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6. Dryden knew more of man in his general nature, and Pope in his local manners. The notions of Dryden were formed by comprehensive speculation, those of Pope by minute attention.
The style of Dryden is capricious and varied; that of Pope is cahtious and uniform. Dryden obeys the motions ofhis own mind; Pope constrains his mind to his own rules of composition. Dryden is sometimes vehement and rapid; Pope is always smboth, uniform, and gentle. Dryden’s page is a natural field, rising into inequalities, and diversified by the varied exuberance of abundant vegetation; Pope’s is a velvet lawn, shaven by the scythe, and levelled by the roller.
If the flights of Dr den are higher, Pope continues longer on the wing. if of Dryden’s fire, the blaze is brighter; of Pope’s the heat is more regular and constant. Dryden often surpasses expectittion, and Pope never falls below it. Dryden is read with frequent astonishment, and Pope with perpetual delight.
7. Never before were so many opposing interests, passions, and principles, committed to such a decision. On one side an attachment to the ancient order of things, on the other a passionate desire of change; a wish in some to perpétuate, in others to destroy every thing; every abuse sacred in the eyes of the former, every foundation attempted to be demolished by the latter; a jealousy of power shrinking from the slightest innovation, pretensions to freedom pushed to médness and anarchy; superstition in all its détage, impiety in all its fiiry.
Several kinds of sentences are classed under this rule, in the bod of the work; but as the principle is the same in all, no distinction is necessary in the Exercises.
1. For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgement; and spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly; and turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes, condemned them with an overthrow, mak
ing them an ensample unto those that alter should live ungodly; And delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked : (For that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful-deeds;) The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day ofjudgement to be punished.
Q. If reason teaches the learned, necessity the barbarian, common custom all nations in géneral; and if even nature itself instructs the brutes to defend their bodies, limbs, and lives, when attacked, by all possible methods; you cannot pronounce this action criminal, without detennining at the same time that whoever falls into the hands pf a highwayman, must of necessity perish either by his sword or your decisions. Had Milo been of this opinion, he would certainly have chosen to fall by the hands of Clodius, who had more than once, before this, made an attempt upon his life, rather than be executed by your order, because he had not tamely yielded himself a victim to his rage. But if none of you are of this opinion, the proper question is, not whether Clodius was killed? for that we grant: but whether justly or unjustly? an inquiry of which many precedents are to be found.
8. Seeing then that the soul has many different faculties, or in other words, many different ways of acting; that it can be intensely pleased or made happy by all these different faculties, or ways of acting; that it may be endowed with several latent faculties, which it is not at present in a condition to exért; that we cannot believe the soul is en— dowed with any faculty which is of no use to it; that whenever any one of these faculties is transcendently pleased, the soul is in a state of happiness; and in the last place, considering that the happiness of another world is to be the happiness of the whole man; who can question but that there is an infinite variety in those pleasures we are spéak
zing of; and that this fulness of joy will be made up of all ' those pleasures which the nature of the soul is capable of
4. Véhen the gay and smiling aspect of things has begun to leave the passages to a man’s heart thus thoughtlesst unguarded; when kind and caressing looks of every object without, that can flatter his senses, has conspired with the enemy within, to betray him and put him off his defénce: when music likewise hath lent her aid, and tried her power upon the passions; when the voice of singing men, and the voice of singing women, with the sound of the viol and the lute, have broken in upon his soul, and in some tender notes have touched the secret springs of rz'tpture,—that moment let us dissect and look into his heart;—see how vain, how weak, how empty a thing it is!
5. Beside the ignorance of masters who teach the first rudiments of reading, and the want of skill, or negligence in that article, of those who teach the learned languages; be; side the erroneous manner, which the untutored pupils fall into, through the want of early attention in masters, to correct small faults in the beginning, which increase and gain strength with yéars; beside bad habits'contracted from imitation of particular persons, or the contagion of example, from a general prevalence ofa certain tone or chant in reading or reciting, peculiar to each school, and regularly transmitted, from one generation of boys to another: beside all thése, which are fruitful sources of vicious elocution, there is one fundamental error, in the method universally used in teaching to read, which at first gives a wrong bias, and leads us ever after blindfold from the right path, under the guidance of a false rule.
