« ForrigeFortsett »
story brick building erected on the north side of Cherry near Tenth streets. About seventy pupils are now receiving instruction, under the charge of two teachers, in the ordinary branches of an English education and in sewing.
The good example set by these benevolent ladies, was followed by the other sex; and in 1799, a school for boys was undertaken by a few active and disinterested young men; among whom were William Nekervis, Philip Garrett and Joseph Briggs. A night school was first opened, and instruction given by the members. In the following year the society was enlarged, and in 1801 re-modelled under the title of "The Philadelphia Society for the Establishment and Support of Charity Schools."
The members of the society rapidly increased, and an act of incorporation became necessary. It was hastened in consequence of the death of the benevolent Christopher Ludwick, formerly superintendent of bakers and director of baking in the Revolutionary Army.* He left the residue and remainder of his estate, which he estimated at three thousand pounds, to an institution and free school, to be established in the City or Liberties of Philadelphia, for the schooling gratis of poor children of all denominations, in the City and Liberties of Philadelphia, without any excep. tion to the country, extraction, or religious principles, of their parents or friends. It was a matter of great importance to the society to obtain this legacy. They had strong competitors in the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, who were equally desirous to procure it. That party which should first obtain a charter would succeed. Every effort was made by both. Charters were prepared and submitted to the Attorney General, and to the Judges of the Supreme Courts, and were duly examined and approved. The Judges, having had an intimation of the state of the case, were particular in delivering the charters to the respective parties at the same time. They proceeded to and met at the mansion of Governor McKean, at the corner of Third and Pine streets. He, also aware of these facts, having given his approval, delivered to each party his charter at the same moment. So far neither had any advantage; but another step was requisite the enrollment of the charters; and the Rolls office was at Lancaster. The day was hot; (it was July ;) the roads dusty; the journey long. Noon was approaching. The Trustees had provided an express. The interests of the society were confided to Joseph Bennett Eves, Esquire, one of its most zealous members. He set off himself in a sulky-passed the express rider-reached Lancaster between 7 and 8 o'clock in the evening, and had the charter inrolled without delay. The society received about irteen thousand dollars from Mr. Ludwick's estate; other legacies have since been received. The Board of Managers, in their last report, January, 1841, speak in high terms of the present condition of the schools under their care; (one for boys and one for girls ;) and state, that since their establishment, upwards of 12,500 pupils have been educated in them.
Another Society was established in September, 1807, at the instance of Thomas Scattergood and some other benevolent individuals, under the title of "The Philadelphia Association of Friends for the instruction of poor children."
The first school was opened for white boys at the corner of Moravian and Watkin's alley. In 1809, it was removed to a new building erected by the Association in Pegg strect, and was continued there for about nine years, under the name of the Adelphi School. It was conducted on the Lancasterian plan, and was generally known as the Sand School, from the circumstance of the pupils being first taught to write in sand. In 1812, a girls school was opened in the same building. On the 29th of July, 1818, the schools were suspended, and the school house rented to the Directors of the Public Schools. From the opening of the school in Moravian alley to 1818, about 2700 pupils had enjoyed the advantages of the institution.
In 1825 the association opened a school for colored children in Cherry street, and in 1832 removed it to a building
* He died on the 17th of June, 1801, at the advanced age of eighty.
they had erected for that purpose, situate in Wager street; where they have an infant and girls school.
On the 4th of April, 1809, the Legislature passed an Act to provide for the education of the poor, gratis. The Assessors were required to return to the County Commissioners the names of those children whose parents were unable to pay for their education. After the list had been examined, and the selection made by the County Commissioners, notice was to be given by the Assessors to the parents of the pupils, and to the Teachers within the Township, Ward, or District. The Teachers were required to admit and teach all such children as other children were taught, and charge the county with the amount. This law was defective in its provisions and oppressive in its operation, and did not accomplish the object designed.
On the 31st of March, 1812, a supplement was passed, by which the County Commissioners were required to fix upon the Teachers and price of tuition, and furnish the pupils with books and stationery. The County Commissioners were authorized, if they thought the public good, or the education of the pupils, would be promoted, to establish public schools in such manner, and under such regulations as the Select and Common Cour.cils of the City of Philadelphia, and the respective Boards of Commissioners of the Township of the Northern Liberties and District of Southwark should approve. The provisions of this act were confined to the City of Philadelphia, the District of Southwark, and Townships of the Northern Liberties, Penn, Moyamensing and Passyunk. Neither did this Act produce the desired effect; it also was partial in its operation, and expensive; neither was there any proper supervision of the pupils, nor check upon the Teachers.
