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Ohio Cultivator: He was about sowing his wheat, believing it to be perfectly clean; but, on being advised, concluded to brine and lime it first. When the brine was poured on, to his surprise he found chess floating thickly on the surface, and on being skimmed off, about a pint and a half were obtained from each bushel of seed. This would thoroughly seed any ground; but if the wheat grew well, the chess would be kept small and hidden; where winter killed, it would spring up, spread out and occupy the whole ground, and be attributed by superfi cial observers, to the change of the killed wheat to chess. The wheat, however, was thoroughly cleaned by brining, so that where it was winter killed and flyeaten, no chess appeared."
The increasing importance of hemp as an article of commerce, has stimulated many ingenious minds to study out some mode of improving upon the old method of breaking by the hand. Among the many experiments of using machinery for this purpose, we have seen none described which seems to promise a better result than the invention of Mr. L. F. P. Holcomb, of Delaware. This is a combination of the stationary bed brake with the rotary brake. "The hemp is fed in by hand, broken and cleaned with but one handling-the breaking and cleaning being done on separate cylinders-but the parts so arranged as that they are brought close together, and so adjusted as to only allow the machine to touch that part of the fibre that is to be acted on, thereby preventing its wear in the machine."
In a communication from Chauncy P. Holcomb, Esq., to the editor of the Journal of Agriculture, he says:
"Nothing can be more simple in its construction. The rudest and roughest hands can work it, and with little danger of its getting out of order. The cost of it will be only from seventy-five to one hundred dollars, exclusive of the horse power. It requires about two horse power. From my own experience in the use of it, I can confidently say and assure my brother farmers of the west, that the largest crop of hemp they grow, would hold out no terror, so far as the breaking and scratching of it was concerned, with the use of this machine."
The writer says that the machine is capable of breaking and cleaning, ready for market, about one thousand pounds per day, and that only two hands are required to attend it.
A description and drawing of this machine may be found in the May number, 1847, of the Journal of Agriculture, published in New York.
Mr. Obed Hussey, a machinist of Baltimore, has become interested in this machine, and will furnish it to those who may desire to purchase.
ST. LOUIS STEAM SUGAR REFINERY.
THIS we believe, is the most extensive manufacturing establishment in our city, and perhaps the most extensive of the kind, in either the south or west.
The proprietors, Messrs. Belcher & Brother, have politely favored us with the following description of the establishment, and also, with the statistics connected with the business of the concern for the year 1847.
The establishment with its out buildings, fronting on Levee street, occupies an entire block of two hundred and forty in width by 125 feet in depth, having streets on its north, east and south, and an alley twenty-five feet wide on the west. The main building is one hundred by eighty feet, seven stories. Engine and boiler house, ninety by forty-five feet, two stories. Retort house, seventy by thirty-five feet. Office and work-shops, sixty by twenty feet; all covered with iron roofing. There is a water cistern in the establishment which contains 100,000 gallons; water-pipes connect with the city reservoir; there are hose attachments in each story, and also an engine house with hose, to guard against fire. Connected with the establishment, is a cooperage employing fifteen to twenty-five coopers.
The arrangement of the establishment, evinces much judgment and skill, and there is a completeness in all the details, that is truly admirable.
The amount of product for 1847, was 4,860,000 pounds refined sugar of all kinds; 8,000 barrels sugar-house molasses; 1,000 barrels golden syrup; being upwards of 9,000,000 pounds of refined sugars, syrups and molasses.
The establishment at this time, is turning off about 500 tons of refined sugar, syrup and molasses, per month. The number of persons employed at the present time, in all the departments, including clerks, is about one hundred. The workmen connected with the refining department, are mostly Germans, who are employed at wages ranging from eighteen to twenty-four dollars per month.
Cuba and Louisiana sugars, are mostly used in this establishment for refining. The best qualities of loaf crushed and powdered sugars and golden syrups, are made entirely of Cuba sugars. The medium and common qualities of refined sugars and sugar-house molasses, are made from the raw sugars and syrups of Louisiana.
