Sidebilder
PDF
ePub

$31,397,512 80. The expenditures for the first three quar-returns, and calculations which embrace distant periods of ters of this year, amount to $24,734,346 97. The expen- time, than on high bounties, or duties, which are liable to ditures for the fourth quarter, as estimated, will amount to constant fluctuations. $7,290,723 73 :-thus making a total of $32,025,070 70; and leaving a deficit to be provided for, on the first of January next, of about $627,557 90.

Loan of $12,000,000.

Of the loan of $12,000,000, which was authorized by Congress at its late session, only $5,432,726 88 have been negotiated. The shortness of time which it had to run, has presented no inconsiderable impediment in the way of its being taken by capitalists at home, while the same cause would have operated with much greater force in the foreign market. For that reason the foreign market has not been resorted to; and it is now submitted, whether it would not be advisable to amend the law by making what remains undisposed of, payable at a more distant day.

Tariff of Duties.

Should it be necessary, in any view that Congress may take of the subject, to revise the existing tariff of duties, I beg leave to say, that, in the performance of that most delieate operation, moderate counsels would seem to be the wisest. The government under which it is our happiness to live, owes its existence to the spirit of compromise which -prevailed among its framers-jarring and discordant opinions could only have been reconciled by that noble spirit of patriotism, which prompted conciliation, and resulted in harmony. In the same spirit the Compromise Bill, as it is .commonly called, was adopted at the session of 1833. While the people of no portion of the Union will ever hestitate to pay all necessary taxes for the support of government, yet an innate repugnance exists, to the imposition of burthens not really necessary for that object. In imposing duties, however, for the purposes of revenue, a right to discriminate as to the articles on which the duty shall be laid, as well as the amount, necessarily and most properly exists. Other wise the government would be placed in the condition of having to levy the same duties upon all articles, the productive, as well as the unproductive. The slightest duty upon some, might have the effect of causing their importation to cease, whereas others entering extensively into the consumption of the country, might bear the heaviest, without any sensible diminution in the amount imported. So also the government may be justified in so discriminating, by reference to other considerations of domestic policy connected with our manufactures. So long as the duties shall be laid with distinct reference to the wants of the Treasury, no well founded objection can exist against them. It might be esteemed desirable that no such augmentation of the taxes should take place as would have the effect of annulling the land proceeds distribution act of the last session, which act is declared to be imperative the moment the duties are increased beyond 20 per cent., the maximum rate establish.ed by the Compromise Act. Some of the provisions of the Compromise Act, which will go into effect on the 30th day of June next, may, however, be found exceedingly inconvenient in practice, under any regulations that Congress may adopt. I refer more particularly to that relating to the home valuation. A difference in value of the same articles to some extent, will necessarily, exist at different ports-but that is altogether insignificant, when compared with the conflicts in valuation, which are likely to arise, from the differences of opinion among the numerous appraisers of merchandise.In many instances the estimates of value must be conjectural, and thus as many different rates of value may be established as there are appraisers. These differences in valuation may also be increased by the inclination, which, with out the slightest imputation on their honesty, may arise on the part of the appraisers in favor of their respective ports of entry. I recommend this whole subject to the consideration of Congress, with a single additional remark. Certainty and permanency in any system of governmental policy are, in all respects, eminently desirable; but more particularly is this true in all that affects trade and commerce, the operations of which depend much more on the certainty of their

Currency and Exchanges.