We are now, however, approaching a period which gave a new direction to the management of public education. In the Winter of 1816-17, distress to a considerable extent, prevailed among the poorer classes of our city and the adjoining districts. A meeting was held at the countinghouse of the late venerable philanthropic Robert Ralston, to devise means for their relief. Measures were promptly and successfully adopted for this purpose. It became apparent to those engaged in this laudable undertaking that something further should be done—and the Society for the promotion of Public Economy was established.
Various committees of the society were appointed; one of them on public schools. Of this committee, the late lamented Roberts Vaux was Chairman, Jonah Thompson was Secretary, and William Fry, John Claxton and Thomas F. Leaming were active members. In October, 1817, the Committee made a report, accompanied by the draft of a bill.
On the third of March, 1818, the act to provide for the education of children at public expense, within the City and County of Philadelphia, was passed. This act is justly considered the basis of the present system of public educa tion. It erected, as you are aware, the City and County of Philadelphia into a school district, and subdivided it into sections; established a Board of Control for the general regulation of the district, and of Directors of the different sections, for the more immediate supervision of the schools in their respective sections. The act directed that the schools should be on the Lancasterian system.
On the 6th of April, 1818, the Board of Control was organized. Two schools were opened in Southwark, two in Moyamensing, two in the Northern Liberties, one in Penn Township, and a model school, under the charge of Joseph Lancaster, in the City. The first report of the Board bears date the 11th of February, 1819; at which time upwards of two thousand eight hundred children were enjoying the benefits of instruction in these schools.
The annual expense of each pupil under the Act of 1812, averaged about eleven dollars; under the new system it was reduced to seven dollars and forty three cents.
At the close of the year 1828, there were twenty schools ber of pupils had increased to 4297; which, with 760 taught on the Lancasterian plan in the first district, and the numin the country parts of the district, made the whole number 5057.
The cause was now steadily gaining ground. The suc
cess which had already crowned the exertions of its friends, animated them to renewed efforts. A society was formed for its advancement. The Governors called the attention of the Legislature to it; and Committees of both houses of the General Assembly made reports in favor of extending its advantages to the whole Commonwealth.
On the 2d of April, 1831, an Act was passed for the establishment of a general system of education; a common school fund was provided, and the Secretary of the Commonwealth, the Auditor General, and the Secretary of the Land office, appointed Commissioners, for the management of it. On the 19th day of Dec., 1831, Roberts Vaux, who had presided over the Board of Control since its organization, resigned his situation. The Board, justly appreciating his valuable services, and generous devotion in advancing the system of public instruction, addressed him a communication, from which the following is an extract. "A long course of faithful, judicious, and unremitting attention to the interests of the public school system of this district, prompted by the purest motives, and sustained by unwearied zeal, entitles you to the respectful gratitude of the community for which you have successfully labored; while a frank and dignified intercourse, and an independent discharge of your duties in this Board have conciliated and secured the esteem and attachment of your colleagues." Thomas Dunlap succeeded Mr. Vaux, and brought with him the same ardent zeal that animated his predecessor.
The Directors and Controllers became satisfied that some improvements could be advantageously introduced with respect to the instruction of young children. The infant school society had existed several years. It was instituted in 1827 by those who are always ready to promote whatever is calculated to alleviate the sufferings, or increase the happiness of their fellow creatures. They who founded, still sustain the society, with all that unobtrusive and persevering energy which distinguishes the female character.
With unwearied diligence, unexhausted patience, and undiminished ardor they have toiled and struggled to support the schools under their care. Their exertions are, no doubt, well known to you, and show how much benefit may be conferred with very scanty means.
In the year 1832 a model infant school was established, and during the year 1834, four others two in the city and two in the county. The benefit of these schools was so manifest, that it became a matter of serious consideration whether it would not be advisable to establish a number of primary, in which children should be prepared for the higher schools.
