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condemn Portuguese ships, detained for being equipped for| slave trade, and not having slaves actually on board; and therefore, until that act came into operation on the coast of Africa, Her Majesty's vessels could not detain Portuguese slave vessels, until they had actually taken their slaves on board; but with regard to Spanish vessels, the treaty of 1835 between Great Britain and Spain gave to the mixed British and Spanish commission a power to condemn slave vessels under the Spanish flag, if found equipped for the slave trade, even though they might have no slaves actually on board; and during the period which has elapsed since that treaty has been in operation, Her Majesty's craisers have taken, and sent in for adjudication, 85 Spanish slavers without slaves on board, and since the year 1835 Her Majesty's cruisers on the coast of Africa have detained and sent in for adjudication 14 Brazillian vessels without slaves on board, and only two with slaves on board.
You will see, therefore, from these facts, that the writer of the paper in question is entirely mistaken in supposing that the British cruisers on the coast of Africa look to profit instead of the performance of their duty; and I have further to state, in proof of the zealous activity of the British cruisers, that all the slave vessels sent in for adjudication before any of the mixed commissions, whether in Africa, the West Indies, or in Brazil, have been detained and sent in by British cruisers, not one of those vessels having been detained by the cruisers or any of the other contracting parties to the treaties under the stipulations of which those slave vessels were condemned.
A. Stevenson, Esq.
Viscount Palmerston to Mr. Fox.
Foreign Office, Dec. 17, 1840.
Sir-I received your despatch, of the 1st of April last, and in compliance with the wish therein expressed, on the part of the United States Government, to be furnished with documentary evidence touching the facts disclosed in the case of the United States slave schooner Rebecca, I directed Her Majesty's Commissioners to furnish me with any evidence in their possession on the points referred to; and I now transmit to you, for communication to the United States Government, a copy of a despatch from Her Majesty's Commissioners, enclosing certified copies of papers connected with the case of the vessels abovementioned.
H. S. Fox, Esq., &c.
Imprisonment for Debt in New Jersey. The following resolutions were adopted at a meeting of Hudson County, lately held at Jersey City:
Resolved, That this meeting view imprisonment for debt as a relic of barbarism, and the legislative act authorizing the same, as a disgrace and stain upon our statute book.
Resolved, That, as by one of the articles of our Constitution, power was delegated to Congress to pass uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States, it is evident that the framers of that admirable instrument had in view, at the time of its formation, the abolishment of imprisonment for debt throughout every section of
Resolved, That the passage of the Bankrupt Law at the last session of Congress, clearly demonstrates that the people of these United States, through their representatives, have expressed a decided opinion, that imprisonment for debt is subversive of their true interests, and ought to be abolished in this land of liberty.
Resolved, That we consider it not only a sin against hospitality, but a great detriment to our prosperity as a free and enlightened people, that men who have contracted debts in other States, where they cannot be held to bail, should be daily watched for by the officers of the law, and imprisoned the moment they land upon our shores, which in fact encircles our state with a wall, calculated to prevent that freedom of intercourse with the sister States of the confederacy, so essential to our mutual welfare.
Resolved, That the inequality and diversity of the laws, in the several States of the Union on the subject of imprisonment for debt, clearly militate against the spirit of that clause of the Constitution which guarantees the same privileges to the citizens alike of all the States.
Resolved, That we consider it an insult to justice and the public sympathy, that the unfortunate debtor should be placed upon a par with the convicted criminal, and be immured within the same walls, and suffer the same privations.
Resolved, That we disavow the doctrine, that a man who sells another his goods or lends his money, can thereby obtain the power of restraining the personal liberty of his debtor, and deprive him of intercourse with his family, and of the society of his friends.
Resolved, That we honor the proud stand taken by New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Vermont, New York, and other States, in behalf of the poor and unfortunate debtor, and trust that New Jersey, whose history is illustrious for her self-sacrificing devotion to the great interests of humanity, will speedily imitate their illustrious example.
Resolved, That the State of New Jersey, among the first and foremost to pour out her best blood in achieving our glorious independence, ought not to be the last in carrying out in practice those great principles of freedom and equality, which were the polar star that guided them to the glorious result.
Resolved, That we will use all honorable means to effect the contemplated object of this meeting.
It was then further Resolved, That a Committee of Thirty be appointed to carry out the views of this meeting.
[Jersey City Advertiser.
Merchandise will be divided into four classes.
The first class comprising silks, spices, teas, cases of bonnets, fine goods, hats, shoes, &c. taken through at 50 cents per 100 lbs.
The second class comprising butter, cheese, groceries, hides, leather, hams, cotton, domestics, (carried through) for 40 cents per 100 lbs.
The third class, pork, and fresh meat in bulk, lime, marble, plaster, pig iron, lumber, salt, grain, roots, (carried through) for 32 cents per 100 lbs.