At your late session, I invited your attention to the condition of the currency and exchanges, and urged the necessity of adopting such measures as were consistent with the constitutional competency of the government, in order to correct the unsoundness of the one, and as far as practicable the inequalities of the other. No country can be in the employment of its full measure of prosperity, without the presence of a medium of exchange, approximating to uniformity of value. What is necessary as between the different nations of the earth, is also important as between the inhabitants of different parts of the same country; with the first the precious metals constitute the chief medium of circulation, and such also would be the case as to the last, but for inventions comparatively modern, which have furnished, in place of gold and silver, a paper circulation. I do not propose to enter into a comparative analysis of the merits of the two systems. Such belonged more properly to the period of the introduction of the paper system. The speculative philosopher might find inducements to prosecute the inquiry, but his researches could only lead him to conclude, that the paper system had probably better never have been introduced, and that society might have been much happier without it. The practical statesman has a very different task to perform. He has to look at things as they are--to take them as he finds them-to supply deficiencies, and to prune excesses as far as in him lies. The task of furnishing a corrective for derangements of the paper medium with us, is almost inexpressibly great. The power exerted by the States to charter banking corporations, and which, having been carried to a great excess, has filled the country with, in most of the States, an irredeemable paper medium, is an evil which, in some way or other, requires a corrective. The rates at which bills of exchange are negotiated between different parts of the country, furnish an index of the value of the local substitute for gold and silver, which is, in many parts, so far depreciated, as not to be received, except at a large discount, in payment of debts, or in the purchase of produce. It could earnestly be desired that every bank, not possessing the means of resumption, should follow the example of the late United States Bank of Pennsylvania, and go into liquidation, rather than by refusing to do so to continue embarrassments in the way of solvent institutions, thereby augmenting the difficulties incident to the present condition of things. Whether this government, with due regard to the rights of the States, has any power to constrain the banks, either to resume specie payments, or to force them into liquidation, is an inquiry which will not fail to claim your consideration. In view of the great advantages which are allowed the corporators, not among the least of which is the authority contained in most of their charters, to make loans to three times the amount of their capital, thereby often deriving three times as much interest on the same amount of money as any individual is permitted by law to receive, no sufficient apology can be urged for a long continued suspension of specie payments. Such suspension is productive of the greatest detriment to the public, by expelling from circulation the precious metals, and seriously hazarding the success of any effort that this government can make, to increase commercial facilities, and to advance the public interests.

This is the more to be regretted, and the indispensable necessity for a sound currency becomes the more manifest when we reflect on the vast amount of the internal commerce of the country. Of this we have no statistics, nor just data for forming adequate opinions. But there can be no doubt, but that the amount of transportation coastwise, by sea, and the transportation inland by railroads and canals, and by steamboats and other modes of conveyance, over the surface of our vast rivers and immense lakes, and the value of property carried and interchanged by these means, form a general aggregate, to which the foreign commerce of the country, large as it is, makes but a distant approach.

In the absence of any controlling power over this subject, the State banks at a distance from the agencies, as auxiliawhich by forcing a general resumption of specie payments ries, without imparting any power to trade in its name. It would at once have the effect of restoring a sound medium is subjected to such guards and restraints as have appeared of exchange, and would leave to the country but little to de- to be necessary. It is the creature of law, and exists only sire, what measure of relief, falling within the limits of our at the pleasure of the Legislature. It is made to rest on an constitutional competency, does it become this government actual specie basis, in order to redeem the notes at the places to adopt? It was my painful duty at your last session, un- of issue-produces no dangerous redundancy of circulation der the weight of most solemn obligations, to differ with affords no temptation to speculation-is attended by no Congress on the measures which it proposed for my appro-inflation of prices-is equable in its operation-makes the val, and which it doubtless regarded as corrective of existing evils. Subsequent reflection, and events since occurring, have only served to confirm me in the opinions then entertained, and frankly expressed.

I must be permitted to add, that no scheme of governmental policy, unaided by individual exertions, can be availa ble for ameliorating the present condition of things. Commercial modes of exchange and a good currency, are but the necessary means of commerce and intercourse, not the direct productive sources of wealth. Wealth can only be accumulated by the earnings of industry and the savings of frugality; and nothing can be more ill-judged than to look to facilities in borrowing, or to a redundant circulation, for the power of discharging pecuniary obligations. The country is full of resources and the people full of energy, and the great and permanent remedy for present embarrassments must be sought in industry, economy, the observance of good faith, and the favorable influence of time.

A Plan of Finance.