On the first of April, 1834, an act was passed to establish a general system of education by common schools. The Secretary of the Commonwealth was appointed Superintendent of them. This act was found to be defective in many particulars; and on the 13th of June, 1836, a supplement was passed, which is now in operation. By this supplement the benefits of the public schools were extended to all children over 4 years of age; the Lancasterian system was not rendered obligatory and the Board of Control were authorized to establish a Central High School.
During the years 1836 and 1837, many and important changes took place. The monitorial system was dispensed with, and assistant teachers employed. After mature consideration, it was determined to open thirty primary schools and in the following year, the number was increased to sixty. These schools were placed under the direction of female teachers. In all the girls' schools throughout the district, the Principals and Assistants were females. It was now proposed that the Assistants in the boys' schools might also be females. The proposition, after some hesitation, was agreed to; and all the Assistants in the boys' schools, in the city, and in most of those of the county, now are females. The result has been most satisfactory; and while the public good has been promoted, honorable employment has been afforded to those whose sphere of usefulness has been too circumscribed. The gentleness of the female character could not fail to produce a salutary influence on the manners of the pupils; and they are stimulated to exertion by the example, and encouraged by the precepts of their instructors.
The establishment of a Seminary, in which the most dis. tinguished pupils should have an opportunity of obtaining instruction in the highest branches of education, was a desideratum. Without it the system did not appear to be complete. Such an institution, as we have already seen, seems to have been contemplated soon after the settlement of the colony.
The distribution of the public funds, it was supposed, would afford the means of accomplishing this design, without increasing the public burdens. The controllers, therefore, determined on the foundation of a High School. It was commenced in September, 1857, and opened in 1838, under able Professors. The pupils were selected from the public schools; and in admissions, merit was the only passport.There are three courses, viz:
THE FIRST, or English Course, limited in duration to two years, includes the following branches :-English Grammar, Reading, Speaking and Composition, Geography, History, Moral Instruction, Arithmetic, Elementary Algebra and Geometry, the Elements of Natural Philosophy and Natural History, Writing and Drawing. This course is recommended for pupils whose services will perhaps be required by their parents in about two years after entering the High School. It is complete in itself, as far as the time which the pupil can devote to his education, permits, and is, therefore, much to be preferred to taking merely a part of the oth
THE SECOND, or Principal Course, will comprehend English Grammar, the Elements of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, Reading, Speaking and Composition, Geography and History, the French Language, Lower and Higher Mathematics, the Elements of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, Natural History and its kindred subjects, the Principles of Moral, Mental, and Political Science, Writing and Drawing. Instruction in Spanish may be added, if desired, but will not be included in the regular course. As the instruction in some of these branches, will only begin in the latter years of the pupil's stay at the High School, it is earnestly recommended, that unless it is probable that he will remain during the whole four years at the school, this course be not selected by the parent. This Principal Course is intended as a preparation of the pupil for pursuits connected with trade, or commerce, manufactures, or the mechanic arts; and as a general introduction to the special studies which may be required for the particular pursuit of the individual.
THE THIRD, or Classical Course, to occupy four years, and embracing instruction in Latin and Greek, with a considerable portion of the English and Scientific studies enumerated in the principal department. It is recommended to those parents who wish their sons to enter College, after passing through the High School, or who prefer this kind of intellectual training for their children.
At the close of the year 1839, the Controllers had the good fortune to procure the services of the distinguished gentleman who now presides over the school. Our limits forbid us entering into further details, and we refer to Dr. Bache's interesting reports.
The distresses of the country, and the exhausted condition of the national treasury, deprived the Board of those resources which, it was expected, would fully sustain the school. It therefore became absolutely necessary that others should be provided, or that the school should be closed.— The former course was adopted. If there be any of our fellow citizens who do not approve of that course, we ask them to visit the school and contemplate that bright band of youths, who, with generous ardor are pressing forward in a career, calculated, we hope, not only to lead them to distinction, but to shed glory upon our common country.We venture to assert that the cost of tuition in this school, is lower than any other in the United States, where the same branches are taught; and without it, the great majority of the pupils would have had no opportunity of obtaining such an education as they are now receiving.
We have thus far endeavored to give a slight sketch of the progress of education in our county; and will take a rapid glance of its progress in the State.