We are in formed by the proprietors that the advantages in the price of labor, fuel and bone slack, enable them to compete successfully with the refineries of the south.
The proprietors have shown a sound and discriminating judgment in selecting St. Louis as a suitable place for their enterprize. The freight of the raw material to this point, costs but little more than would the manufactured article, and therefore the difference in the cost of labor, fuel, &c., is nearly all a clear advantage in favor of the manufacturers here over those of the south. This is especially the case in regard to the refined sugars and syrups consumed north and west of this place.
This is a practical illustration of our theory of a system of commerce and manufactures adapted to the Valley of the Mississippi. In this case the raw material is produced in the extreme south, but is destined to be consumed in the middle
and extreme northern districts. It must necessarily pay freight to St. Louis, as a point of distribution, therefore, instead of sending provisions to the south to feed the operatives, besides fuel and bone slack to be used in the process of manufacturing, the raw material is brought here where all these necessary appliances are abundant, and cheaper than in the south. This policy is based upon the true principles of political economy, and the proprietors of this flourishing establishment may well be considered as among the benefactors of the country, for giving a practical illustration of a principle which seems to be so difficult of comprehen ́sion in the west; and we sincerely hope that the advantages and profits accruing to them as individuals, may be commensurate with the public benefit,
The following is a table of prices as established on the 1st of March, 1848:
When less than 5 packages are taken, one cent per pound additional is charged. On purchases of the above sugars to the amount of $500, 21 per cent. discount; $1000, 5 per cent.
Clarified Sugars-White and Yellow, 5 to 7 cents; Sugar-House Molasses-in barrels and half barrels; Golden Syrup-in barrels, half barrels, and 10 gal. kegs. Farwell & Co., Second street, are agents for this city.
THE MISSOURI STEAM SUGAR REFINERY.
We learn from the proprietor of this establishment, Mr. Frederick Angelback, that he uses annually 500,000 lbs. Havana sugar, 1,000,000 lbs. Louisiana sugar, and 5,000 barrels of New Orleans molasses, and employs about twenty hands. This establishment produces double refined and refined loaf, crushed and powdered sugars, white and yellow clarified sugars, golden syrup and sugar-house molasses. The latter articles are put up in barrels, half barrels and 10 gallon kegs.
This establishment though not very extensive, is conveniently located, and well arranged for business, and has the appearance of thrift and prosperity. Messrs. Switzer, Platt & Co., No. 57 Main street, are the agents in this city.
ST. LOUIS COTTON FACTORY.
This is the only cotton mill within our knowledge, on the west side of the Mississippi river. This establishment has been in operation about three years,
*We remember to have heard, some years since, that a cotton mill was about to be built in the northwestern part of Arkansas, but we do not know that it ever went into operation.
with sixteen hundred spindles. The mill employs about fifty hands and uses about six hundred and fifty bales of cotton per annum. We have not been furnished with the details of the business, but are informed by Mr. Adolphus Meier, one of the proprietors, that labor is abundant and easily procured at prices as low as those paid by eastern manufacturers.
This establishes an important fact, and is calculated to remove every doubt in regard to the advantages connected with the manufacture of cotton in St. Louis, for it would be an useless waste of time to undertake to prove that the raw material, provisions and fuel can all be obtained here cheaper than in New Engtand, and none can be so blind as not to perceive that if the fabric can be produced as cheap here as there, that the cost and charges incident to transporting it from the east, to say nothing of the profits to the merchant, are all saved to the western But more than all this, the establishment of manufactures affords a home market for western products, freed from the competition of other countries. In collecting statistics for the WESTERN JOURNAL, we have been careful to inquire in regard to the facilities of procuring labor, and we have been uniformly answered that labor of every kind was abundant, and easily procured at fair prices. This is a state of things which those at a distance would not expect to exist in a country so newly settled and thinly inhabited. Most of the foreigners who come to the west land at St. Louis. Very many of them are mechanics and laborers who rely upon daily employment for subsistence, and as there is but little demand for farm labor, many remain in the city, and are elled by necessity to labor for such prices as they can obtain. These are the principal causes of the abundance and cheapness of labor in St. