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The valedictory scene between his Honor Judge Davis and the Bar of the District Court, as described in the papers, has excited much interest in the perusal. It is a spectacle of great moral beauty; that of a judge after forty years service on the bench, withdrawing at a very advanced age, with an irreproachable character, and unimpaired faculties; and a fraternity of such persons as compose the Bar of our District Court, offering to him the homage of affectionate respect, and their united commendation of his official character and carcer. This occurrence has given rise to a desire with some who have been born since the Judge's accession, to know something of the history of the Court anterior to that event—and a regret is felt that he did not think himself at liberty to travel out of the case, so far as to give it to us in his neat and classical style: as it embraced a period of only a few years, and would have given a completeness to his memoir, leaving nothing more to be wished. It is hoped that an attempt in some measure to gratify this desire will not be regarded as presumptuous. For the "march of intellect" in our favored country is so rapid, that the memory and almost the names of those who figured thirty years since are lost in the splendor of the luminaries which are now in the ascendant, and are considered as belonging to the dark ages.

The immediate and only predecessor of Judge Davis in the District Court, was the elder John Lowell. He was a man whose profound learning, vigorous intellect, impassion ed eloquence, united with a high toned sense of honor, and a heart of candor and benevolence which he carried in his hand, made him to be regarded as one of the giants of those days. I will say en passant, that Theophilus Parsons was another-and another, though their junior, and not yet fully arrived to their stature, was Samuel Dexter.

part of it on the shelf-each, as it is said by their friends, content with his respective position. But both have much to acquire if they have not yet learned to estimate the value of posthumous fame, and to say without repining "Fortuna atque Fama, valete!

Sat me lusistis, nunc ludite alios."

In the list of officers of this Court, the name of Governor Brooks, who was at one time Marshal, was casually omitted -a name worthy to be inserted in every list of revolutionary patriots and statesmen.-Boston Daily Patriot.

Entombment of President Ilarrison.

It was the wish, and the request of the family and relatives of General Harrison, that his body should be entombed as privately, and with as little ostentation, as possible. In consequence of this, many thousands of our citizens, who else would have followed it to North Bend, contented themselves to remain away. The feelings of the nearer neighbors and acquaintances of the late President, however, could not be thus restrained; and on the arrival of the steamboat at the place where the remains were taken ashore, the committee found an assemblage of several thousand persons, who had collected from the farms for miles around, and from the nearest towns of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana, anxiously awaiting the appearance of the boat. Although this circumstance was to be regretted, it affords a new evidence of the deep and abiding hold which General Harrison had upon the affections and respect of his immediate neighbors. For many miles around the Bend, he had, with nearly every man who was worthy of his regard, what may almost be called an intimate acquaintance; and in reference to this relation between himself and his neighbors, it may truly be said, that they who knew him best, loved him most.

The Raritan landed about a mile above the Harrison Dwelling. Here the remains of the General were taken ashore, and the relatives and committees formed in procession after them. As they wound slowly and solemnly to

The first District Attorney was Christopher Gore, who was also an ornament of the Bar and of the age. He held the office under Washington, until he was appointed a Com-wards the tomb, many of those who were assembled fell into missioner to give effect to certain articles of the British treaty. He was afterwards a Senator of the United States, and

Governor of Massachusetts.

To him succeeded Harrison Gray Otis, appointed also by Washington. He soon resigned the office for a seat in Congress, into which he was elected immediately on the resignation of Fisher Ames, who was the first Delegate chosen under the Federal Constitution. He was succeeded by Judge Davis-and after serving in Congress during the four years of the Adams administration, he was, (as it is believed without solicitation,) re-appointed to his old place of District Attorney by President Adams, by whom also Mr. Davis was then promoted to the Bench. Mr. Otis very soon afterwards was "removed" by President Jefferson; but though he had not the good fortune to gain the favor of Mr. Jefferson, he did not lose that of his constituents-having been constantly returned to one branch or the other of the Legislature, and repeatedly presiding in each for a series of years, until he was chosen to the Senate of the United States-from which he retired at the end of five years, and before the expiration of his term.