The Act of Assembly, establishing a general plan of education, divided the State into Districts; and appropriated $100,000 in addition to the $100,000 received from the Bank of the United States. The amount was to be distributed annually among the Districts, in proportion to the taxable inhabitants.
On the 2d day of March, 1835, the Superintendent submitted his first report, The report is brief; for the time since the law went into operation was too short to allow him to receive much information. On the 5th of December, 1835, the second report was made; and on the 20th of February, 1836, a supplemental report. The number of School Districts was... Do Accepting Districts, Non-accepting,
The expense of tuition was therefore somewhat diminished.
of school districts was....
While we observe with pleasure the rapid increase of scholars, we cannot but regret that the schools are not kept open during the whole year; that the building and furniture are not more suitable; and that more efficient teachers are not employed.
It is the most miserable economy to commit the instruction of the young to incompetent persons; and thus recklessly allow the waste of that which
"Is of more worth than kingdoms; far more precious
When we consider the paltry compensation which is granted
.$19 39 per month.
According to the school census for the year 1839-40, the whole number of children in the State of Massachusetts, between 4 and 16 years of age, was............. ...... 179,268 The average attendance during the summer of that year, was..
Under 4 years of age,..
Total, Deduct those over 16, and under 4 years of age, and the average attendance in winter, will be.. Do. summer, Estimated number of children who receive their education in private schools and academies,.... 12,000 Number of children who attend the schools, compared with the number who are dependent on them for education, in winter, ten seventeenths; in summer, a small fraction over one half.
Amount received by taxes, for teachers' salaries
Number of children instructed in the Common Schools in 1839, 572,995.
Average term during which the schools were kept open, (in 1839,) was 8 months.
In all the cities, the schools were kept open during the whole year, with occasional vacations, not exceeding a month in the whole.
Number of children between 5 and 16 years of age in the city of New York,..
Venerating learning, they will impress on the minds of those committed to their charge, the importance of acquiring it. Ardent votaries themselves, they will infuse a corresponding zeal into the bosoms of their young disciples. Exerting every energy to discharge, with fidelity and success, the important duties confided to them, they will justly entitle themselves to the thanks of the community. Such teachers are wanted, and such must be had.
Let us now pause for a moment, and examine the present condition of public education in our District. Many difficulties attended its introduction; but they were met with firmness and gradually surmounted. The privilege of sending a child to a public school, was at first viewed with indifference; it is now embraced with eagerness. In the commencement, the public schools were inferior to the private; now they are unsurpassed by any, and are justly ap preciated. The system has been modified; Monitors have been dispensed with, and succeeded by competent Assistants. The character of the schools has been elevated. A moral influence is exerted over the scholars, which has rendered resort to corporal punishment almost unnecessary.— Instead of confined apartments and inconvenient furniture, you have commodious buildings with all proper accommodations. At the very commencement of the present system in Philadelphia, great care was taken in the selection of sites, and in the construction of the school houses.
improvements have been from time to time adopted, as experience has pointed out.
Libraries of well selected books have been provided for the scholars.
A well chosen philosophical apparatus affords the teachers a delightful medium of imparting instruction. In the choice of school books no pains have been spared to procure the very best.
The scholars, with few exceptions, really love their school, and value the high privileges they enjoy. How cheering to behold their animated countenances, radiant with hope, and beaming with intelligence; and to reflect that the lessons they are receiving, are calculated to make them industrious enterprising, and useful citizens.
These schools are founded on true republican principles.
the same footing. The children of the wealthiest and humblest citizens, seated side by side, have the same rights and, enjoy the same privileges. While the schools have been so greatly improved, the price of tuition has not been much increased; the average cost of the tuition of the scholars in the Primary, Infant, and Grammar schools, taken together, being about five dollars each per annum. The whole number of pupils now in the public schools in the first district, including those about to be admitted into this building, will exceed 24,000. As the schools have advanced in public favor in Philadelphia, so have the standing and influence of the teachers. This is as it should be; holding so responsible and arduous an office, they are justly entitled to great consideration, and a liberal return for their services,
We do not pretend to say that the system is yet perfect; but we may venture to assert that the present Directors and Controllers possess as much zeal and singleness of purpose as their predecessors. Some of those who took an early and active part in the advancement of the cause, still remain to aid us. Two, however, have recently retired - Mr. Thomas Dunlap and Mr. George M. Justice. Of the former I have already spoken. To Mr. Justice the public are largely indebted for his valuable services.
