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view of the subject, was general, in- To this explanation of Mr. Scott, stead of universal, redemption; as he we shall have occasion to advert, thought the latter word might pos- hereafter. We shall only, therefore, sibly be understood to include other observe upon it at present, that, intelligent beings, not of Adam's race, although it cannot be supposed to and might be misunderstood to imply satisfy an Anti-calvinist, it ought at universal salvation. After quoting least to rescue all those who agree several passages of Scripture, which with it, from the charge of denying unequivocally declare the univer- that redemption through Christ is a sality of the redemption wrought out benefit sufficient for, and offered inby the Saviour for the whole race of discriminately to, all. mankind, Mr. Scott observes, that The second point on which we wherever we meet with a human shall notice Mr. Scott's Remarks, being, we can, consistently, feel no respects some of the terms by which other embarrassment in saying to the Bishop of Lincoln has chosen to him “ Believe in the Lord Jesus represent ihe doctrines of Calvin, and Christ, and thou shalt be saved," of his later adherents. For instance, than in calling to those who are he speaks of their asserting the exasleep after the sun is risen, and istence of a decree which renders the exhorting them to rise, and go forth conversion of some men impossible, to their labour; for the nalural light and of “ a condition which it is imof the world shines and suffices for all. possible for them to perform ;” and,
“Every circumstance," he says, “respect. consequently, of maintaining that ing redemption, shews it to be a general bene- some shall perish everlastingly, fi, from which no one of the human race will " without the possibility of attaining be excluded, ercept through unbelief. Every salvation ;' implying, as it would exhortation, invitation, and encouragement, seem, says Mr. Scott, that some of imaginable, may, therefore, be used without the non-elect are truly desirous of reserve, in addressing wen of any nation and the salvation revealed in the Gospel, description. Yet some line,” he adds, “inust be drawn by all, who do not hold universal and disposed to use the appointed salvation. He that believeth not shall be
means of obtaining it; but that they damned.' The difference then is, in this re
are excluded, and perish for ever, spect, less between Calvinists and others, through some impossibility distinct than it is supposed. Calvin himself says, from, and unconnected with, their own • Redemption is sufficient for all, effectual sin and depravity. This Calvin, and only to the elect.' His opponents say, his reasonable followers, deny ; al* sufficient for all, effectual only for be. leging that there is no impossibilievers. •Faith is the gift of God;' and lity, except that which arises from the only question is, whether he determines the natural unwillingness and enmity to give faith to one inan, and not to ano.
of the human heart; and that this unther, at the moment; or whether be previously decreed to do it: and whether lie willingness constitutes a moral ioa. gives faith to one and not to another, be- bility, which nothing, except regecause of some seen, or foreseen, good disposi- neration), a new creation unio bolia tion or conduct, in one abuve the other, pre. ness, can remove. vious to liis special preventing grace. If be "If," says Mr. Scott, “ men will confound do no injustice to those wbo are left to them- this disinclination, with natural inability; and selves, and continue unbelievers, it could 80 make excuse for all the wickedness of not be unjust to decree, from eternity, thus devils, (whose incorrigible disinclination to to leave them. Some of us think, that none love God, and wbose obstinate enmity against ever truly believe, except the elect: others him, is their only inability), the determinasuppose us in this to be mistaken, perhaps tion of the question must be referred to God interpreting the terms elect and election, alone. But let it be observed, that Calvindifferently than we do. But all who allow ists (at least all those for whom I would the truth, and abide by the plain meaning of plead), allow no other than moral inability, the Scripture, agree, that through this general or total disinclination to good, which bis lordredemption, believers, and none except be. ship bas expressly allowed concerning men lievers, amung adults, skınll be saved." Vol. ii. in general. Hence it is, that repentance,
faith, and obedience, are the gists of God,
pp. 7, 8.
and 'the fruits of the Spirit:' because, how. tainly it is impossible not to admit, ever active we may be in what is good (and that, as they respect the Calvinists, very active and indefatigably diligent we they have been altogether mistated ought to be in every good work), * it is God by the Bishop of Lincoln. We are That worketh in us, to will and to do of his free to own, at the same time, that good pleasure. It is in respect of the same kind of inability, that God cannot deny we remain as little satisfied with Mr. himself;' not for want of power, but from Scott's endeavours to disembarrass his infinite perfection in holiness.” Vol. ii. his system of its difficulties, as with
those of former writers. Those dif“ Let a man be found earnestly desirous ficulties are inherent in the subject, of complying with the requirements of the and must continue to perplex it while Gospel, diligently using every appointed the human mind is constituted as it means, submitting to every needsul privation is. Would it not, therefore, be the and self denial, exceedingly afraid of coming true wisdom of both parties to conshort of salvation from sin and all its conse
fess their ignorance, and to cease quences; who yet is excluded, through some from the construction of systems, impossibility, independent of his own dis and the entanglements of controposition and conduct, and which cothing he might do, however willing or earnest, could yersy, which may do much harm, at all renove: then the objection would be but can do little good? valid. But adduce a proud, ambitious, cove.