The fourth class, flour, taken through for 50 cents per barrel. The charges will be as follows, on
1st class. 2d. 3d. 4th. Boston & Albany, for 100 lbs. 50 cts. 40 cts. 32 cts. 25 c. Pittsfield 66 40 30 241 25 Springfield
27 224 161
40 30 24
Resolved, That as all men who are engaged in business, of whatever kind or character, are liable to reverses and misfortunes; and as every State that has protected its citizens, Albany & Worcester is entitled to their services, we regard those laws which are calculated to drive the unfortunate debtor from our borders, as prejudicial to our best interests.
A most invaluable invention for the saving of labor, and the cheapening of the cost of manufacturing hemp, has been made by Andrew Caldwell, of Lexington, Ky. It is in full operation in that city, and in the manufacture of bagging takes the raw material through all the processes of hackling, spinning and weaving. The machinery is very simple; and the Lexington Observer says: "Mr. Caldwell informs us that he is enabled to manufacture bagging at a cost of three cents, at the highest per yard, which is a saving of from five to sir cents over the old mode of making the article. This includes the whole cost of running the machinery, hire of hands, &c. Should he be right in his calculation, which we have no reason to doubt, then is his invention vastly superior, not only to the old mode, but to all others that have been tried. We ourself timed the loom, and it wove at the rate of thirty yards an hour; manufacturers can, therefore, form an idea of the difference between this and the old mode. At the rate of weaving which we witnessed, putting the working time at 12 hours, 360 yards of bagging a day is the result. It certainly would be a fair estimate to place the quantity at 250 yards a day-when this is compared with the old method of manufacture, by which one loom is only enabled to produce from 40 to 50 yards a day, the difference is indeed striking. According to this method, ten hands are said to be equal to from twenty to twenty-five in the old mode."-St. Louis Era.
The Big Mound.
Every one who knows St. Louis knows of the large mounds at the upper end of the city, and the speculations which have, at various times been entertained of how they were formed and for what purpose. On Sunday last some discoveries were made in the Big Mound which seem to leave no doubt that it is an artificial formation, repository for the dead, and of much more recent formation than has generally been supposed. The discoveries were made in this manner:
tion would doubtless lay bare many more subjects for speculation and wonder. The person buried was evidently an Indian, but the head being gone it is next to impossible to tell to what tribe he may have belonged. It is evident, however, from all the facts found, that this body has been interred within a period even short of the foundation of St. Louis; and from the appearance of the wood of the coffin and the other materials found, it might have been within the remembrance of some of the old citizens. At all events, it is a subject of interest to the curious, and may lead to more important discoveries as to the origin and manner of forming these and other nounds which abound in the West and by whom they were erected.
Port of Lancaster.
The arrival of the steamboat "Edward Coleman," at
Arrival of a Steamboat on the Conestoga!-Huzza. We find the following gratifying intelligence in the "Intelligencer" of yesterday:
The Steamboat "Edward Coleman," arrived yesterday at 12 o'clock, from Philadelphia, via the Susquehanna Canal and Conestoga Slackwater Navigation, and is now lying at Graeff's Landing! So that our ancient city is at last a Port of Entry! The genius of her native son, Fulton, is about to be felt practically within her own borders!
We learn that the " Edward Coleman" is a very excellent boat, and has already towed several craft across the dam, at "the mouth," now very nearly complete-performing her trips with perfect ease and great despatch. This too was done, let it be remarked, when the dam was in an unfinished state. We record this as a new era in the history of our city.
The Steamboat Troy.
The side of the Mound where the path led up to the top, This noble vessel on Thursday made her last trip for the had been washed, and exposed parts of a coffin. Some gentle-season, and the feeling manifested at the various landings men passing observed it and went to work to dig it out. upon her approach and departure for the last time, evidenced This they did, and laid bare a collin of large size containing her well earned popularity. The performance of the Troy the decayed remains of a large person. The coffin was a has certainly been more satisfactory than ordinarily occurs box made of cypress wood, wider at the head than the foot, with boats that are compelled to run day after day throughflat lid, and put together with cut nails; the lid screwed on out the season. She has made 170 successive passages bewith ordinary iron screws. We have seen a portion of the tween New York and Troy, a distance of 160 miles, each coffin containing one of the screws. We mention this to passage averaging about ten hours, excluding the time lost show that the burial was of much more recent date than has in making the landings. In 70 days and 20 hours she has been generally supposed, and the formation of at least a por- traversed more than the circumference of the carth, having tion of this mound has been made since the introduction of in that time accomplished a distance of 27,200 miles, and European manufactures into the country, yet there remains that too without accident, delay or injury to passengers, enno tradition or history of the time when or by whom they gine or boat, showing that speed is not incompatible with were made. comfort, convenience and safety; and that for the full enjoyment of all these, it is only necessary, as in the case of the "Troy," to give the travelling public a well modelled boat, gentlemanly officers, civil and obliging crew, a prudent and skilful engineer, and a pair of engines prepared to do the work required of them.-[N. Y. Courier, Nov. 27.