The first Marshal of the district was Jonathan Jackson, formerly an eminent merchant, afterwards a patriot of the revolution he was a person of liberal education and fine talents, and admitted by all to be an uncommon model of a true and accomplished gentleman.

Mr. Jackson's successor was Samuel Bradford. He was also a person of great worth, universally esteemed, and combining in a rare degree firmness in action with delicacy in manner, which peculiarly qualified him for the duties of his

office in critical times.

These-speaking from recollection merely-are the only officers of the District Court, in the grades of Judge, Attorney and Marshal, who preceded Judge Davis. Of the whole number, Davis and Otis alone survive-one has been for a wery long period on the bench-and the other for a great

the line. Others, more anxious to get a look at the coffin which incased the body of their late friend, took positions ahead, where it was known the funeral train would pass, and thus skirted the entire way. At the tomb a prayer was of fered up by the Rev. Joshua L. Wilson, of the First Presbyterian Church of this city, and the burial services of the Episcopal Church read by the Rev. John T. Brooke, of

Christ Church.

its rear.

The tomb is a simple vault, with nothing merely for show, and none of the decorations of art. Its situation is very beautiful, with reference to either the river or the country in A few trees, of the original growth of the forest, stand around it. By another year, the grass will be creeping up its sides, and the wild flowers be bending towards it. These from the hand of nature, will be its first decorations. But the admiring hearts of a grateful people will not long let them remain alone. The hand of Art will soon be brought into requisition, to beautify and embelish; and a column, worthy of him who has

"A monument in every heart,
An epitaph on every tongue,"

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will rise above the sleeping dust, and point to Heaven. But whenever, or however, this may be done, we trust that it will harmonize with the decorations of nature, and be made in consonance with the republican simplicity of character, which belonged, at all times and through all changes of fortune, to the Soldier, Statesman, Patriot and Christian, who sleeps beneath. Cincinnati Daily Gazette.

Tobacco.

The Oceana lately brought down to St. Louis 30 hhds. of Tobacco, the product of the Platte country-a section of the State scarcely inhabited two years ago. Preparations are making for the extensive cultivation of Tobacco in that fine region of Missouri.

The Late Tornado.

A correspondent of the Observer furnishes the following additional particulars:

The recent tornado of wind, rain and hail surpasses any tempest within my recollection of the like kind, and I have lived more than half a century. Where the wind was the most powerful there was no hail. In the region where wind and rain prevailed, most damage was done to the trees and buildings; on the contrary, where the hail fell, the glass on the West side of the buildings, commencing near the river in Topsfield, and passing in an easterly direction across Wenham Swamp, and striking in its greatest severity about a mile and a half West of Wenham meeting house, breaking glass on the West side of all the buildings through the lower part of Upper Beverly-at the same time cutting down every vegetable substance in the same range. Where the wind and rain preponderated, the destruction of trees and barns was truly melancholy; oaks and fruit trees that have stood for centuries were in a moment prostrated to the earth. To give a specimen of its effects in North Danvers: Mr. Charles Lawrence, had 50 trees uprooted, 20 of which were valuable apple trees, some having breasted the blast and the storm for more than a century. This is only a specimen of the devastation that passed through Middleton to Beverly. I will now give a list of the barns and other buildings destroyed or greatly injured in the following towns. viz: In Middleton, the barns of Dr. Andrew Nichols, the widow of Samuel Gould, Jona. Perry, and Jona. Perry, jr. In Danvers, the barns of Samuel Clarke, Daniel Goodhue, Joel S. Wilkins, two, (one in Wenham,) Moses Perkins, Peter Putnam, Perley Tapley. (unfinished building.)

In Topsfield, the barns of Moses Pettingell, John Dwinnell, Cyrus Averill, and Jacob Towne.

In Wenham two barns and a house of Thomas Kimball, two barns of David Woodbury, Charles Brown, Paul Kimball, Benjamin Symonds, Paul Porter, one barn each.

In Beverly, the barns of the late widow Brown, John Brown. Asa Brown, Israel Brown, Frederick Howes, Capt. Lord, Edward Trask, Dudley Dodge, widow Trow, Josiah Trask, Mr. Nesmith, Israel Trask. (house partially injured) Timothy Berry, Mr. Burnham, Nathaniel Potter, widow of Levi Dodge, and Mr. Ham.

On Danviers Plains, 16 chimneys were blown down to the roof and many out-houses upset. A large oak, on Judge Putnam's farm was struck with lightning, and a tree on the farm of the late Deacon James Putnam.

The hail at the side of the road, in one place in Wenham, at 10 o'clock, the next day after the storm, laid in a pile of many bushels unmelted hail-stones as big as a pigeon's egg. Some bushels of the hail-stones were congealed together nearly as big as a man's head.

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The Farmer's Cabinet says that the late storm was very violent at Amherst, N. H.

"Wind, thunder, lightning and hail seemed to vie with each other in their terrific power and sublimity. In five minutes not a single pane of glass remained in the windows exposed to the storm. In our premises not less than 350 panes of glass were destroyed, and it was with difficulty that we could escape ourselves from its fury. The glass in our office, being broken very fine and mixed with the types, formed one body of glass pi. Every house and building has shared a similar fate.

The hail-stones were of very large size, some of them measuring from five to six inches in circumference-and driven by the wind, struck with tremendous force. In many cases, window blinds and even the roofs were smashed. But the most awful consequences, we fear, will result to the crops in the fields. Our gardens, which an hour before were in a highly prosperous condition, are all levelled with the ground, and destroyed. The fields of corn and English grain are cut down, and driven into the ground. The loss to our farmers must be very great. The vein of hail was not very large in extent-from four to five miles; but made clear work wherever it went."-Salem Reg.

Public Sale of Ships at Phila.

The three following Philadelphia built ships were sold at the Exchange yesterday morning, by Mr. C. J. Wolbert: Ship Lehigh, built in 1833, coppered last fall, 585 10-95 tons, stows 7000 barrels of flour, 1100 tons of Canton goods, or 1685 bales of New Orleans cotton, sold for $24,500, on a credit of 4 months.

Ship Osage, built in 1835, stows 5500 barrels of flour, 467 39-100 tons, sold for $14,500 on a credit of 4 months. Ship Commerce, built in 1832, measures 439 82-90 tons, stows 6000 barrels of flour, or 1500 bales of New Orleans cotton, was sold for a whaler, and brought $13,300, four months credit.-U. S. Gazette, July 15.

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The last Franklin Times has an interesting article under this head, in relation to the recent exhumation from an ancient mound on the farm of Eden Burrowes, near the village, of a human skeleton of extraordinary dimensions. It was found at the depth of some 12 or 15 feet below the surface, between what appeared to have been two logs, seemingly covered with a wooden slab. “The bones were pretty nearly entire, and were considerably over the ordinary size of human bones of these days. The under jaw bone, which was yet entire, was large enough to shut over the jaw, flesh and all, of any common man of the present day. So of the other bones-all bore proportions equally large, and as much above the medium size. His thigh bones were six inches longer than those of any person would measure who has yet seen them. Teeth, arms, ribs, and all, gave evidence that "there were giants in those days." Around his neck was found a string of one hundred and twenty copper beads, in a perfect state of preservation, and amongst them was one to all appearance of pure silver." Near these remains was found a skeleton of smaller dimensions with a string of beads, about the beads were connected was still apparent though time had one hundred in number, of ivory. The string with which destroyed its consistence.-Lebanon (Ohio) Star.

Profitable Investment.

The Mobile Insurance Co. has declared a dividend of eight per cent. for the last six months. This is a comfortable interest on an investment, in these times of corporative difficulties.

