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of any thing not subject to the ob- therefore, no such thing as eternal, servaiion of the senses, instead of a immutable, everlasting iruth; unless mere arbitrary sound, a metaphor mankind, such as they be at present, was used ; that is, something known be also eternal, immutable, and everwas employed to explain something lasting *.” unknown, as the best approximation We cannot enter upon a formal that could be made to it. Nothing refulation of this puerile theory, can be more simple and nalural than Mr. Stewart has examined and sifted all this, but this matter of fact it with great ability in the chapters (though admitting of so easy an ex- which he has devoted to the consi. planation is considered by the ma- deration of Mr. Tooke's philological terialists as a prodigious argument speculations; and nothing can be in favour of their theory. Language more masterly than his attack, or certainly carries us back, in the his- more complete than bis triumph. Two tory of its etymology, to sensible things surely are most obvious ; objects; and it is thence inferred, that there is such a thing as speakquite " de bonne foi," and with all ing metaphorically; and, that the the tranquillity of a demonstrative sense which belonged to a word truth, lhat every thing expressed by five hundred years ago, may not be language must of course be a sen. the sense which belongs to it at sible object also. Mr. Tooke has present. If Mr. Tooke's theory is not always taken the trouble to correct, when we say that a lion is draw this conclusion; but it is pretty a humane animal, we mean that he plainly intimated in his disquisie is a man; a private gentleman is tions, as well as evidently implied an idiot ; an instant is a standing in the principle on which he rea- thing; a result is a jumping thing; sons; and on one very important to attend to a person is to walk up occasion it is distinctly expressed to him; to impress ideas upon the Of the word right, he observes, that mind is to squeeze them in, and to ft may be shewn to mean nothing erpress them is to squeeze them out but what is ordered : and of the again; when two men converse, words expressing the soul, in the they turn round together; when Latin and Greek languages, he Mr. Tooke advanced his theory, he proves that they mean only wind or overthrew it; when he supported it, breath : leaving, in both ihese in- he carried it on his shoulders ; and stances, the corollary to his readers. when he inculcated it, he trod it But on the word truth, he has the under his feet. following remarkable paragraphs. After having so long detained " True, as we now write it, or trew, our readers with our own comments, as it was formerly written, means it would be unpardonable not to presimply and merely, that which is sent them with the following just, trowed. And instead of being a rare striking, and very eloquent observacommodity upon earth, except only tions, from the pen of Mr. Stewart : in words, there is nothing but truth
“ The philological speculations to which in the world.
the foregoing criticismis refer, have been pro“ That every inan, in his commu- secuted by various ingenious writers; who nication with others, should speak have not ventured (perhaps who have not that which he troweth, is of so great meani) to draw from them any inferences in importance to mankind, that it favour of naterialism. But the obscure ought not to surprise us, if we find hints frequently thrown out, of the momen. the most extravagant praises be
tous conclusions to which Mr. Tooke's discostowed upon truth. But truth sup- they were wailed by the author of Zoonomia,
reries are to lead, and gratulations with which poses mankind; for whom, and by and by other physiologists of the same school, whom alone, the word is formed, leave no doubt with respect to the ultimate and to whom alone it is applicable. If no man, no truth. There is, * Diversions of Purley, ap. Stewart, 167. CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 129.