Another objection, which Mr. tous, sensual, ungodly man, who has nothing Scott makes to the representations to prevent his repentance, faith, and salva- of the Bishop of Lincoln, relates to rion, except his own wicked heart and bad the frequent application of the term habits, with the temptations of the devil, and “arbitrary" to that will of God which the allurements of worldly objects ; yet, who is concerned in predestination, a is totally averse to the humbling boly salva-' term, says Mr. Scott, to which Calvin tion of ihe Gospel, in itself; and wholly dis-' would doubtless have indignantly inclined to use the appointed means of grace, objected, as spoken by him of the with diligence, earnestness, and rance; who cleaves to his idols, and refuses only. wise God. to forsake them; who shrinks from self-denial;
" Arbitrary will, in the common use of and whose enmity of lieart against God is words, means the will of one who is deterirritated by the very denunciations and re
mined to hare his own way, being possessed quirements of his word, and the declarations of power to enforce his decisions. Sic rolo, of his justice and holiness; in short, wlio sic jubeo ; stet pro ratione voluntas.' This, • loves darkness rather than light; because in general, is unreasonable, capricious, 'yhis deeds are evil:' and then let it be iui- rannical ; often in direct opposition to wisdom, quired, whether God is bound, in justice, to
justice, truth, goodness, or mercy. Such give that special eficacious grace to this thoughts of God's sovereignty were far rerebel, without which he must continue'a
moved from Calvin's views of the subject, proud rebel and enemy for ever. This is the and so they are from ours. God does not, statement, whether well-founded or not, which indeed, inform us of the reasons and motives we make of the subject.” Vol. ii. pp. 18, 19.
of bis decrees or dispensations : but he as“Let it also be understood, that we do not
sures us, that he is righteous in all bis ways, suppose the influence, or special grace, of the and holy in all his works;' that all his Holy Spirit, to be vouchsated to us, either to
works are done in wisdom ;''that God is incline or enable us to do any thing which Love?. We cannot, indeed, see the wisdom, was not previously our duty, but which we
justice, truth, and goodness, of many things, were wholly disinclined to perform." Vol. ii.
which undeniably he does: and it is not wonderful, that his decrees are a depth which
we cannot fathom: but faith takes it for We are perfectly aware of the reply granted, that righteousness and judgment which Anti-calvinists would make to
are the basis of his throne,' even when this statement, as to moral inability: In the mysterious and 'awful subject before
• clouds and darkness are round about him.' it is not, however, our present purpose to examine the truth of the op- the only wise God, the God of holiness and
us, we cannot see the reasons which induce posite opinions which are held on
love, to choose one in preserence to another, ibis subject, but to ascertain what
or to new create one rather than another : those opinions really are; and cer. but let it not be supposed that there is no
reason, or no adequate reason. Now, if it of God, that
shall or shall not be consist with infinite wisdom and perfection, saved, without any respect to your to change the heart of one man, and not that conduct,” Mr. Scott remarks, that it of another; how does it alter the case,
would throw much light on the subwhether we suppuse, that, being infinite in
ject, if his lordship would quote from knowledge and foreknowledge, he determined to do this from all eternity; or
some modern Calvinists, any passage whether he formed the determination at the in which this exceptionable sentimoment when he effected it? On the other
ment occurs. hand, if, either in the present dispensations of God, or in the decisions of the great day,
" When this is done,” he adds, “ I will any thing be done inconsistent with perfect cordially join in reprobating the doctrine.' wisdom, justice, truth, and love, will the cir- “The decree to leave any to themselves cumstance, that it was not predestinated, und their own wicked inclinations, tu till. make any difference in the opinion to be up the measure of their crimes, cannot be formed of it?” Vol. ii. pp. 4, 3.