The company has been one of the most successful, of which we have any recollection. We hear occasionally of large dividends by other institutions, after a season of extraordinary success. But this company has with one exception made large dividends ever since its commencement ten years ago. That exception was after the great fire. In ten years it has divided within a small fraction of one hundred and fifty per cent. and has a handsome surplus on hand.-Mobile Journal.

Sun Cured Tobacco.

A hogshead of sun-cured tobacco was last week sold in Lynchburg at the rate of $25 25 per 100 lbs. This is said to be the highest price obtained this year.

French Report on the theory of Mr. Espy concerning Tornadoes. [Committee, Messrs. Arago, Pouillet, Babinet, reporters.] Messrs. Arago, Pouillet and myself have been appointed by the Academy to make a report to it upon the observations and theory of Mr. Espy, which have for their object the aerial meteors known by the names of storms, water-spouts, and tornadoes, which cause so much destruction on land and sea in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico. These storms are produced in the same manner in every part of the globe, when a few given circumstances concur in one place.

The labors of Mr. Espy have already considerably occupied the attention of the learned world, and may be consider ed under three different points of view. First, the facts which he has recognised and substantiated, and the proofs which support them; and second, the physical theory by which he explains them and the conclusions which he deduces from that theory; third, the observations which are yet to be made according to this theory, based upon facts, and the practical rules which the mariner, the farmer, and the meteorologist will obtain from it: the two former for their own benefit, the latter for science, which is useful to all. The facts which result from the numerous documents which Mr. Espy has placed in the hands of the Committee, are the following: the motion of the air in the meteor under consideration, called tornado or water-spout, if it is violent, and of small extent--a storm if it covers many degrees of the earth's surface; the motion of the air, we say, is always convergent, either towards a single centre, when the tornado has a circular form and limited extent, or towards a diametrical line, when the tornado or storm is of a lengthened form and extends over many hundred leagues.

If the tornado is very small, in which case the violence of the motion of the air is greater, a cloud is frequently seen in the centre whose point descends more and more until it touches the earth or sea. Water-spouts are small tornadoes, and the force of these meteors in the South and East of the United States is such, that trees are carried up in the air, and the heaviest objects are overturned, displaced, and transported. Finally, we have only to call to mind the well known storms of the Antilles, which change even the form of the ground over which they pass. We will adopt the technical word tornado to designate the meteor in question, whatever may be its extent or violence. China and the neighboring seas, Central Africa and the South-West part of the Indian Ocean, are, like the West Indies, the theatre of meteors of the same nature and not less disastrous.

In observing at the same moment the force and direction of the wind, which is shown by the overturned trees, the displaced moveable objects, in a word, by the traces impressed upon the soil, Mr. Espy proves that in the same instant the motion of all parts of the air which is reached by the tornado is tending towards a central space, point, or line, so that if the wind on one side of the meteor blows towards the East, it blows with the same violence towards the West on the other side of the tornado, and frequently at a very short distance from the first place, whilst in the centre, an ascending current is formed of astonishing rapidity, which, after having risen to a prodigious height, spreads out on every side to a certain limit, which we shall soon determine by the observations of the barometer. This ascending current loses its transparency at a certain height, and becomes a true cloud of the kind called cumulus, the base of which is horizontal, and whose height is determined by the temperature and humidity of the atmosphere. The central cloud of the tornado is constantly re-produced, in proportion as it is carried off by the rapid current of the centre; and, according to Mr. Espy, when rain or hail proceeds from this meteor, which is generally the case, it is the cold caused by the expansion of the air carried into the higher regions of the atmosphere, which condenses the water. Electricity, when it appears in the tornado, is not, according to Mr. Espy, essential to the phenomenon.