In pursuance of a pledge given to you in my last message to Congress, which pledge I urge as an apology for adventuring to present you the details of any plan, the Secretary of the Treasury will be ready to submit to you, should you require it, a plan of finance which, while it throws around the public treasure reasonable guards for its protection, and rests on powers acknowledged in practice to exist from the origin of the government, will, at the same time, furnish to the country a sound paper medium, and afford all reasonable facilities for regulating the Exchanges. When submitted, you will perceive in it a plan amendatory of the existing laws in relation to the Treasury Department-subordinate in all respects to the will of Congress directly, and the will of the people indirectly-self-sustaining, should it be found in practice to realize its promises in theory, and repealable at the pleasure of Congress. It proposes by effectual restraints, and by invoking the true spirit of our institutions, to separate the purse from the sword; or more properly to speak, denies any other control to the President over the agents who may be selected to carry it into execution, but what may be indispensably necessary to secure the fidelity of such agents; and, by wise regulations, keeps plainly apart from each other, private and public funds. It contemplates the establishment of a Board of Control, at the Seat of Government, with agencies at prominent commercial points, or wherever else Congress shall direct, for the safe-keeping and disbursement of the public moneys, and a substitution, at the option of the public creditor, of Treasury .notes, in lieu of gold and silver. It proposes to limit the is sues to an amount not to exceed $15,000,000-without the express sanction of the legislative power. It also authorizes the receipt of individual deposits of gold and silver to a limited amount, and the granting certificates of deposit, divided into such sums as may be called for by the depositors. It proceeds a step further, and authorizes the purchase and sale of domestic bills and drafts, resting on a real and substantial basis, payable at sight, or having but a short time to run, and drawn on places not less than one hundred miles apart -which authority, except in so far as may be necessary for government purposes exclusively, is only to be exerted upon the express condition, that its exercise shall not be prohibited by the State in which the agency is situated.

In order to cover the expenses incident to the plan, it will be authorized to receive moderate premiums for certificates issued on deposits, and on bills bought and sold, and thus, as far as its dealings extend, to furnish facilities to commercial intercourse at the lowest possible rates, and to subduct from the earnings of industry, the least possible sum. It uses

Treasury notes, which it may use along with the certificates of deposit, and the notes of specie-paying banks, convertible at the place where collected, receivable in payment of government dues-and, without violating any principle of the Constitution, affords the government and the people such facilities as are called for by the wants of both. Such, it has appeared to me, are its recommendations, and in view of them it will be submitted, whenever you may require it, to your consideration.

I am not able to perceive that any fair and candid objection can be urged against the plan, the principal outlines of which I have thus presented. I cannot doubt but that the notes which it proposes to furnish, at the voluntary option of the public creditor, issued in lieu of the revenue and its certificates of deposit, will be maintained at an equality with gold and silver, everywhere. They are redeemable in gold and silver on demand, at the places of issue. They are receivable everywhere in payment of government dues. The Treasury notes are limited to an amount of one-fourth less than the estimated annual receipts of the Treasury; and in addition they rest upon the faith of the government for their redemption. If all these assurances are not sufficient to make them available, then the idea, as it seems to me, of furnishing a sound paper medium of exchanges, may be entirely abandoned.

If a fear be indulged that the government may be tempted to run into excess in its issues, at any future day, it seems to me that no such apprehension can reasonably be entertained, until all confidence in the representatives of the States and of the people, as well as of the people themselves, shall be lost. The weightiest considerations of policy require that the restraints now proposed to be thrown around the measure should not, for light causes, be removed. To argue against any proposed plan its liability to possible abuse, is to reject every expedient, since everything dependent on human action is liable to abuse. Fifteen millions of Treasury notes may be issued as the maximum, but a discretionary power is to be given to the Board of Control, under that sum, and every consideration will unite in leading them to feel their way with caution. For the eight first years of the existence of the late Bank of the United States, its circulation barely exceeded $4,000,000; and for five of its most prosperous years, it was about equal to $16,000,000; furthermore, the authority given to receive private deposits to a limited amount, and to issue certificates in such sums as may be called for by the depositors, may so far fill up the channels of circulation as greatly to diminish the necessity of any considerable issue of Treasury notes. A restraint upon the amount of private deposits has seemed to be indispensably necessary, from an apprehension thought to be well founded, that in any emergency of trade, confidence might be so far shaken in the banks as to induce a withdrawal from them of private deposits, with a view to ensure their unquestionable safety when deposited with the government, which might prove eminently disastrous to the State banks. Is it objected that it is proposed to authorize the agencies to deal in bills of exchange? It is answered, that such dealings are to be carried on at the lowest possible premium-are made to rest on an unquestionably sound basis-are designed to re-imburse merely the expenses which would otherwise devolve upon the Treasury, and are in strict subordination to the decision of the Supreme Court, in the case of the Bank of Augusta against Earle, and other reported cases; and thereby avoids all conflict with State jurisdiction, which I hold to be indispensably requisite. It leaves the banking privileges of the States without interference-looks to the Treasury and the Union-and, while furnishing every facility to the first, is careful of the interests of the last. But