without respect to their conduct; nor (it inThe same objectionable language
deed it be, as no doubt it is, just and wise). occurs in another passage of the Bi
can it be arbitrary. The decree whicha
chooses some to salvation, through sanctisi shop of Lincoln's book, where he
calion of the Spirit and belief of the truth, speaks of the Calvinistic doctrine as
is indeed not made for our foreseen works; representing men “under the control
for none could be foreseeni but evil works, ex. otan irresistible destiny;" a terın, Mr. cept as 'the fruits of the Spirit,' given to us Scott observes, " more suited to hea- according to this decree: our renewal to then fatalism, or to the modero neces. holiness and fruitfulness in good works, iy sarian system, than 10 the wise and one grand object of the decree ; it is eifecrighteous decrees and appointments tually provided for in the covenant; and of the eternal God.” S.lar objec- only by giving diligence, and abounding in tions lie against the bishop's assertion, them, can we make our calling and election that “ the very idea of a covenant is
sure. Now, then, can this be, 'without any inconsistent with the Calvinistic
respect to our conductor
system.” Upon which Mr.Scott inquires, Various other instances of similar what were the conditions of the cove- inaccurate or unfair representation nant made with Noah and his poste. of the Calvinistic doctrine are nority after the teluge? or of that other ticed by Mr. Scott; but we must covenant with the church of God, of hasten to the main arguments on this which it is expressly said, this is
very difficult and intricate subject. as the waters of Nouh unto me *=”– Of ihese, the first in order, as in imas if, on the principles of the Bishop portance, are of course derived from of Lincoln, a covenant could only be Scripture. In support of his view of one kinų t; and that which the of the question respecting redempgreat God has vouchsafed to make tion, the Bishop of Lincoln very nawith bis fallen and helpless crea- turally brings forward those passages tures, must in every respect be simi- which appear most plainly to favour Jar to those which men of equal it; but while Mr. Scoit distinctly powers are accustomed to make with and repeatedly allows their force ar one another.
to the universality of redemption, so Again, when the bishop observes far as its sufficiency is concerned, he with his usual barsliness of repre- contends, that in many instances sentation upon this subject, “ ab- both of tests adduced by the bishop, solute decrees say, that it is irrever- and of others which his lordship does sibly determined by the arbitrary will not adduce, in which the terms,
" all” or “ Isaiah liv.9, 10. See also Jer. xxxi. 31,
every,” occur, some ex32, and 37. Ez. xvi. 60.
ception or limitation must be ad: + See upon this point our Review of the mitted, as to the actual efficacy or Icarned and candid Archdeacon Pott's Consi. event, either to avoid manifest error derations on the Christian Covenant, in the or absurdity in the interpretation, or third volume of our work.
contradiction to other express testia Christ. OBSERV. No. 127.
inonies of Scripture. For instance, by St. Peter, in his first Epistle, the view which is given by the bi- chap. i. 8, were " appointed by God shop of the well-known parallel be- to disobedience, then disobedience tween the first and second Adam, would be compliance with the Dia and the effects of the disobedience vine appointment or will, and the of the one, and of the obedience of same act would be both obedience the other, as drawn by St. Paul in and disobedience.” Now there certhe tifth chapter of the Epistle to the tainly is much force in Ihese staleRomans, though sanctioned by many mients; but then his lordship must commentators, “ is liable,” says Mr. be aware, that those who believe Scott, “ to insurinountable objec- the doctrine of the Divine decrees tions: especially it most clearly ad- do not affect to know who are the obmits, that the righteousness of one jects of them If it be said, that this cume upon all men to justification cannot refer to our Lord, who knew of life:' and how then can univer- all men, and who they were that sal salvation be denied ? Jodeed, his would believe, Mr. S. replies, that as Jordship's words, it rigorously inter- man, and as a preacber, he has left us preted, might seem to admit this an example, for our imitation; that lie consequence : • universal righteous. used proper means for the salvation ness and pardon the effect of Christ's of those who heard him, and that even obedience.'" But Mr. Scott is per- in the case of some* of whom he knew suaded that the bishop does not in- und declared, that they would not betend universal salvation ; and inter- lieve. As for all other preachers and preting the passage in question by hearers of the Gospel, he affirms it to ihe clause in the 1715 verse, which be the duty of the one, to deliver their seems to limit the actual benefit to
message in the plainest and most those " who receive abundance of earnest terms of invitation to all; grace, and of the gift of righteous, and of the other, to receive and ness,” he does not object to the uni- obey it; and “we have no fear,” adds versality of the redemption in the Mr. Scott, “ of being condemned sense before explained.' The same for opposition to a secret decree, while reasoning applies to the 2011 verse diligently obeying a revealed and of this chapter, as to the super- express command.” Vol. ii. p. 15. abounding of grace; where the bi- The alleged absurdity of “the shop's argument, by proving 100 same act being," upon the Calvinis. much, shews that it is not conclusive; tic hypothesis, s both obedience and and, it may be added, to the lalier disobedience,” Mr. Scott endeavours part of the 15th chapter of the 1st to explain by the same distinction Epistle to the Corinthia:s, which between ibe revealed and the secret must evidently be restrained to the will of God. Obedience is compliresurrection of the just.