The existence of an ascending current of extreme violence once placed beyond doubt by the phenomena of the rising of the air, and its motion towards a centre or towards

the great diameter of the oblong space occupied by the tornado being well established by facts, Mr. Espy examines the progressive movement of the whole meteor, which is very slow, compared with the velocity of the wind in the mass of air which becomes at each instant a part of the tornado. Mr. Espy shows that near the latitude of Philadelphia, where cirrus clouds, very elevated as is known, move towards the east, the centre of the tornado moves almost always towards the East as well as in Europe, where the West wind is predominant; whilst in the inter-tropical regions (Barbadoes, Jamaica, the North of the Indian Ocean,) the meteor moves towards the West or North-West, following the course of the trade winds. These assertions are also verified with regard to China and the Indian Ocean, according to the maps of Berghous. The barometer, in the centre of the meteor, is sometimes nearly 2 2-5 of an inch (60 millimetres) lower than towards its border, and its limit is marked on all its outline by a closed curve, along which the barometer is found to be at its "normale" height, whilst on the other side of this line, further from the centre, the barometer is observed to rise, which rise in small tornadoes is 8-100 of an inch, (2 millimetres,) but which may be 40 or 48 hundredths of an inch, (10 or 12 millimetres) in very extended storms. If the centre of the tornado moves, (which may take place in any sense when compared with the diametrical line,) and the effects produced by the motion are examined, it is always found that if the meteor has followed in its motion the line of its greatest diameter, the tree which fell the first, indicates a point anterior in the path of the meteor, and the tree which fell last, a posterior point. Thus it is constantly found that the trees which were overthrown with their tops turned towards positions anterior to the centre of the tornado are covered by trees falling in the direction of the centre at a posterior period. In short, in this same case, the branches of the trees not overthrown, growing on the side farthest from the opposite side of the line which the centre of the meteor takes, have followed the wind and are twisted around the trunk of the trees.

The circumstances favorable to the sudden production of a tornado, large or small, are according to Mr. Éspy, a warm and humid atmosphere, covering a country sufficiently level and extended, still enough to allow that part of the air which is accidentally the least dense, to rise to a great perpendicular height above the middle of the heated space which is charged with transparent vapor; moreover, in the highest regions, a cold and dry air, whose situation and especially whose density contrasts with that of the ascending current which dilates, cools, loses its transparency by the precipitation of its dampness, keeping, notwithstanding a specific gravity less than that of which the air surrounds it, and by its expansion, presenting the form of a mushroom or the head of a pine with or without the prolongation or appendage towards the base, which appendage, cloudy and opaque, shows a space where the expansion and the cold are at their maximum, and where, consequently, the precipitation of vapor commences almost immediately above the ground or the surface of the sea.

Such, are then the principal points which Mr. Espy has obtained from numerous observations. The motion of the air towards the centre of the meteor, the depression of the barometer in the centre, the central ascending current the formation of cloud at a certain height, and its circular expansion after this cloud has attained a prodigious height, an expansion accompanied with rain and hail, and finally the motion of the whole meteor, en masse; these, I say, are the points which the extensive labors of Mr. Espy, his own observations, and the documents which he has collected, and which he intends publishing immediately in a special work, have placed beyond doubt, and which seems even to have triumphed over every objection and to have rallied all opinions to his own.

Let us now see the theory upon which he bases his observations, or rather which is based upon these facts well observed, well proven and always reproduced in nature with similar circumstances.

Mr. Espy thinks that if a very extended stratum of warm and humid air at rest, covers the surface of a region of land

1841.]

FRENCH REPORT ON MR. ESPY'S THEORY CONCERNING TORNADOES.

or sea, and that by any cause whatever, for example a less local density, an ascending current is formed in this mass of humid air, the ascending force, instead of diminishing in consequence of the elevation of the rising column, will increase with the height of the column, exactly as though a current of hydrogen was rising through the common air, which current would be pushed towards the top of the atmosphere, with a force and velocity in proportion to its height. This column of heated air may also be compared to that in chimneys and stove-pipes, of which the draught is in proportion to the height of the pipe containing the warm air. What then is the reason which renders the warm and humid ascending current, lighter in each of its parts, than the air which is found at the same height with these different portions of the ascending column?