If we compare the past with the present, we have abundant reason to be thankful that so much has been achieved. In the beginning of 1819, there were ten schools, with two thousand eight hundred and forty-five pupils. The branches taught were reading, writing and arithmetic. In the beginning of 1841, there are fifty-six primary schools, six infant, thirty-seven grammar, and one high school. In the grammar schools, in addition to reading, writing and arithmetic, grammar, geography, and history are taught, in several, algebra, and in some, natural philosophy. The instruction now given, is not only much more extended, but far more perfect. We have good reason to believe that our schools would bear a favorable comparison with those of Europe, or other sections of our own country. Our high school has undoubtedly produced a very advantageous influence on the grammar schools, in stimulating both teachers and pupils to exertion. The success of the pupil is alike creditable to the scholar and the teacher. To gain admission into the high school is worthy of every exertion. The desire to obtain the prize, produces unwearied application, and generous emulation in the pupils.
The consciousness of having faithfully discharged the high trust reposed in them, and the success which has attended their labors, amply repay the Directors and Controllers for all their cares and toils.
seeing the ground, is by going into the cellar with a light. These items will answer as references hereafter."
There was frost in this city on the mornings of the 3d, 4th and 5th, and some rain fell on the 1st, 2d, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 13th and 14th, when there followed fifteen warm and splendid Summer days, with mercury ranging from 66 to 86. It will be recollected that 76 is Summer heat, and all above is extra heat. On the 25th there was a thunder shower. On the 26th, 27th and 28th, there were several warm showers. 30th and 31st, the wind was easterly, and the atmosphere cool. Never, perhaps, did vegetatioe advance more rapidly than it did from the 15th to the close of the month.
The Germantown (Pa.) newspaper of last week, says: "The country never looked more charmingly than now. The late rains having given place to mild, balmy weather; vegetation has put forth all its energies to make up for the cold, unpropitious weather, which so long lingered in the lap of Spring, and retarded its progress." Other papers from the country speak a similar language.
The average temperature of the whole month was 58, viz: at sunrise, 51; at 2 o'clock, 68; and at 10 P. M., 56. The average of the corresponding month of last year was 61. The quantity of rain which fell during the month, was 3 inches. That which fell in May, 1840, was 2 inches. Since the first of January, there has fallen 25 inches in this city, which is an unusual quantity; and if we may judge from former years, we have reason to believe, that we shall have much dry and hot weather during the Summer and
Atlantic Steamers.-The President sailed from New York, on the 11th of March, (more than three and a half months ago) and not one word of intelligence, in which implicit confidence can be placed, has been heard from her since, is a melancholy and distressing fact. There seems now to be but one opinion, which is, that some awful calamity has befallen her, and that every person who was on board, (109 in number) have perished! Not one spared to tell the woful tale! A London paper of May 3d, says, "that this noble ship has foundered, there can scarcely be a doubt. She was the largest steamer ever built, being 2360 tons, and 540 horse power. Among the passengers and officers, there were some of exalted worth. We have no doubt it will gratify the public to have a list of the passengers, which are as follows:
Rev. George G. Cookman, Edward Barry, J. C. Roberts. J. Leo Wolf, J. C. Pleffel, A. R. Warburg, Samuel Mails, A. Livingston, Mr. Thorndill, Mr. Mohring, D. F. Lenox, M. Courtney, T. Powers and servant, C. H. D. Miesegaes, Charles Cadett, T. Palmer, Dr. Lorner, T. Blancher, J. Fraser, H. Van Lohe, Jr., A. S. Byrne, W. W. Martin, P. Doucher, B. Morris and child, B. B. Howell and friend.This friend was Mrs. Howell, who was married one hour previous to the sailing of the President. 28 passengers, and 81 officers and crew.
The Great Western sailed from New York on the 1st of May, for Bristol, (Eng.) with ninety-three passengers.
