attached to the jacket of the matelot decorie. The Historical Society of Pennsylvania has existed for several years and has published several volumes of transactions, which contain numerous papers in relation to the early history of this State, which are interesting to our citizens. Its President is the venerable and learned P. S. Duponceau, Esq.-as its object is to collect and preserve memorials of by-gone days-the Society will gladly receive donations of original letters and other documents as well as books, connected with the early history of this State.
Rev. Ezra Ripley, of Concord, Mass. This venerable Divine, whose death was announced in yesterday's Journal of Commerce, was the seventh Minister of the first church in that town. Concord was settled in * The flight of the Americans from Rhode Island, Au- 1635. Dr. Ripley was ordained in 1778. He was a settled gust, 1778.
The flag-ships of Admiral Howe, 1779.
Facts Relative to Arkansas Bonds.
Minister in that ancient town for 63 years. In 1828, he preached his half century sermon, which he sent me, and I have it now before me. I extract the following passages: "Grey hairs are upon those who were infants when the speaker first settled here. When I cast my eyes over the assembly that statedly worships here, I see not only many An inquiry has been made through one of the city papers new faces, but a new face on the whole. Here and there for particular information relative to the value of Arkansas only is a countenance which I beheld fifty years ago. Full Bonds; a few facts will enable us to judge of their value.well do I remember the white locks that adorned the long Arkansas owes no debt for any purpose, but bank capital. Her bank capital is all sound and available.
The bonds are drawn payable to the order of the banks, and the banks pay the interest regularly, and are legally liable for both principal and interest.
The Real Estate Bank of Arkansas has a capital of one million five hundred thousand dollars. The stock is secured by bonds and mortgages on the improved property of the citizens to the amount of three millions.
These three millions of bords and mortgages were transferred to the State as security for the one million five hundred thousand dollars of bonds bearing an interest of six per cent. By the terms of the charter no dividend can be made to stockholders until these bonds, principal and interest, are paid.
The security for these bonds is three-fold:
1st. The State is pledged, and owes no other debts. 2d. The bank capital and all its carnings. 3d. Three millions of bonds and mortgages on the best productive lands of the State.
seats which here stretched before me. Now the heads that
The UNITED STATES COMMERCIAL AND STATISTICAL REGISTER, is published every Wednesday, at No. 76 Dock street. The price to subscribers is Five Dollars per annum, payable on the 1st of January of each year. No subscription received for less than a year.—
PRINTED BY WILLIAM F. GEDDES,
Besides the faith of the State, which is the only securitySubscribers out of the principal cities to pay in advance. upon which other State bonds rest, these bonds offer two legal remedies: One against the bank capital, and the other against the three millions bonds and mortgages held by the State in trust for this purpose.-Times & Star.
No. 112 CHESNUT STREET,
Where, and at 76 Dock St., Subscriptions will be received.
COMMERCIAL AND STATISTICAL
EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD.
PHILADELPHIA, WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 13, 1841. No. 15.
Trade and Defence of the Lakes.
Petition for an armed vessel on Lake Erie.
Hon. Abel P. Upshur, Sec'y of the Navy.
It is our opinion, (and we submit it with all proper deference,) that the condition of our foreign relations, our frontier defence, and the forces of Great Britain at our doors, call for an immediate and vigorous execution of that law; and to these several points we beg to call the attention of the Executive Department.
which nothing is more important to the whole country, in event of a war with that power. Let us be once stripped of the means of control of these lakes, and millions of treasure must be appropriated, an untold amount of property destroyed, and thousands of lives sacrificed to regain it.
Second. By means of their fortifications at Malden and on Bois Blanc Island, at the outlet of the Straits of Detroit into Lake Erie, they now hold absolute control of the communication between Lake Erie and the upper lakes; and in the course of trade, there are seldom less than fifty of our largest sail vessels, and from four to eight of our best steamboats on the upper lakes thus situated. Should their passage down be interdicted by the works above referred to, they would all fall an easy prey to either of the war steamboats above mentioned. Our enemies could thus avail themselves of a fleet which they could man and arm with artillery brought through their internal communication between the bay of Quinte on Lake Ontario and Lake Simco and Lake Huron, and with this force which we ourselves had furnished, then take possession of Lake Erie and all the internal communications which lead to it.