above all, it is created by law, is amendable by law, and is repealable by law; and wedded as I am to no theory, but looking solely to the advancement of the public good, I shall be amongst the very first to urge its repeal, if it be found not to subserve the purposes and objects for which it may be created. Nor will the plan be submitted in any overweening confidence, in the sufficiency of my own judgment, but with much greater reliance on the wisdom and patriotism of Congress. I cannot abandon this subject without urging upon you, in the most emphatic manner, whatever may be your action on the suggestions which I have felt it to be my duty to submit, to relieve the Chief Executive Magistrate by any and all constitutional means, from a controlling power over the public Treasury. If, in the plan proposed, should you deem it worthy of your consideration, that separation is not as complete as you may desire, you will, doubtless, amend it in that particular. For myself, I disclaim all desire to have any control over the public mo neys, other than what is indispensably necessary, to execute the laws which you may pass.

Debts of the States.

Nor can I fail to advert, in this connexion, to the debts, which many of the States of the Union have contracted abroad, and under which they continue to labor. That indebtedness amounts to a sum not less than $200,000,000, and which has been retributed to them, for the most part, in works of internal improvement, which are destined to prove of vast importance in ultimately advancing their prosperity and wealth. For the debts thus contracted, the States are

alone responsible. I can do no more than express the belief that each State will feel itself bound by every consideration of honor, as well as of interest, to meet its engagements with punctuality. The failure, however, of any one State to do so, should in no degree affect the credit of the rest; and the foreign capitalist will have no just cause to experience alarm as to all other State stocks, because any one or more of the States may neglect to provide with punctuality the means of redeeming their engagements. Even such States, should there be any, considering the great rapidity with which their resources are developing themselves, will not fail to have the means, at no very distant day, to redeem their obligations to the uttermost farthing; nor will I doubt but that in view of that honorable conduct which has evermore governed the States, and the People of this Union, they will each and all resort to every legitimate expedient, before they will forego a faithful compliance with their obligations.

Fortifications.

From the report of the Secretary of War, and other reports accompanying it, you will be informed of the progress which has been made in the fortifications designed for the protection of our principal cities, roadsteads, and inland frontier, during the present year; together with their true state and condition. They will be prosecuted to completion with all the expedition which the means placed by Congress at the disposal of the Executive will allow.

Military Posts.

of the national defence. Every effort will be made to add
to its efficiency, and I cannot too strongly urge upon you,
liberal appropriations to that branch of the public service.-
Inducements of the weightiest character exist for the adop-
tion of this course of policy. Our extended and otherwise
exposed maritime frontier, calls for protection, to the furnish-
ing of which an efficient naval force is indispensable. We
look to no foreign conquests, nor do we propose to enter into
competition with any other nation for supremacy on the
ocean-but it is due not only to the honor, but to the se-
curity of the People of the United States, that no nation
should be permitted to invade our waters at pleasure, and
subject our towns and villages to conflagration or pillage.—
Economy in all branches of the public service, is due from
all the public agents to the people-but parsimony alone
would suggest the withholding of the necessary means, for
the protection of our domestic firesides from invasion, and
our national honor from disgrace. I would most earnestly
recommend to Congress, to abstain from all appropriations,
for objects not absolutely necessary; but I take upon myself,
without a moment of hesitancy, all the responsibility of re-
commending the increase and prompt equipment of that gal-
lant Navy, which has lighted up every sea with its victories,
and spread an imperishable glory over the country.

Post-Office Department.