Review of the Weather, etc., for May, 1841, It will, perhaps, long be remembered by the present generation, that in the year 1841, there was, comparitively, no spring. Winter commenced on the 15th of November, and continued until the 15th of May, when Summer ushered in upon us all at once. Although it was a six month's winter, yet it was not a very cold one. In no instance did the mercury sink as low as zero in this vicinity. We had many snows, The Columbia sailed from Boston on the 1st of May, for but none very deep. There were three snows in November; Liverpool via Halifax, with fifty-eight passengers. eleven in December; four in January; seven in February; The Britannia arrived at Boston on the 6th of May, in nine in March; four in April, and one in May-total, thirty-fifteen days from Liverpool via Halifax, with eighty-seven nine. The number of rainy, cloudy, and clear days, we published in the United States Gazette of May 3. Our latitude has fared much better than the more notherly and easterly ones, as may be seen by the following:
An Albany paper of May 4, says: "Winter is upon us in all its power. It commenced snowing on the 2d, and continued until yesterday noon. We hear that it fell to the depth of eighteen inches in Rensselaer and Grafton counties." A Boston paper of May 3, says: We had a brisk snow storm, which commenced about midnight, and continued until noon to day. This is truly winter lingering in the lap of May; at least, Miss May had a lap full of Winter." The newspapers of Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Vermont and Maine, gave similar accounts. The Bangor (Maine) paper of May 1, says: "The snow in our woods is now two feet deep. For five months, the only chance we have had of
passengers; and left again on her return voyage, on the 16th, with eighty-three passengers.
The Caledonia arrived at Boston on the 19th of May, in fourteen days and a half from Liverpool via Halifax, with forty-three passengers; and left again on her return voyage, on the 1st of June, instant.
Philadelphia, June 1, 1841.
C. P. [United States Gazette.
Mortality among the Shipping.
In May, 1812, there were 29 ships, 1 barque, 28 brigs, 11 schooners, and 26 sloops, making 95 vessels of all classes, belonging to Providence, R. I. Amount of tonnage, 14,114. Of the above number, the brig Gov. Hopkins, which cleared at Bristol, 17th inst. for Atlantic Ocean, on a whaling voyage, is stated in the Providence Jonrnal to be the only one afloat,
DEPARTMENT OF WAR, June 26, 1841.
The Secretary of War, in the discharge of a painful duty, announces to the army the death of Major General Alexander Macomb, their late General in chief.
It were but a small tribute to his memory to say that in youth and manhood he served his country in the profession in which he died, during a period of more than forty years, without a stain or blemish upon his escutcheon. The spotless purity of his life was not less conspicuous than his patriotism and devotion to the service. Though bred a soldier, and always an advocate of a proper degree of rigor in maintaining the discipline of the army, his heart was still open to all the benevolent sensibilities of our nature; nor were his success and good fortune below his personal deserts. Entering the army in his youth as a cornet, he passed honorably through every grade of command to the highest attainable in his profession. In the progress of his long career, besides the various occasions of ordinary occurrence which called forth the exercise of his active talents as an officer, the late war with Great Britain afforded him an opportunity of signalizing his skill and gallantry in a more eminent degree; and he availed himself of it in a manner which entitles him to be enrolled high in the list of that distinguished and heroic band of commanders, by land and sea, who have achieved so much for the honor and glory of their country. A grateful people, speaking through their constituted authorities, were prompt to acknowledge their lively sense of the value and importance of his services, while living; nor will they fail to manifest correspondent feelings of sorrow and regret upon the occasion of his death. The army will cherish his memory for the many excellent traits of his character as a man, while the example of his military fortune will encourage them to emulate his active perseverance, devotion and gallantry as an officer.
As an appropriate testimony of respect and honor for the memory of their late General-in-Chief, the officers of the army will wear the usual badge of mourning for six months, on the left arm and hilt of the sword. Guns will be fired at each military post, at intervals of thirty minutes from sunrise until sunset on the day succeeding the receipt of this order, during which time the national flag will be suspended at half-staff.
Funeral of General Macomb.