Third. In the event of a war, our internal communications by canals, railroads and lakes would be of more value to us, used as a means of concentrating forces, moving mili
First. As to the present existing and immediately available naval and military forces on these lakes, and against which at least one armed steamboat is called for by the pub-tary stores and accelerating the movement of armies, than a lic safety; Great Britain has now in commission two steam vessels of war, the Toronto and the Minos, now lying in the Niagara river. The Toronto is over 400 tons burthen, carrying fourteen guns of large calibre, and the Minos is of about 450 tons, and carrying the same number of very heavy guns. Both are full manned and armed in all respects as vessels of war. This is of itself a powerful force, and in the face of any opposition that could now be made on the lakes, could take a position off Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, or any other city or town on Lake Erie, or the upper lakes, and destroy them at their convenience; and they would be equally efficient in preventing the construction of any armed vessels by our government after hostilities should have commenced. Besides these, are commercial vessels, owned by citizens of Canada, to the amount of several thousands of tons, that could in a very short time be armed under the protection of the guns of their fortifications, and concentrated on these lakes.
standing army of one hundred thousand men without them. And these means of intercommunication should not be permitted to be destroyed under any circumstances. Without our canals and railroads, the troops of New England would be concentrated on the western frontier, or those of the south and west on the eastern, at an enormous cost in time and money, while our enemies having command of the lakes would be able to collect their whole force at any given point in a few days. Now would it not be most reprehensible in our government to omit, in threatening times, to arm itself against a possible destruction of the Erie Canal, and the harbors on the lakes, which it would require millions of money, and what is worse, years of time to re-construct, and thus for want of a stich in time throw our country open and de fenceless into the arms of an enemy ? Let it be realized that twelve miles of this canal is on the borders of Niagara river, which together with the dam of Black Rock, from which point alone, water is drawn to supply the canal for 150 miles, are wholly at the mercy of the guns of the Minos and Toronto, and that one night's expedition of a hundred men, from Tonawanda to Lockport, could destroy the combined
years and a million of dollars, and thus render useless, utterly, the only feasible route and means of communication for military purposes between the east and west. We say, let all this be realized, before an opinion that there is no call for a naval force on the lakes should be entertained.
It will doubtless be replied, that we have on these lakes a vastly superior force of commercial craft, numerous large steamboats and hundreds of sail vessels, which could be armed and manned, and thus constitute a greatly superior force.locks at the latter place, to build which it has taken three It is admitted that we now have the craft. But it is denied that, war being commenced, we could arm or man any of them. Look at our condition. If a war should commence to-morrow, there is not a harbor on any of these lakes where these vessels would not be entirely at the mercy of these two war steamers; nor is there a fortification on any of these lakes so furnished with artillery or men, as to be able to hold out for an hour against the Minos. How insane, then, to think that our superior commercial marine would, under such circumstances, be of any service to us. On the other hand, they would be so many vessels, and good ones too, built to the hand of our enemy, who could capture them without hazard, and arm and man them in security, under the guns of their numerous fortifications. The expenditure now of a few thousands of dollars would convert this apparent, but deceptive, into a real naval superiority on these lakes-than VOL. V.-29
It is unfortunate that either with the assent or by the neglect of the government, our neighbors across the line have for years, in open disregard of treaty stipulation, menaced us with a naval armament on the lakes equal to our destruction. The public mind is excited-just fears of the disturbance of the relations of peace are entertained-confidence is destroyed, and the value of property and the results of business seriously affected. Is it not then the duty as well as policy of the government to quiet fears, and avert mischief by giving us the slight means of defence contemplated by the law re ferred to?
It has been apparent to the most casual observer of the course of events on the frontier for the last four years, that however desirous the federal government may have been to maintain our position of neutrality upon the border, her arm has been in a great measure powerless; she could neither enforce her neutrality law nor the process of her courts, and we have not escaped the censure of foreign powers for this inability to discharge our plain duty. If at the outbreak of these troubles the government had possessed such a vessel as is contemplated by the law referred to, she could hardly have failed in her duty for want of power. And certainly in time of peace, it would be the means of enabling us to enforce our regulations of neutrality up to the letter and spirit of our international obligations.
It has not escaped remark that means of protection have been dispensed by our government to the Atlantic and the lake frontier in a most unequal manner. The former, truc, is two thousand miles in extent, and splendid cities, valuable property, dear and sacred institutions, and invaluable lives, call for the protection of government from foes who are three thousand miles removed from them, but who may come near and jeopard their safety. They do not call in vain. The seaboard frowns with fortresses at the assailable points, and a gallant navy unfurls the flag of protection and security on the Atlantic seas, and a home squadron watches her bays and capes with patriotic vigilance. No doubt is felt by the departments of government in regard to the propriety of these measures of security, nor is that doubt suggested by us. But while we agree to its propriety, we desire this same government to examine the condition of the lake frontier and see if we do not justly claim a share of her parental care, at least the means and leave to protect ourselves. The lake frontier is about two thousand miles in extent, dotted thickly with cities and villages, with an internal trade, that how ever startling may be the statement, now equals the foreign trade of the country and will in a few years far exceed it, with Buffalo and Rochester and their 20,000 inhabitants each, with numerous other towns last approaching that number, and all this in the immediate vicinity of a national enemy, armed for strife and eager for its commencement, so situated that the blow would be the first intimation of the intention to strike. With all this there is not on the whole frontier a fortification so manned and armed as to be able to stand out for a day against one of the above named vessels of war.