The report of the Postmaster General will claim your particular attention, not only because of the valuable suggestions which it contains, but because of the great importance which, at all times, attaches to that interesting branch of the public service. The increased expense of transporting the mail along the principal routes, necessarily claims the public attention, and has awakened a corresponding solicitude on the part of the government. The transmission of the mail must keep pace with those facilities of inter-communication which are every day becoming greater through the building of railroads, and the application of steam power-but it cannot be disguised that, in order to do so, the Post-Office Department is subjected to heavy exactions. The lines of communication between distant parts of the Union, are, to a great extent, occupied by railroads, which, in the nature of things, possess a complete monopoly, and the Department is therefore liable to heavy and unreasonable charges. This evil is destined to great increase in future, and some timely measure may become necessary to guard against it.

Power of removing incumbents from office.

I feel it my duty to bring under your consideration a practice which has grown up in the administration of the government, and which, I am deeply convinced, ought to be corrected. I allude to the exercise of the power, which usage, rather than reason, has vested in the Presidents, of removing incumbents from office, in order to substitute others more in favor with the dominant party. My own conduct, in this respect, has been governed by a conscientious purpose to exercise the removing power, only in cases of unfaithfulness or inability, or in those in which its exercise appeared necessary, in order to discountenance and suppress that spirit of active partisanship on the part of holders of office, which not only withdraws them from the steady and impartial discharge of their official duties, but exerts an undue and injurious influence over elections, and degrades the character of the government itself, inasmuch as it exhibits the Chief Magistrate, as being a party, through his agents, in the secret plots or open workings of political parties.

I recommend particularly to your consideration, that portion of the Secretary's report which proposes the establishment of a chain of military posts, from Council Bluffs to some point on the Pacific Ocean, within our limits. The benefit thereby destined to accrue to our citizens engaged in the fur trade, over that wilderness region, added to the importance of cultivating friendly relations with savage tribes inhabiting it, and at the same time of giving protection to In respect to the exercise of this power, nothing should our frontier settlements, and of establishing the means of safe be left to discretion, which may safely be regulated by law; intercourse between the American settlements at the mouth and it is of high importance to restrain, as far as possible, of the Columbia river, and those on this side of the Rocky the stimulus of personal interests in public elections. ConMountains, would seem to suggest the importance of carry-sidering the great increase which has been made in public ing into effect the recommendations upon this head with as little delay as may be practicable.

The Navy.

The report of the Secretary of the Navy, will place you in possession of the present condition of that important arm

offices, in the last quarter of a century, and the probability
of farther increase, we incur the hazard of witnessing vio-
lent political contests, directed too often to the single object
of retaining office, by those who are in, or obtaining it, by
those who are out. Under the influence of these convictions,
I shall cordially concur in any constitutional measures for

i

regulating, and by regulating, restraining, the power of removal.

Smithsonian Legacy.

I suggest for your consideration, the propriety of making, without further delay, some specific application of the funds derived under the will of Mr. Smithson, of England, for the diffusion of knowledge; and which have heretofore, been vested in public stocks, until such time as Congress should think proper to give them a specific direction. Nor will you, I feel confident, permit any abatement of the principal of the legacy to be made, should it turn out that the stocks, in which the investments have been made, have undergone a depreciation.

District of Columbia.

In conclusion, I commend to your care the interests of this District, for which you are the exclusive legislators. Considering that this city is the residence of the government, and for a large part of the year, of Congress, and, considering also, the great cost of the public buildings, and the propriety of affording them at all times careful protection, it seems not unreasonable that Congress should contribute towards the expense of an efficient police. JOHN TYLER.

WASHINGTON, December 7, 1841.

Colored Settlement in Ohio.

We find in the Xenia (O.) Free Press, an interesting account of a colony of colored persons in Mercer county, Ohio,

the existence of which we were not before aware of, and respecting which we suppose but little is known out of its immediate vicinity.

The founder of the colony is Mr. Augustus Wattles, an eastern gentleman of liberal education, who five years ago made a purchase of land in Mercer county for himself and a few colored men who were befriended by him. His example and exertions in their behalf induced others of that class to purchase in the same neighborhood, which settlements have been gradually extending, until there are now 24,000 acres of as good land as any in the county owned by the colony, and new accessions are constantly taking place.