ance with the known command of Another set of texts, introduced by God; not acting according to his the Bishop of Lincoln with consi- decree or appointment, whether se. derable confidence, respects the sup- cret or revealed. Certainly men, in posed incompatibility of decrees with disobeying the command of God, commands, and exhortations to duty, fulfil his appointments, and often with conditions, and voluntary actions. accomplish his predictions. “ Did His lordship instances, in the case decrees," observes Mr. Scott, “even both of the Jews and Gentiles, who when revealed, warrant the conduct were called upon to believe and of those, who break God's commandobey the Gospel; and his argument ments, in fulfilling them, the acis this: “ If God had decreed that cursed slave trade might have found the Jews" (mentioned in the 6th of a better justification from prophecy, St. Johu) “ should not believe, it than it ever had in the British senate could not have been said, that it from its most able, eloquent, and was his work that they should;" zealous advocates." and that if those who are mentioned
See John vi. 64; and x 26.
"If any event ever was absolutely rejection of the Gospel by the Jews decreed, and most expressly pre- was their own voluntary act, and not dicted, the crucifixion of Christ in consequence of any decree of was that event: yet that did not God;” Mr. Scott replies, that it was at all excuse any of the parties con- undoubtedly so; and so was the act cerned in it."
of Judas, in betraying Christ. None In concluding that those who hold of them did wickedly as compelled the argument of the Bishop of Lin- by a Divine decree, but as instigated colo must either disavow the belief by their own sinful passions ; nor as of the Divine prescience and of all induced by a Divine decree, of which prophecy, or excuse an immense they neither knew nor thought any proportion, if not the whole, of the thing; but this does not prove that wickedness which has ever been God did not decree to "give them committed, Mr. Scott evidently falis up to their own hearts' lusts,” and to into the error, of which, however, “send them a strong delusion,” as he is far less guilty than some of his a punishment for the preceding opponents, of charging on an adver- “ crimes of which he foresaw they sary consequences which he ex- would be guilty." pressly disclaims; but we cordially It is evident that much of the reaagree with him, as to the importance soning in the “ Refutation," and in of firmly adhering to this fundamen- some other Anti-calvinistic productal tenet, that the law and command tions, is built upon the supposition, of God, without respect to any Di- that God is in some way bound to vine purposes or predictions, are the do certain things, if not all that he is only rule by which our conduct able, for the salvation of his rebelmust be regulated, and by which it lious creatures : so that, if he do not will be judged. We would join this, it is inconsistent with his love, with him, too, in the earnest wish, if not with his justice. This is an which is suggested by some expres- argument which, with whatever sions in the “ Refutation,” that they force it may be pressed in the case who engage in religious controversy of persons dying in infancy, yet is, would reverently avoid all language like many others on each side of that even seems to impeach the con- this intricate question, clogged, in the duct of God, on the supposition that case of adults, with great and perhaps their own tenets are not true. For insuperable difficulties.
It seems, himself, Mr. Scott solemnly promises in the first place, directly to militate to retract any expression to this ef. against that view of salvation which fect which may be pointed out to
meets us in Scripture at every turn; him.
viz. that it is in all its parts, rela“Whether Calvinisin,” he adds, in that tions, and circumstances, wholly of spirit of genuine and profound piety which grace; and that if any nation, or any pervades every part of his work, " be true
individual, differ from another, it is or false, God is infinitely wise, righteous, by the grace of God.” holy, faithful, goud, merciful; worthy of all
The reasoning in question seems, reverence, adoration, love, confidence, ho- also, to be at variance with the evinour, and obedience, from all rational crea- dence of facts. It is very natural tures, to all eternity. It would indeed be a and easy to exclaim, with the Bishop blessed effect of this publication, if it should of Lincoln, can we suppose that render Calvinists, as well as their opponents, God seeth his rational creatures not more reverently cautious, what words they only in heed, but obnoxious to death use, in the warmth of controversy, when, on any account, the glory of God, in his dispen
and misery, and yet refuses his aid sations or decrees, is even remotely con- to rescue them from impendiog cerned."
ruin?” with much more to the same
purport. But the point to be consiWith respect to the observation dered is this ; what has the Almighty of the Bishop of Lincoln, that “the actually been pleased to do as to