In the event of hostilities with England, this frontier would be the chief field of strife, as will appear by a reference to the history of our late contest with that power. Canada is a position from which they could conveniently assail us, and where they would have a concentration of fearful military force. For our own protection we should be compelled to dislodge them, and the scenes of the late war would be reenacted on the same ground in a magnified form.
If no war is to be engaged in by, or forced upon us, yet the vessel is needed for the same reason that the Atlantic coast needed the home squadron. She would be a vessel useful to government, first, as a transport for troops, munitions of war and supplies between the east and west, saving to the Treasury large amounts paid annually for freight and transportation. Second. She would be very useful as a receiving ship; large numbers of sailors could be employed here in the fall season, and sent to the seaboard with despatch and economy. Third. She would be useful as a school for apprentices, large numbers of whom could be obtained in the several cities of the lakes, who, employed thus, would be of service to themselves and the country. And fourth. She could render essential aid to our commercial vessels in fall gales and turbulent weather, either on the upper lakes, where for want of sea-room and harbor improvements, in that portion of the season the navigation is more difficult and hazardous by far than any that is known on the Atlantic coast. The aid and security that would be afforded to this commerce will be better understood by looking at the extent and increase of the trade itself.
In 1824 there was one steamboat on Lake Erie and the upper lakes. In 1840 there were more than 50 steamboats on the same waters, from 100 to 750 tons burthen, averag
ing 400 tons burthen each; making in the aggregate of this class of vessels twenty thousand tons. In 1825 the number of sail vessels was 50, and in 1810 about 300, varying from 50 to 300 tons burthen, averaging about 150 tons; making an aggregate of tonnage in this class of vessels of 45,000 tons. Tonnage in steamboats and vessels, 65,000 tons, all employed in voyages that extend from four to twenty-five or thirty days. Many of these sail vessels are ships, brigs and schooners, of the best class for size, model and rig, and are all fully and profitably employed. And these steamboats are not surpassed for size, model or finish by any in America. The average cost of the steamboats is about $50,000 ; making an aggregate cost of steamboats of $2,500,000, and the average cost of the vessels is about $4,000; making an ag. gregate cost of vessels of at least $1,200,000—showing an investment in vessels for this trade of the sum of $3,700,000. The immense amount of property carried in these vessels cannot be understood without looking at the number of arrivals and departures for a year; and to show the increase, we give them from 1815 to 1840 inclusive, thus-in 1815 the number was 64; 1816, 80; 1817, 100; 1818, 100; 1819, 96; 1820, 120; 1821, 150; 1822, 200; 1823, 236; 1824, 286; 1825, 359; 1826, 418; 1827, 972; 1828, 1520; 1829, 1800; 1830, 2052; 1831, 2400; 1832, 2560; 1833, 2730; 1834, 2975; 1835, 5280; 1836, 3550; 1837, 3955; 1838, 3895; 1839, 3955; 1840, 4061. Here we find that the arrivals and departures in 1840 were 4061. We may suppose that estimating the steamboats and vessels, they would average 250 tons burthen each, and we get the aggregate tonnage of our trade for the year 1840, in the enormous amount of one million fifteen thousand two hundred and fifty tons.
In view of the premises herein minutely detailed, we humbly submit-First, That the law in question should be immediately executed by building a steam vessel of war, of ample dimensions, superior speed, and mounted with a battery of guns of large calibre. Second, That such vessel should be built at this point, where there is by far the best concentration of the means of defence that can be found on the lake; and third That she should be built under the superintendence of Capt. Stephen Champlain, who is a citizen of this place, and whose superior knowledge of the people and business of this section of the country would eminently fit him for such superintendence; and that when completed, such vessel should be commanded by the same brave and veteran officer, whose appointment to the command of the naval force of these lakes would be triumphantly vindicated by reference to the history of Perry's battle on Lake Erie, where the intrepid Capt. C. rendered such service to his country as should challenge his country's gratitude.
We therefore respectfully request that the law above referred to may be carried into immediate effect by the construction of a steam vessel of war, such as was intended by the law.
Endicott Pear Tree.
This venerable and unfailing tree has again given forth its annual product. There does not appear to be much diminution, of late years, in the quantity, or deterioration in the quality of its fruit. By an unbroken tradition in the family, it is now 211 years since it was planted by the hands of Governor Endicott! Its appearance confirms this tradition, which, upon the whole, rests upon as strong grounds of evidence, as the nature of the case authorizes us to require.-Salem Register.
On Saturday we saw a limb of a vine about four feet in length, to which was suspended no less than sixty-seven bunches of ripe grapes of the kind called "Elsenborough." They came from the garden of Mr. David Allen, of Burlington, N. J.