purpose to which they have been supposed to I entertain towards every theory relating to be subservient. In some instances, these the human mind, which aspires to ennoble writers express themselves, as if they con- its rank in the creation. I and partial to it, ceived the philosophy of the human nand to because, in the more sublime views wliicb it be inaccessible to all who have not been in opens of the universe, I recognize one of the itiated in their cabalistical mysteries, and most infallible characteristics by which the sneer at the easy creplity of those who conclusions of indoctive science are distinimagine that the substantive spirit means guished from the presumptuous fictions of any thing else than breath ; or the adjective buman folly. right, any thing essentially diferent from a " When I study the intellectual pourers line forming the shortest distance between of mm in the writings of Hartley, of Priesto two points. The language of those mela- ley, of Darwin, or of Tooke, I feel as if I physicians who have recommended an ab. were examining the sorry mechanism that straction from things external as a necessary gives motion to a pnppet. If, for a moment, preparation for studying our intellectual i am carried along by their tbeories of huframe, has been censured as bordering upon uman knowledge and of human kife, I seem enthusiasm, and as calculated to inspire a to myself to be admitted behind the curtain childish wonder at a department of know- of what I had once conceived to be a magledge, which, to the few who are let into the nificent theatre; and while I survey the secret, presents nothing above the compre- tinsel frippery of the wardrobe, and the hension of the graminarian and the anata palery decurations of the sceners, am more mist. For my own part, I have no scrupłe esfied to discover the trick which had cheated to avow, that ibe obvious tendency of these my eye at a distance. This surely is not the doctrines to degrade the nature and faculties characteristic of truth or of nature, the bear of man in his own estimation, seems to me ties of which invite our closest inspection; to afford, of itself, a very strong presumption deriving new lustre from those microscopical against their truth. Cicero considered it as researches which deform the most finished an objection of some weight to the sounde productions of art. If, in our physical inness of an ethical system, that it savoured quiries concerning the material world, every of nothing grand or generous,'(nihil magni- step that has been hitherto gained, has at ficum, nihil generosum sapit): nor was the once exalted our conceptions of its immenobjection so trifling as it may at first appear; sity, and of its order, can we reasonably for how is it possible to believe that the con- suppose that the genuine philosophy of the ceptions of the nakitude, concerning the mind is to disclose to us a spectacle less duties of life, are elevated by ignorance, or pleasing, or less elevating, than fancy or prejudice, io u pitch which it is the business vanity had disposed us to anticipate?". of reason and philosophy to adjust to an Pp. 185, 186, 187. humbler aim? From a feeling somewhat
(To be continued.) imilar, 1 frankly acknowledge the partiality
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
Studies of History, being an abridged His In the press A Collection of carions and tory of Greece, by the Rev. T. Morell ;-A interesting Letters, translated from the Ori- Guide to the Reading of the Holy Scriptures, ginals in the Bodleian Library, with ilustra translated from the Latin of Professor Franck, tions ;-A Reformed Commuuiou Office for with a Life of the Author; by Mr. W. the Administration of the Lord's Supper, by Jaques of Chelsea. the Rev.Mr.Anstis of Bridport;—The Travels of Professor Lichtenstein in Southern Africa, Dr. Thomas Clark, of Denmark Street, has translated by Miss A. Plumpire ;-and A vo represented an injection of a decoction of lume' of Sermons, by Dr. Watts, never before ipecacuanha as a certain cure for dysentery, published, edited by Dr. Pye Smith. and he cites so upany proofs that it clearly
Preparing for publication: Second Vo- deserves a fair trial in every case of this disfume of Mr. Ivimey's History of English ease. Baptists ;--A Metrical History of England, At the York assizes, a cause came on to reby the Rev. T. B. Dibdiu ; - First Part of cover of the defendant, the Hon, and Rew
Mr. Catlıcart, sundry penalties for non-resi. from the diffusion of the fatal contagion of dence. The jury found a verdict against small pox in the community, in consequence him for 6611. 145.
of variolous inoculation, among the lower VACCINATION.