6. A guilty or a discontented mind, a mind, ruffled by ill fortune, disconcerted by its own passions, soured by néglect, or fretting at disappointments, hath not leisure to attend to the necessity or reasonableness of a kindness desired, nor a taste for those pleasures which wait on benefié cence, which demand a calm and unpolluted heart to relish them.
7. “ I perfectly remember, that when Calidius prose~ outed Q. Gallius for an attempt to poison him, and pretend— ed that he had the plainest proofs of it, and could produce many letters, witnesses, informations, and other evidences to put the truth of his charge beyond a doubt, interspersing many sensible and ingenious remarks on the nature of the crime; I remember,” says Cicero, “ that when it came to my turn to reply to him, after urging every argument which the case itself suggested, I insisted upon it as a material circumstance in favor of my client, that the prosecutor, while he charged him with a design against his life, and assured us that ‘he had the most indubitable proofs of it then in his hands, related his story with as much ease, and as much
calmness and indifference, as if nothing had happened.” —-“ Would it have been possible,” exclaimed Cicero, (addressing himself to Calidius,) “ that you should speak with this air of uneoncern, unless the charge was purely an invention of your own P—and, above all, that you, whose eloquence has often vindicated the wrongs of other people with so much spirit, should speak so coolly of a crime which threatened your life ?”
8. To acquire a thorough knowledge of our own hearts and characters, to restrain every irregular inclination,—t0 subdue every rebellious passion,—to purify the motives of our c6nduct,-—to form ourselves to that temperance which no pleasure can seduce,—-to that meekness which no provocation can rl'ifile,—to that patience which no affliction can overwhelm, and that integrity which no interest can shake; this is the task which is assigned to us,——a task which cannot be performed without the utmost diligence and care.
9. The beauty of a plain, the greatness of a mountain, the ornaments of a building, the expression of a picture, the composition of a discourse, the conduct of a third person, the pr0portion of different quantities and numbers, the various appearances which the great machine of the universe is perpetually exhibiting, the secret wheels and springs which produce them, all the general subjects of science and taste, are what we and our companions regard as having no peculiar relation to either of us.
10. Should such a man, too fond to rule alone,
5 Damn with faint praise, assent with civil léer,
Just hint a fault, and hesitate dislike; v
10 A tim’rous foe, and a suspicious friénd;
Like Cato, give his little senate laws,
15 “'hile \Vits and Templars every sentence raise,
And wonder with a foolish face of praise—
Who but must laugh, if such a man there be?
11. For these reasons, the senate and people of Athens, (with due veneration to the gods and heroes, and guardiansof the Athenian city and territory, whose aid they now implore; and with due attention to the virtue of their ancestors, to whom the general liberty of Greece was ever dearer than the particular interest or their own state,) have resolved that a fleet of two hundred vessels shall be sent to sea, the admiral to cruise within the straits of Thermopylae.
As to my own abilities in speaking, (for I shall admit this charge, although experience hath convinced me, that what is called the power of eloquence depends for the most part upon the héarers, and that the characters of public speakers are determined by that degree of favor which you vouchsafe to (311011,) if long practice, I say, hath given me any proficiency in speaking, you have ever found it devoted to my country.*
Of the various exceptions which fall under the rule of suspemiz'n inflection, the only one which needs additional ekemplification, is that, where emphasis requires the intensive falling slide, to express the true sense. See pp. 32 & 43. In some cases of this sort, the omission of the falling slide only weakens the meaning; in others it subverts it.
1. If the population of this country were to remain stdtionary, a great increase of effort would be necessary to supply each family with a Bible; how much more when this population is increasing every day.
Q. The man who cherishes a strong ambition for preferment, if he does not fall into aduldlion 'and sercility, is in danger of losing all manly independence.
3; For if the mighty works which have been done in thee had been done in Sédom,1' it would have remained unto this day.
EXERCISE 6. Page 32. Tender emotion inclines the voice to the rising slide. 1. And when Joseph came home, they brought him the
*II have not thought it necessary to give examples of the cases in winch emphasis requires the falling slide at the close of a parenthesis.
1 Even in Sodom, is the paraphrase of this emphasis, and so in the two preceding examples.