This cause, according to the quite sufficiently exact calculations, [tres suffisament exact,] of Mr. Espy, is the constantly higher temperature which the ascending column retains, and which proceeds from the heat furnished by the partial condensation of the vapor mixed with the air, making this ascending column a true column of heated air, that is to say, of a lighter gas; for the weight of the water which passes into the liquid state, is far from compensating the excess of levity which proceeds from the more elevated temperature which the air preserves. (This weight only equals one-fifth of the diminution of the weight in ordinary circumstances.)

Thus, the higher the column is, the greater is the ascending force, and the rushing of the surrounding air on all sides will be produced with more energy. To understand this effect better, let us consider a mass of warm and dry air rising in the midst of a colder atmosphere. In proportion as this air rises, it will expand because of the less pressure which it will experience, and consequently become colder; it will arrive then quickly at an equilibrium both of temperature and pressure with a layer more or less elevated, which it will soon reach, and in which it will remain; but if this only cause of cold, expression, is overbalanced by a cause of heat, for example, the heat furnished by the vapor which is condensing, this air will remain constantly warmer than would have been necessary to attain the same temperature and pressure as the surrounding air. It will then be constantly lighter, and the higher the column, the greater the ascending force.

The calculations of Mr. Espy show, without the slightest doubt, that the column of damp air regaining in temperature, by the condensing of the vapor, a part of the heat lost by expansion; this column always remains warmer than the air which is at the same height with each of its parts. Finally, Mr. Espy furnishes the exact data which are still wanting to science, by the experiments made upon the temperature which the air preserves by the effect of condensation of the vapor in a closed vessel, which he calls a "nepheloscope," and in which he compares the thermometrical fall produced in the air by a diminution of superincumbent pressure, to what takes place in nature, whether operating on dry, or employing damp, air. Notwithstanding the influence of the sides of the vessel, every time a light cloud is formed in the apparatus, the temperature undergoes a much less reduction than that which takes place when the point of precipitation of vapor has not been attained, or when the experiment is tried on dry air.

The theory of Mr. Espy also accounts very well for the formation of a true cloud analogous to the cumulus with horizontal base, from the moment when the warm and damp air has acquired such an expansion, that the cold produced by it will cause a precipitation of water, and the base of the central cloud of the tornado, if it is horizontal, as is the case in the great meteors of this nature, should be lowered in proportion as the moist air which is carried up is more fully charged with vapour; this base, like that of the cumulus, being of necessity found at the point where the temperature of the ascending current becomes that of the dew point, which itself depends evidently upon the degree of dampness of the air. This theory further explains how, in the small tornadoes, whose violence is remarkable, an expansion takes place in the centre of the meteor, at a very small height,

55

sufficient to condense vapor by the cold and consequently to produce this kind of appendage which particularly distinguishes small tornadoes, or common water-spouts. Let us add that the calculations of Mr. Espy, upon the density of the warm column, its comparative levity, the ascending force of the current, the central depression which is the consequence of it, the rapidity with which the surrounding air rushes towards the place where the pressure is diminished, finally all the conclusions drawn from the physical data of the phenomena have been proved and ascertained with sufficient exactness to leave no doubt as to this portion of Mr. Espy's theory.

One word remains to be said relative to the progressive movement of the meteor. This movement may depend upon an ordinary wind, which imparting a common motion to the whole atmosphere, would not disturb the ascension of the column of moist air. But as these phenomena are produced suddenly in the midst of a great calm, Mr. Espy thinks that, in accordance with observed facts, the motion of the meteor should be attributed to the winds, which predominate in the upper part of the atmosphere, and that in moderate latitudes, this motion should thus take place towards the East, whilst in the equatorial regions this motion should be directed towards the West, as the current of the trade winds. In a word, the slight surcharge which is owing to the spreading out of the air around the top of the meteor, accounts for the trifling elevation of the barometer, which the invasion of the tornado, in every place presents, and can even, according to, Mr. Espy, serve as a prognostic of it. Another result is, that beyond the limits of the meteor, a feeble wind ought to be observed, as is the case, whose direction is opposed to that of the air which is violently rushing towards the centre of the tornado.