classes of the people, which constantly keeps The following is the substance of the Re. up the contagion, and where it saves a single port of the National Vaccine Establishment, life, exposes numbers to a most dangerous which was laid on the table of the House of disease. It is greatly to be wished that this Commons at the close of the last session. evil could be checked, by such measures as
During the year 1811, the surgeons ap- Government in its wisdom might judge proper pointed by their authority to the nine sta- to frame, ia order to prevent the spreading tions in London, vaccinated 3,148 persons, of the small pox, and thus keeping up a conand distributed 23,794 charges of vaccine tinual source of infection in the heart of the lymph to the public. Since the com- metropolis. The constant renewal of the mencement of ibis establishinent, not a contagion of small pox in this capital, is single instance of small pox, after vaccine- strikingly contrasted with the advantages en. tion, has occurred to any of their surgeons. joged by several of the other capitals of EuIn consequence of an order from the Ad- rope, in consequence of the universal adope miralty, vaccination has been practised in tion of vaccination by medical practitioners, the navy to a great extent; and though not seconded by the authority of government. universally adopted, the mortality from the The cities of Vienna and Milan, in which small por, among seamen, is already greatly the mortality from small pox was formerly diminished. In the army, the practice of more considerable in proportion to their povaccination has been long established, and pulation than in London, have been for its effects have been decidedly beneficial. A some time freed altogether from this destrucdisorder formerly so fatal to the truops, is live pest; the first for five, and the latter for wow considered as nearly extinguished in the eight years, according to the statement of army. Vaccination is almost every where Drs. Dc Carrio and Sacco; and in the city gaining ground, throughout the British domi- of Geneva, the small pox has been nearly nions; and it is found that the number of extirpated. In Switzerland in general, but deaths from the small pox is uniformly de- more particularly in Geneva, the extension creasing, in proportion as vaccination be- of the blessings connected with vaccination, comes more general; and the inoculation of bas in a great degree depended on the warm the small pox declines. The disappearance and active co-operation of the clergy, wbo of the small pox from the island of Ceylon, were assiduous in recommending the pracwas noticed in the Report of last year; and tice to their parishioners from the pulpit, as in consequence of vaccination, this disease well as promoting it by every other exertion has in no instance lately occurred in the in their power. island of Anglesey, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in the town of Petwonth, or in the adjoining district. Previous to the discovery of vacci- We have already informed our readers nation, the average number of deaths by that the valoable labours of Matthew Martin, seriall pox, within the bills of mortality, was Esq. in inquiring into the state of mendicity 2000 annually; whereas in the last year in the metropolis, with a view to its suppresouly 751 persons have died of that disease, sion, were some time since resumed. He ha although the increase of population within opened an office for this purpose, under the the last ten years bas been 133,139. The sanction and at the expense of Government, reports from Dublin and from Scotland sure situated at No. 23, Artillery Place, Brewer's nislı evidence of the general and rapid in- Green, Westminster. At this office, and also crease of vaccination, and give the most sa- At Mr. Hatchard's, No. 190, Piccadilly, tisfactory proofs of the success and efficacy tickets may be had at the price of threepence of the practice.
cach, one of which given to a beggar will In the cases which have come to the know- ensure to hita, when presented at the office, ledge of the Board, the small pox after vac- at least its value. The great advantage, cination, with a very few exceptions, has however, arising from this plan, is not the been a mild disease ; and out of the many small temporary relief thus afforded, but the hundred thousand persons vaccinated, not å opportunity that is gained of inquiring fully single well-authenticated instance has been into the case of the beggar, with a view to communicated of the occurrence of a fatal ascertain its real nature, and to afford, if mall pos after vaccination. The Report ad- possible, permanent relief. For this last verts to thic mischiefs which are daily arising purpose there is a separate fund, raised by
private subscription, and administered by a care should be taken to explain to the beggar most respectable committee, by means of the use which he is to make of it. The effiwhich iucli severe distress has been alleviat, cacy of this plan, in procuring relief to real ed or removed. This has been done in the objects of commiserativn, must depend, howcase of paruchial poor, by procuring the aid ever, on the extent of the subscription fund; of their parislies ; and in the case of the non- and that, we are sorry to perceive, by a cirparochial poor, by means of tickets for hos- cular letter from Mr. Martin, is very low. pitals, and other public charities, medical as- Benevolent persons are therefore invited to sistance, occasional articles of clothing, em- contribute to it. It must be obvious, lo those ployment, and sometimes pecuniary dona. who are in the habit of giving casual relief, tions. The proportion of parochial and non- how much more good a guinea, or ten guineas, parochial applicants appear io be, in five liun- thus applied would effect, than if it were dred, three hundred and twenty of the former, distributed at random in the streets. We and one hundred and eighty of the latter. carnot conceive a inore unexceptionable It is impossible for any one io walk throngh node of charity than this, nor one which is the streets of this metropolis without ineet- more likely to yield a large amount of good ing nany objects to whom he would be glad in proportion to the sum employed. Subto administer relief, if he could ascertain that scriptions are received at Drummond's, Charhis bounty would not be mischievous rather ing Cross; Morland's, 56, Pall Mall; Bothan useful. How is he to distinguish those sanqueti's, 73, Lombard Street; Hatchard's, who are proper objects of charity? The 190, Piccadilly ; Mortlock’s, 250, Oxford present plan frees him from this difficulty. Street; and at the Mendicity Office, 23, ArA beggar cannot be in great want who will tillery Place, Brewer's Green, Westmiuster ; not, for the value of the ticket, take the trou. at which place, or at his house in Poet's ble of calling at the office, and submitting to Corper, Old Palace Yard, Westminster, inan investigation of his case with a view to formation or suggestions may be addressed to further relief. But when a ticket is given, M. Martin, Esą.