Among the settlers are some of the most wealthy and respectable colored persons from our populous cities, who live in truly independent style; others are manumitted and selfransomed slaves who have purchased their freedom, who generally own small farms of forty or eighty acres, on which they live in comfortable houses.

[blocks in formation]

Securities (Arkansas six per cents)... 28,000

Bank of Watertown-Circulation

Securities (bonds and mortgages).... 36,192 47
Arkansas six per cents.

Illinois six per cents

A Strong Team.

45,000
1,000

The general character of the colonists thus associated, for honesty and industry, is favorably spoken of, and the truly creditable fact that ardent spirits are prohibited among them, speaks well for their habits of sobriety. Most of them are likewise professors of religion. The improvements which have been made in the settlement, during the short period which has elapsed since its establishment, are spoken of as The locomotive Orange, left the depot in this village on equal, if not superior, to those in any other portion of the adjacent country, and their fine breeds of cattle, excellent Tuesday night, with the Eleazer Lord, eight freight and two fences, and good dwellings, excite the surprise and admira-passenger cars. The whole train was fastened together with a brakeman at each car, and made a beautiful appearance. The Orange is a powerful engine, and it was believed, would be able, with the assistance of the Eleazer Lord, to ascend the steepest grade with the immense freight without difficulty.

tion of travellers.

A good school has been in operation since the commencement of the settlement, and Mr. Wattles has likewise cstablished a higher institution-or college, as it is termed― large enough for the accommodation of one hundred scholars, at which colored youths have an opportunity of acquiring a good education, paying their board by their own labor.There is a farm of one hundred and ninety acres attached to the school, in a forward state of improvement. Some progress has been made in the cultivation of mulberry trees for the purpose of making silk.

The letter from which we gather the above facts, also mentions that Mr. Charles Moore, a colored man, has lately laid out a town which he calls Carthagena. It is situated on the head waters of the Beaver, about three miles south of the Grand Reservoir, and seven from the county seat of Mercer county. The country so far is as healthy as any part of the State. Colored mechanics, masons, carpenters, &c., are at work erecting buildings both in that town and at the county seat.-Buffalo Journal.

the items of freight sent down on Tuesday, as follows— Since the above was in type, we have been furnished with

[blocks in formation]

Account of Cold Winters.

For Hazard's Commercial and Statistical Register. Mr. Editor:

A few years since, I published in the United States Gazette, an account of the coldest winters of which we have any record, either in manuscript or print, and which I acquired after the most diligent research of many months, having had recourse to libraries and records both ancient and modern, public and private. The publication excited a great deal of interest at the time. All the extra papers were purchased immediately, and hundreds more would have found a ready sale. Since the publication here referred to, I have been repeatedly solicited to re-publish the same; as many persons are desirous of preserving and handing it down to their children, and children's children, that they may know what

In 1620, the sea between Constantinople and Iskodar was passable on the ice.

In 1670, the cold was so intense in England, France and Denmark that the Little and Great Belt were frozen, and many persons perished.

In 1681, the cold was so great in England and Russia as to split and destroy whole forests of oak trees.

In 1692, the cold was so intense in Vienna that the halfstarved wolves left their lurking places and came into the city, and attacked men, women and cattle.

In 1776, the Danube was frozen five feet thick below Vienna.

In England, the Thames was frozen below Gravesend in 1683, 1709, '16, '39, '42, '54, '60, '63, '84 and '89, when it was crossed opposite the Custom House; and the intense cold extended through Europe.

Cold Winters in the United States. On the 11th of December, 1681, the Delaware froze en

kind of weather there has been, in gone-by years and centu-tirely over in one night, and the winter was very severe. In 1697, loaded sleds passed on the Delaware from Philaries; and as I know of no periodical so well calculated to delphia to Chester. preserve statistical information as your United States Commercial and Statistical Register, I take the liberty of sending you the following for insertion therein.

[blocks in formation]

In the United States, and particularly in this latitude, we scarcely know what intensely cold weather is, for any length of time. In some parts of this planet, however, it has been so cold that the number of degrees could not be ascertained, as mercury freezes at 40 below 0, or zero, and spirits of wine had not been introduced as a substitute.