The consequences which Mr. Espy deduces from this theory, are that in many localities, in Jamaica, for example, the sea-breezes cause a motion of the air perfectly analagous to that which constitutes a tornado, and that the results of it are the same, namely, rain and tempest at stated hours, on each day of summer. The same circumstances produce the same effects in other well known localities, volcanic eruptions, great conflagrations of forests, with the favorable circumstances of tranquillity, heat and moisture, ought also to produce ascending currents and rain. In the midst of all the theoretical deductions of Mr. Espy, it should be remarked that a descending current of air never can communicate cold, for this current would become warm by compression in proportion as it should descend, and the meteorological temperature of many places sheltered from the ascending winds, is considerably augmented by this cause. The tempests of sand in many parts of Africa and Asia, although possessing much less violence, owing to the dryness of the heated air, accord perfectly with the theory of Mr. Espy, both as to quantity and the nature of their effects. Lastly let us observe that if, in tornadoes the air is absorbed by the lower portion of the column and not by the higher parts, it is that the difference between the pressure of the heated column, and that of the surrounding air, is much more marked as it is considered lower down, in the column of less density and equal elasticity, so that in the case of an equilibrium, at the lowest point this difference would be precisely the total difference of the whole heated column, to the whole column of air of the same height situated around the first. The observations and experiments which have been suggested to Mr. Espy by the study of the phenomena of tornadoes, and the theory he has given of them merit the most serious attention. It is very evident that Science would be much benefited by the establishment of a system of simultaneous observations of the barometer, thermometer, hygrometer, and especially of the anemometer, if at least they could be procured capable of giving with sufficient accuracy, the intensity of the wind at the same time with its direction and the time of each variation of force. The influence which electricity exerts in this phenomenon, remains yet to be determined. Mr. Espy thinks that artificial causes, for example great fires kindled in favorable circumstances of heat, of tranquillity and humidity can cause an ascending column of much less violence, the useful results of which would be on

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MISCELLANEOUS.

the one hand rain, and on the other the happy prevention of disastrous storms. It will be necessary to see in Mr. Espy's work itself, the further beneficial results to navigation from the views furnished by his theory.

The different manners in which philosophers, by means of apparatus whose principle of action is the centrifugal force, have imitated water-spouts or small tornadoes, do not appear to us reconcileable with Mr. Espy's theory, which, based upon facts, equally refutes the idea of a whirling motion of the air in the tornado.

Here we should compare the theory of Mr. Espy with other theories anterior or contemporaneous. The labors of Franklin, and of Messrs. Redfield, Reid and Pettier would furnish as many excellent observations and parts, or the whole of the phenomena, very well studied. But this extensive discussion which we should have to establish before deciding in favor of Mr. Espy, would lead us too far. Mr. Espy himself, as to the electrical part of the phenomena, which, however he regards as only accessary and secondary, acknowledges that his theory is less advanced and less complete than it is with regard to the phenomena of the motion and precipitation of the water, which are according to him, the base of the production of the meteor.

Finally, it is proved by the investigations of Mr. Espy that it will be impossible hereafter to adduce in the "normale" state of the atmosphere, a descending current of air as a .cause of cold, or as an ascending current of dry air, a cause of heat. The applications of this theory present themselves in "climatology," but this principle especially discards the idea of explanation of the tornado by the centrifugal force, which would then cause the upper air to descend in the centre of the tornado, which air becoming heated by the augmented pressure, could not allow its own vapor to be precipitated nor precipitate that of the air with which it came

in contact.

Conclusion.

In conclusion, Mr. Espy's communication contains a great number of well observed and well described facts. His theory, in the present state of science, alone accounts for the phenomena, and when completed, as Mr. Espy intends, by the study of the action of electricity when it intervenes, will leave nothing to be desired. In a word, for physical geography, agriculture, navigation and meteorology, it gives us new explanations, indications useful for ulterior researches, and redresses many accredited errors.

The Committee expresses then the wish that Mr. Espy should be placed by the government of the United States, in a position to continue his important investigations, and to complete his theory, already so remarkable, by means of all the observations and all experiments which the deductions even of his theory may suggest to him, in a vast country, where enlightened men are not wanting to science, and which is besides as it were the home of these fearful meteors.