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BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. R. H. Davis, Esq., M. P.; the Mayor of ColIn our last number, we inserted some ex- 'chester ; Dr. Mackintosh; G. Round, P. tracts from the Appendix to this Society's Havens, J. Mills, jun., R. Tabor, J. SaEight Report, which had a reference to its vill, and G. Suvill, Esqs. ; vice-presidents. foreign operations. We will now add such 3. The Darlington. The Bishop of Durextracts, connected with its proceedings at bam, patron : Viscount Barnard, president : home, as we think will gratify those read and W. Hutchingson, G. Alcan, J. Backers of our work, who may not have access house, and G. L. Hollingsworth, Esqs.; and to the Report itself.
the Rev. C. Plomtree ; vice-presidents. The Auxiliary Societies formed in the With this are connected two Branch Socourse of the preceding year, which have es- cietjes, of which the Rev. F. Blackburn, and caped our notice, and of which we have not J. B. S. Morrit, Esq. are presidents. already given some account, are the follow- 6. The Derby. Sir Robert Wilmot, Bart., ing:
president: J. Crompton, W. Evans, J. Bel. 1. The Brechin Auxiliary Bible Society. lairs, and G. Smith, Esq., treasurers.
2. The North Buckinghamshire, of which 7. The Dundee. The Provost of Dundee, the Marquis of Buckingham is president: president. and Lord Grenville ; Earl Temple; Lord G. 8. The Evesham. The Earl of Coventry, Grenville; Hon. E. Arundel; Rev. Sir G. president; and Lord Northwick; Sir. C. W. Lee, Bart.; Sir J. Aubrey, Bari., M. P. ; Sir R. Boughton, Bart.; W. Manning, Esq., J. Lovett, Bart.; Sir T. Sheppard, Bart.; W. M. P.; ard H. Howorth, Esq., M.P.; viceLowndes, Esq., M. P.; W. H. Hanmer, W. presidents. Praed, P.D.P. Duncombe, W. Pigott, M. D. 9. The Hitchin and Baldock. The Hon. Mansel, Esqs.; and the Rev. R. Verney, H. Thomas Braud, M. P., president: and W. Quarley, and H. Crowe ; vice-presidents. Hale, W. Hale, jun, E. H. D. Radcliffe,
3. The Chelmsford and West Essex. and W. Wilshere, Esqs.; vice-presidents. Lord Braybrooke, president : and Lord Hen- 10. The Leeds. John Hardy, Esq., Repiker; General Henniker; Sir 11. P. St. John corder of Leeds, president. Mildmay, Sir R. Wigram, and Rev. Sir 11. The Maidenhead. G.Vansittart, Esq. Adam Gordon, Barts. ; Admiral Fortescue; M.P. president: and Viscount Kirkwall; Lord A. Cricket, Esq., M. P.; W. Smith, Esq., Boston ; Lord Riversdale; Right Hon. N. M. P.; W. Heygate, Esq.; Rev. Drs. Dis- Vansittart, M. P.; Admiral Sir C. M. Pole, ney, Jowett, and Clarke ; Rev. B. Bridges; M. P.; Sir M. Ximenes; Sir W. Herne; CoJ. Corrigen, C. Tower, C. H. Kirbright, J. Jonel Vansittart; Colonel Kearney; Rev. E. W. Hull, and R. Tindall, Esqs. ; vice-pre- Dawkins, J. Sawyer, C. Hayes, C. Fuller, sidents,
T. Wilson, B. Witts, J. Langton, C. S. 4. The Colchester and West Essex. Ho- Murray, and J. Mangles, Esqs. ; vice-presiratio Cock, Esq., president: Earl of Chat- dents. ham; Admiral Harvey, M. P.; J. A. Hou- 12. The Great Marlow, Sir W. Clayton, blon, Esq., M.P.; R. Thornton, Esq., M.P.; Bart. president.