The funeral of Major General Macomb took place at Washington on Monday. The body of the illustrious deceased was escorted to the tomb by two battalions of foot soldiers, a squadron of horse and a troop of artillery under the command of General Jesup. Several volunteer companies also appeared in the procession. The military escort was followed by the clergy of the district and surgeon general of the army, and then came the coffin, with Colonels Cross, Abert. Bomford, Totten and Henderson, Gen. Gibson and Wool, Commodores Wadsworth and Warrington, Hon. W. C. Dawson, of the House, and Hon. W. C. Preston, of the Senate, as pall bearers. A long line of carriages, in one of which was the President, the others being filled with civil dignitaries, members of Congress, foreign ambassadors, of ficers of the army and navy, &c. closed the procession.
The body was deposited in the Congressional burying ground, with the solemn services of the Episcopal church, after which the military fired the usual death volleys over the tomb. It is understood that the corpse will be removed in a few days to the family vault at Georgetown.
Biography of Major Gen. Alexander Macomb. Major General Alexander Macomb was born at Detroit April 3, 1782. The city of Detroit, at that time was a garrison town, and among the first images that struck his eyes were those of the circumstances of war. These early impressions often fix the character of the man.
His father was a fur merchant, respectably descended and connected. He removed to the city of New York while Alexander was yet an infant. When he was yet eight years of age, he placed him at school at Newark, in New Jersey, under the charge of the Rev. Dr. Ogden, who was a man of mind, belonging to a family distinguished for talents.
In 1798 while Macomb was quite a youth, he was elected into a select company, which was called the New York Rangers." The name was taken from that Spartan band of rangers selected from the provincials, who, from 1755 to 1763, were the elite of every British commander on Lake George and the borders of Canada. At the time he entered the corps of New York Rangers, Congress had passed a law receiving volunteers for the defence of the country, as invasion by a French army was soon expected. This patriotic band volunteered their services to government, which were accepted, but he soon left this corps, and obtained a cornetcy at the close of the year 1798, and was commissioned in January, 1799. General North, then adjutant general of the Northern army, soon saw the merits of the youthful soldier, and took him into his staff, as deputy adjutant general. Under such a master as the intelligent and accomplished North, Macomb made great progress in his profession, and in the affections of his brother officers of the army.
The young officer that Hamilton noticed, and North instructed, would not fail to be ambitious of distinction. He visited Montreal in order to observe the discipline and tactics of the veteran corps kept at that important military post, and did not neglect his opportunities.
The thick and dark cloud that hung over the country passed away-a great part of the troops were disbanded, and most of the officers and men returned to private life; a few only were retained; among them Macomb, who was commissioned as a second lieutenant of dragoons, and sent forthwith on the recruiting service, but it was then not neceesary to push the business; and as he was stationed in Philadelphia, he had fine opportunities to associate with the best informed men of the city, and found easy access to the Franklin and other extensive libraries, of which advantages he did not fail to improve.
When his body of recruits was formed, he marched with it to the Western frontiers to join Gen. Wilkinson, an officer who had been left in the service from the Revolutionary war. In the company of Wilkinson, and of Col. Williams, the engineer, he must have gathered a mass of materials for future use. With him he went into the Cherokee country, to aid in makeng a treaty with that nation. He was on this mission nearly a year, and kept a journal of everything he saw or heard. This was a good school for one whose duty it might hereafter be to fight these very aborigines, and, in fact, these lessons of the wilderness are not lost on any one of mind and observation. The corps to which he belonged was disbanded, and a corps of engineers formed; to this he was attached as first lieutenant.
He was now sent to West Point, where he was, by the code there established, a pupil as well as an officer. Being examined and declared competent, he was appointed an adjutant of the corps at that post, and discharged his duty with so much spirit and intelligence, that when the first court martial, after his examination, was convened, he was ap pointed judge advocate. This court was ordered for the trial of an officer for disobeying an order for cutting off the hair. Peter the Great could not carry such an order into execution, but our Republican country did; and the veteran Col. Butler was reprimanded for not throwing his white locks to the wind when ordered so to do by his superior. The talents and arguments exhibited by Macomb, as judge advocate on this court martial, brought him into very great notice as a man of exalted intellect as well as a fine soldier. He was now called upon to compile a treatise upon martial law and the practice of courts martial, which in a future day of leisure, he effected, and his book is now the standard work upon courts martial for the army of the United States. In 1805 Macomb was promoted to the rank of captain in the corps of engineers, and sent to the seaboard to superintend the fortifications which had been ordered by an act of Congress. By this service he became known to the first men in the