The work of Mr. Espy causes us to feel the necessity of undertaking a retrospective examination of the numerous documents already collected in Europe, to arrange them and draw from them deductions which they can furnish, and more especially at the present period when the diluvial rains which have ravaged the South-East of France have directed attention to all the possible causes of similar phenomena. Consequently, the Committee proposes to the Academy to give its approbation to the labors of Mr. Espy, and to solicit him to continue his researches, and especially to try to ascertain the influence which electricity exerts in these great phenomena, of which a complete theory will be one of the most precious acquisitions of modern science.

The conclusions of this report are adopted.-Boston Pat.

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Rotary Steam Engine.

A few weeks since, we had an opportunity of examining an ingenious piece of mechanism, then unfinished, for the production of steam power by means of a rotary, instead of a vibrating piston. We were yesterday gratified with a view of the same machine finished, and at work driving the printing press of the Daily Mail, throwing off papers at the rate of sixty or seventy a minute.

The machine is the invention of Mr. J. Tuttle, of this city, and was built by Mr. Edward Norfolk, a machinist from Salem. Mr. Tuttle, we understand, has obtained a patent for his invention. It is extremely compact in its form, the whole machine occupying a very small space. Much of the ordinary machinery is dispensed with, from the rotary motion being produced at once, by the revolution of the pis ton about a shaft, to which shaft is attached the drum or other means of communication with the working machinery.

The axis of the cylinder is circular, and enclosed within a sort of box formed by two circular plates, within which box, and within the cylindrical ring, are contained all the machinery of the engine. The piston is attached to a revolving plate, the edge of which fits into a groove in the cylinder. There are two valves, the apparatus for working which is all within the box. The steam is admitted by a pipe at one side of the box, and discharged at the other.The diameter of the circle formed by the axis of the cylinder, is 20 inches, and accordingly its circumference, or the distance travelled by the piston in each revolution, is about 5 feet, this circumference being divided by the valves into two parts.

The diameter of the piston is 3 inches, and in working with steam at a pressure of 60 lbs. the power is computed to be equivalent to about 4 horse power. The whole space occupied by the engine, exclusive of the boiler, is no more than is required for this box, and a cast iron frame upon which it stands, measuring in all not more than 33 feet in height, length, and width, each.

The machine appears to work with ease, the motion is equalle, and the action of the steam constant-it may be stopped at any point of the revolution of the piston, and may be started from the same point, or reversed at pleasure

-the joints are tight, so that there is no waste of steam,and there is very little pressure upon the valve, at the time of its movements, and little friction from any other cause.-From its present appearance and manner of working, it promises to be a useful engine-possessing the advantage of compactness, simplicity, and apparently cheapness. Its value must soon be tested by actual use.-[Boston Patriot.

Living in Pittsburg.

We passed through the Diamond Market yesterday, and were as usual, gratified at the abundance of good things We quote the prices of a which were displayed around. few of the articles: Beef, choice pieces, 6 a 7 cents; veal, best cutlets, 5 a 6; lamb, first quarter 25 a 31, hind quarter 31 a 374; cherries, per quart, 5 a 6; currants, 3 a 4; gooseberries 4 a 5; butter, per pound, 8 a 10; eggs, per dozen, 8; chickens, per pair, 25 a 374; onions 3 a 4. The lettuce, salads and radishes were very fine, and too cheap to mention. [Pittsburg Advocate.

New York Business Directory.

In the New York Business Directory for 1841, just published by J. Doggett, Jr., the following statement is given of the number of individuals and firms in the several occupations named.

Importers 500; Commission merchants 500; Dry Goods Jobbers 250; Wholesale Grocers 231; Hardware Dealers 60; Clothiers 176; Brokers 343; Banks 41; Insurance Companies 60; Lawyers 600; Newspapers 50; Periodicals 51; Foreign Consuls 43.

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