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EXPORTS of Cotton and Tobacco, from New Orleans, for ten years-commencing 1st of September, and ending 31st of August.

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TOTAL, 724508 1054857 984616 895375 1058870 749267 821288 949320 579179 738313| 50376 62 45 68679 81249 89891 68058 54667 40436 30780 35555 RECAPITULATION.

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50376 62045 68679 81249 89891 68058 51667 40436 30780 35555

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COMMERCE AND IMPROVEMENTS OF LEXINGTON, MISSOURI.

We have taken the following statistics from the "Lexington Weekly Express" of January 18th, 1848:

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"Mercantile Business.-The exports for the year amounted to about $250,000 -the staples of this section of country — hemp, wheat, flour, dry-hides, bacon, pork, lard, &c., making up the principal portion of that sum. The imports were something near $200,000 in value, consisting of goods, groceries, salt, lumber, &c. "Horses to the value of $20,000, and oxen to the sum of $25,000, have been purchased and sent from this point.

The aggregate number of hogs packed since the 1st of November last, has reached 6,700.

"During the season, there were nearly 190 arrivals of steamboats up stream, and about 180 down stream.

"We find, at this time, 17 dry goods houses; 2 dry goods and boat stores, 1 family grocery; 2 tin-ware and stove stores, 3 drug stores, and 3 lumber yards. "Mechanical Employments.-Blacksmiths, 8 shops; coopers, 5 shops; cabinet makers, 2 shops; carpenters, 11 shops; iron and steel turners, 1 shop; wagon makers, 6 shops; coach makers, 1 shop; silver smiths, 3 shops; tinners and shee t iron workers, 2 shops; painters and glaziers, 2 shops; chair makers, 1 shop; saddlers, 4 shops; tailors, 7 shops; shoemakers, 3 shops; bakeries, 3 shops; milliners, 4 shops; gunsmiths, 1 shop.

"There are two printing offices and one book-bindery and blank book manufactory.

"Professions and Schools-Physicians, 14; dentists, 4; attorneys at law, 14. "There is one high school for young men; one for young ladies; two schools for boys, and four for girls.

"Mills and Manufactories.-Steam flouring mills, 2, (one now building;) steam

saw mills, 2; steam distilleries, 2, (one now building;) wool carding machines, 1; tanneries, 1; fanning mill manufactory, 1; rope walks, 3.

"Banks and Insurance Offices.-Branch of the State Bank of Missouri; 1 Agency for the Mutual Fire and Marine Insurance Company, of St. Louis, and 1 Agency for the Home Mutual Fire and Marine Insurance Company of St. Louis." The improvements of last year, in part, consist of 43 buildings, principally dwellings; there was also erected a Masonic College 3 stories, 50 by 80 feet, and a Court House 2 stories, 50 by 80 feet. There were about 3,000,000 brick burned in 1847, all of which were used in building except about 400,000.

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COMMERCE AND POPULATION OF PEORIA, ILLINOIS.

We have made up the following statistics of the business and population of PEORIA, from the "Peoria Register" of the 14th instant:

In point of beauty and pleasantness of location, Peoria stands unrivalled among the cities of the West. Nor is its situation less interesting in a business point of view. Situated about mid-way between St. Louis and Chicago; communicating with the Mississippi River and the Lakes, by the means of navigation at once safe and sufficient for all business purposes; surrounded by a country unsurpassed in fertility; and settled by a population intelligent, enterprising and industrious, it promises to take rank among the important cities of the Mississippi Valley. The exports for the year 1847 are valued at $500,000, and consist of the following articles:

Flour 38,550 barrels; wheat 100,776 bushels; corn 204,850 bushels; oats 15,279 bushels; barley 1,550 bushels; pork 16,200 barrels; bacon in bulk 870,635 pounds; pork in bulk 656,640 pounds; whisky 4,500 barrels.

Steam Boats.-The number of steam boat arrivals at Peoria in 1846 was 871, being an increase of 177 over the preceding year. There were 60 boats in the trade at different times, 24 of which were regular packets. The aggregate amount of tonnage was 9,247. Four of these boats were owned at Peoria, and one at Chilicothe in the same county. The navigation opened on the 20th of February and closed on the 14th of December.