In the Christian era, 301, the cold was so intense that the Black Sea was entirely frozen over.

In 401, the Pontus Sea was entirely frozen over, and the sea between Constantinople and Scutari, in Turkey.

In 462, the Danube was completely frozen over, so that a whole army crossed over upon the ice. In 762, the Dardanelles and Black Sea were again frozen over, and the snow drifted to the depth of fifty feet!

In 859, carriages passed on the Adriatic Sea; and in 860, the cold was so intense that cattle froze to death in their stalls.

In 860, the Mediterranean Sea, between Asia, Africa and Europe, was so thickly frozen that it was passable with carriages and vehicles to transport merchandise. It was frozen in like manner in 1234.

In 1067, the cold was so intense in Germany that many travellers perished on the road.

In 1133, the cold was so great in Italy that the Po was frozen from Cremona to the sea; the wine burst the casks, and the trees split with an immense noise.

In 1216, the river Po again froze to the depth of sixteen feet, and the wine casks burst.

In 1234, a pine forest was killed by the cold in Italy. In 1282, the houses in Austria were buried in snow, and vast numbers of persons perished.

In 1292, the Rhine was frozen, and snow fell to a frightful depth.

Also, the same winter, sleighs and sleds passed from Boston to Nantasket.

In December, 1704, snow fell to the depth of three feet; the Delaware closed, and the whole winter was intensely cold.

In 1717, there was the greatest snow storm ever experienced since the settlement of this country. The quantity or depth our pilgrim fathers did not mention in their record. We suppose they were not so particular in those days as we

are now!

In March, 1725, snow fell in one night to the depth of two feet.

In the winter of 1728, the Delaware was closed by thick ice for three months.

The winter of 1737 was intensely cold. Many persons froze to death.

The winter of 1740, the Delaware was closed by ice till the 14th of March.

The winter of 1741 was intensely cold. Many cattle and deer were found frozen to death. Bread stuff and provisions were so scarce, that many persons in this State subsisted on the deer found dead. As late in the spring as the 19th of April, the snow was three feet deep.

In 1742, a gentleman drove a horse and sleigh on the ice from near Hell-gate, (New York) through the Sound to Cape Cod; and on the 4th of February, 1780, cannon were taken on the ice from New York city down to Staten Island.

The winter of 1750 was open, but the spring months were very cold; as late as the 30th of May there was considerable snow in the country.

On the 31st of December, 1764, the Delaware was frozen from shore to shore in one night, and the winter was severely cold. The snow fell on the 28th of March, to the depth of two feet and a half.

The winter of 1771-72 was intensely cold. The Delaware was closed three months, and as late in the spring as the 2d of April, a great quantity of snow was upon the ground.

On the 9th of January, 1773, the mercury was 9 degrees below 0. There was much snow and cold weather until the 10th of March.

1780-a memorable cold winter. The ice in the Delaware three feet thick, and continued fast three months and a half. Squirrels and partridges were found frozen to death.

The winter of 1779-80 was the most severe ever known in America, Long Island Sound was frozen over and the

In 1294, the sea between Norway and Denmark was fro- Chesapeake was passed with loaded sleds and sleighs at Anzen so thick as to be travelled upon to Jutland.

In 1323, the Baltic was frozen so as to be passable with horses, &c., for six weeks. It was again frozen in 1349, 1402 and 1408.

In 1423, '26 and '59, the ice bore riding upon from Lubec to Prussia.

In 1341, all the rivers in Italy were again frozen.

napolis. The ice in the Delaware was three feet thick. The winters of 1785, '84 and '85 were also severely cold. December 26, 1788, the Delaware was completely closed by ice, and so continued until the 18th of March.

The winter and spring of 1789, were severely cold. Fires were necessary until the 1st of June, after which the weather became intensely warm, and continued so into autumn.

In 1384, the Rhine and Scheldt, and even the Sea of On several mornings in the months of July and August the Venice were frozen.

mercury rose to 96, in the shade, by 10 o'clock, and the

« ForrigeFortsett »