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Exports from China, to the United States, of silks and sundries, for the seasons
PROGRESS OF THE AMERICAN CHEESE TRADE.
There is no product of the United States that has been so steadily gaining favor in foreign markets, for the last fifteen years, as the article of cheese; and desiring that the farmers of the west should participate in the advantages accruing from the increasing demand for this commodity, we wish to call their attention to the following statistics. We are not aware that there is any reason why cheese may not be made as profitable in the western States as in New York. It is true that the freight would be something more, but there are many advantages in the valley of the Mississippi, which are greatly in favor of the western stock grower. The first of these is the low price of land, and the great advantage, at present, of summer range.
Cheese will bear transportation better than any agricultural article produced in this country, and carries with it less of the productive properties of the soil in proportion to its value. This is a branch of husbandry that requires little outlay of capital, and can be carried on as cheaply as any other, and we feel confident that if a few enterprizing individuals were to set the example, that Missouri and Illinois would in a few years not only rival, but advance far beyond, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, in the production of cheese.
We should be pleased to hear from some of our agricultural friends upon the subject of making cheese in the west; and we should like very much to see a comparative statement made between the profits of growing corn for market, at ten to fifteen cents per bushel, and cheese at the fair market price.
Almost the entire amount received for cheese would be a clear gain to the country-for the greater part of the products which constitute the food of cattle, is of so little value, when compared to its bulk, that it will not bear transportation to a market, and much of the attention and labor connected with cheese-making, would not be otherwise employed. ·
The "Detroit Free Press," the State paper of Michigan, furnishes the following statement of this new and rather important branch of trade:
"The cheese trade is rapidly augmenting in this country. The foreign exports of it have become a prominent article of supply for distant climes. Up to 1840, there was but a small quantity of it shipped, and that principally on foreign account. That year, Messrs. Goodrich & Co, of New York, and the Messrs. Green, of Boston, made the experiment of large consignments to England. Of course, they met with the usual prejudices, the market before having been furnished with foreign cheese from Ireland and Holland. By perseverance, the American article gradually came into favor, until it has now reached a heavy consumption. It fills part of the cargo of almost every vessel that leaves our seaports for Liverpool. The statistics of export, as will be seen by the following, betoken a still further extension, which is worthy the attention of farmers of this State:+
This foreign export trade has now reached over a million of dollars annually.
Until within five years, cheese has usually been kept on sale in our eastern cities by grocers and produce dealers, with a general assortment of other products. A total revolution in this respect has taken place. In New York and Boston, extensive houses, exclusively for cheese, are doing a large business. Several commission houses are now solely engaged in it.
Ohio also sends
The farmers of our State seem to have neglected this important branch of the dairy. Every other saleable product is produced here in abundance; why not add this to our list of exports! We certainly possess the grazing land. Still we do not make 20 per cent. of the cheese consumed in the State. Daily it is shippad here from Buffalo, and goes into the interior of this State. her hundreds of tons to our market. Neither Western New York nor Ohio possesses more advantages for its manufacture than our own farmers. We are told that, at the prices it has borne for the last five years, it is much more profitable than butter. In fact, for three months in the year, butter does not sell at any higher price. All dairy-women agree that two pounds of cheese are made easier than one pound of butter. Yet it is neglected.
In several towns.near Buffalo, (Hamburgh and Collins,) it is the principal business of the farmers, and all who have embarked in it have greatly added to their wealth. Chautauque County farmers have increased their cows for: cheese
making; Herkimer County, N. Y., produced 8,000,000 lbs. in 1845, according to the State census; St. Lawrence, 9,000,000 lbs. In Alleghany County, heretofore, lumber was the principal production; nearly every farmer now turns out his five to twenty casks of cheese in the fall. All the southern tiers of counties in that State are largely embarking into it. The census of 1835 gives the quantity made in the State at 36,000,000 lbs. Ohio has doubled her exports of it within five years. Indiana cheese is now becoming known in the market.
As a sample of its increase, we give the following statistics of the amount that arrived at tide water on the Hudson River, from the canal collector's hooks :
Here is a large quantity, but a ready market is found. The increase of foreign exports is large. Up to last fall, the duty on it in England was $2 42 per 100 lbs. Sir Robert Peel's new tariff reduced it to $1 per 100, which will cheapen it to British consumers. The prices range in Liverpool, according to quality, from $10 to $15 per 112 lbs., and for three years past, the London market has never been overstocked but three or four times, which has lasted but two to five weeks. It is getting introduced into all circles, and driving the Dutch article out of market. Mr. Coleman, in his Agricultural Tour in Europe, says he found it gracing the tables of the lords and nobles, where, five years ago, it had never found its way. He dined with a marquis, who treated him to American cheese, American apples, American cranberries, and American cider in bottles.
It is now exported to the East Indies in boxes, found in Calcutta, and goes, with other notions, to the celestials of China. None but the real skim-milk grind-stones, however, can stand a hot climate.
ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL.
In pursuance of the provisions of the 15th section of the law of February 21, 1813, the undersigned, Trustees of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, have established the following rates of toll on articles to be transported upon said canal during the year 1848:
1. Rates of Toll on Boats.
On each boat used chiefly for transporting common freight, 3 1-2 cents per mile,
On each boat used chiefly for transporting mineral coal, 3
cents per mile,
On each boat used for transporting passengers, $ cents per mile, 2. On Passengers.
On each passenger 8 years old and upwards, 4 mills per mile, Each passenger eight years old and upwards, shall be allowed sixty pounds baggage or household furniture, (if belonging to or used by such passenger,) free of toll.
3. On the following named articles, toll will be computed according to weight, that is to say, the following rates per mile will be charged on each 1,000 pounds and the same proportion for a lesser or greater weight :
Cotton, raw, in bales,
Carpenters and Join-
4 Charcoal, Pilz Fony
5 Iron, pig and scrap,
1 Iron, wrought or cast, 15
2 Iron tools,
10 Leather, ei
7 Lard, 6) MMV
10 Lime, commons
10 Furniture, household, 20
Lead, pigs and bar, 20
kinds in articles no and all
10 Glass and Glassware,
6 Molasses, in hhds. or
10 Marble, wrought,
7 Marble, unwrought,
10 Marble Dust,
10 Household furniture,Manure, OKRESIE I accompanied by and Nuts,
belonging to fami- Nails,
lies emigrating, golo15 Oats, privoliot sit ba 10 Hay and Fodder
5 Oil Cake, 1597 9ắt goi1:6
4. On the following named articles toll, per mile, will be computed by number or
On each 1000 feet (board measure) of lumber, per mile,
On each 100 cubic feet of timber, hewed or round, if transported
In ascertaining the amount of toll chargeable on any article, the weight of the cask, box, bag, crate, vessel or thing, in which said article is contained, shall be added to the weight of the article itself, and the toll computed accordingly.
If two or more articles, chargeable with different rates of toll, shall be contained in the same cask, box, or vessel, the whole shall be charged with the highest rates of toll chargeable on any article so contained.
The rafting of timber on the Canal or the Feeders is prohibited, unless by writ ten special agreement with the Superintendent of the Canal. Any violation of this order will subject the person violating it, to a penalty of ten dollars for every such offence.
W. H. SWIFT,
Office of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois and Michigan Canal,
February 21, 1848.