The coffin was placed on the top of the mound and had been buried several feet below the surface, as the foot of it, notwithstanding the washing away of the earth from the top was at least two feet below the surface. It had been laid in a horizontal position; the head to the South and the feet to the North.
The body was greatly decayed, the head entirely gone, (it is supposed the head had not been buried with the body,) and the only bones which remained in a tolerable state of preservation, were of the legs and arms. It had been wrapped in a blanket of European manufacture, portions of which remained undestroyed by the decay, and which we have seen, but much the larger portions were destroyed. By the left hand was a quantity of vermillion, which it was supposed had been placed in the hand of the corpse. On the bones of one of the wrists were two steel bracelets, very much eaten by the rust; the largest appeared to have been covered with characters, but was so corroded as to render it impossible to decipher them. In the coffin was also found the queue or hair, about a foot long and plaited, and besmeared with vermillion paint.
These are the particulars, so far as we have heard them, of the discoveries made in this instance; a further examina
According to the best calculations, there are 34,000,000 sheep in the Union. This is an increase of about 5,000,000 within the three last years. These are worth at a fair calculation $70,000,000. About one-fifth of all these, are found in the single State of New York. These sheep, at three sheep to the acre, would require 11,000,000 acres for their keep, worth $12 per acre, making the amount of 132,000,000 invested in lands.
Aggregate amount invested in sheep husbandry in the United States is
Statement exhibiting the number of American and foreign vessels, with their tonnage and crews, which entered into the United States from foreign countries, during the year ending on the 30th September, 1840.
7,2111,576,946 70,011 2,993 4,571 712,363 10,980 746 11,782 2,289,309 110,991 3,739
Statement exhibiting the number of American and foreign vessels, with their tonnage and crews, which cleared from the United States for foreign countries, daring the year ending September 30, 1840.
7,583 1,647,003 75,445 3,003 4,583 706,486 40,886 412 12,166 2,353,495 116,331 3,415
Exhibiting the number, tonnage, crews, and national character of the foreign vessels that entered into, and cleared from, the United States, during the year ending on the 30th September, 1840.
A Lynn shoemaker, writing in the Boston Atlas, gives some interesting facts, in relation to the number of shoes and boots imported from France. The quantity of boots fairly entered from France, last year, was 16,848 pairs, besides those from other countries, which is an increase of sixteen hundred per cent. in eight years; and the custom is daily becoming more common, for gentlemen to send out their measure, and order directly from the manufacturer, Owing to this, Forr's boots are now as well known in New York and Boston as in Paris.
Of ladies' shoes, the quantity imported last year was 72,432 pairs, which is an increase of more than four hundred per cent., in eight years. In this, we make no calculation for
those brought into the country in other ways than through the custom-house, which, as they are not bulky, is no doubt very large. Journal of Commerce.
A paper recently established at Meredith, N. H., called the Belknap County Gazette, describes a manufactory of shoe pegs in that place, as follows:
We found it in a full operation, and were gratified to see its wonderful simplicity, and astonishing rapidity with which wood is converted into pegs. The logs of birch wood, from six to twelve or fifteen inches in diameter, are taken into the mill and cut off by a circular saw for the length of the peg for which they are intended. The blocks then go through a planing process by which they are made perfectly smooth; they are then creased or marked off for the size of the peg
T. L. SMITH, Register.
to correspond with its length-the blocks then go through of any desirable size-the pegs then undergo the drying the splitting operation by which they are converted into pegs process, in summer by sun, in winter or wet weather by the use of a furnace they are then put into a revolving cylinder, where they are turned over and over for the purpose of polishing, and finally come out into a box like a miller's meal trough, from which they are packed into sacks containing from half a bushel to two or three bushels each, and being marked and numbered, are ready for market. These pegs are a source of revenue to our community, drawing a profit from our forests, of which we had no conception until Messers' big teams loaded with pegs from the Meredith we witnessed the operation. It is not uncommon to see Bridge manufactory. The price of the pegs varies according to their size and quality, averaging, perhaps, a little more
than two dollars to the bushel.
Death in the Pulpit.
On Sunday last, the Reverend Frederick Tuckerman, of Poughkeepsie, (N. Y.) while engaged in preaching to a congregation at Manchester, fell down in the pulpit and immediately expired. He had complained in the morning of feeling unwell, and stated to his hearers that he did not know whether he should be able to speak long, for he felt strangely. Soon after taking his text and opening his discourse he fainted, and almost immediately breathed his last. His disease was probably one of the heart. Mr. T. was formerly a preacher among the Methodists, but for several years has been connected with the Presbyterian denomination. He was 70 years old.