Pork and Beef Packing.-One individual, Mr. Tobias Myers, paid last season $60,891 for stock, besides the cost of slaughtering and packing. He slaughtered 1,108 head of beef cattle averaging 617 pounds; 4,230 hogs, and purchased hogs already slaughtered 1,680, making in all 5,910, of which 2,663 averaged 244 pounds. He packed 2.600 barrels of Navy beef; 2,400 barrels of Navy pork; 325 beef hams; 22 barrels of beef tongues, and 40 barrels of rump pork. The

yield of lard was 1,164 barrels; yield of tallow 61,400 pounds; 27 barrels of neats foot oil, and 123 barrels steam grease. Beef hides 92,100 pounds, average weight 83 pounds; the hams and shoulders in bulk 438,365 pounds.

Flouring Mills.-There was ground at Ruggles' Steam Mill 69,443 bushels of wheat, producing 13,900 barrels of flour, and at Rankin's Steam Mill 78,002₫ bushels of wheat, producing 15,600 barrels of flour.

Distilleries.-Mr. S. Thompson shipped from his establishment in 1847, 4,500 barrels of whisky, and fattened 1,200 hogs. He consumed 65,000 bushels of corn, 35,000 bushels of stone coal, and paid $4,000 for labor.

"Stores, Shops, Mechanics, &c.-At this time there are in the city 24 dry good stores; 6 dry goods, boots and shoes; 11 grocery and provision stores; 5 hardware stores; 5 clothing stores; 5 drug stores; 9 drinking establishments; 3 jewelry shops; 4 copper, tin and sheet iron shops; 2 plow manufactories; 8 wagon maker shops; besides many other shops of various mechanics.

"The following will show the number of various mechanics in the city as near as I could get them: Carpenters and joiners, 86; coopers 40; masons, plasterers and stone masons, blacksmiths, 30; cabinet makers, 17; shoemakers, 20; tailors, 10; harness makers, 12; coach and wagon makers, 15; painters and gla ziers, 12; chairmakers, 7; mill makers, 6; plow makers, 9; hatters, 4; machinists, 3; moulders 6; silversmiths, 7; tin and coppersmiths, 7; gunsmiths, 3; stone cutters, 5; bakers, 7; potters, 3; printers, 11; and 3 weekly papers, and a joboffice; 15 lawyers; 11 physicians; 3 dentists, and 3 portrait painters.

"The following will show the population of the city from 1844 to the present with the increase in each year:

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January 1, '44, under 20 years, 805; over 20 years, 814; total, 1619.

«January 1, '45, under 20 years, 972; over 20 years, 962; total, 1934; increase in each, 315.

"Jannary 1, '46, under 20 years, 1136; over 20 years, 1256; total, 2392; increase in each, 458.

"January 1, '47, under 20 years, 1522; over 20 years, 1192; total, 3014; increase in each, 622; increase in voters, 183.

"January 1, '48, under 20 years, 2327; over 20 years; 1752; total, 4079. increase in each, 1085; increase of voters 163."

There are 633 dwellings and 77 stores in the city: of the former 238 are brick and 385 frame, and of the latter 34 are brick and 43 frame.

WHITNEY'S PACIFIC RAILROAD.-The projected road from the North-western States to the Pacific, advocated by Mr. Whitney, has increased its proselytes, if we may judge from the resolutions lately sent to Congress by the New York Legislature, and the resolution passed by that of Alabama.

THE

WESTERN JOURNAL.

Volume I.]

MARCH, 1848.

[Number 3.

ART. L-ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE MINERAL MASSES

COMPOSING THE EARTH.

In order that those who are not familiar with the principles of geology may form some definite idea of the basis of its classification of the mineral masses which enter into the constitution of the crust of the earth, it will be necessary to refer to some of the leading facts and general views embodied in the science.

The object of geology, in its most general sense, is to collect and associate all the facts and phenomena which are identified with the natural history of the earth. Its more definite objects are to ascertain the constitution of the mineral masses of which its crust is composed-their relation to each other, or their order of super-position-their relative ages as developed by the organic remains deposited in them, and the influence of physical laws and cosmical agencies in modifying their past and present condition. In the amplitude of its designs it embraces every fact and presses into service every principle which can reflect light upon the past history and present state of the earth. It thus becomes a complex science, borrowing the elements of its views, and the principles of its reasoning from other sciences, while it imparts to them in its turn, many new and valuable results.

In our geological enquiries, we may direct our attention to a great variety of objects of investigation. We may study the relations of the earth as one of the planetary masses of our solar system; the action and reaction which take place between it and other masses; how far these have influenced its physical condition; their comparative densities; and the probabilities in favor of an identity in constitution. In attaining these ends it becomes intimately associated with astronomy. If we extend our investigation to the statical and dynamical relations which have existed in past ages, and which, perhaps, (somewhat modified,) are still operative in modelling and fashioning the surface of the globe, giving it its agreeable and

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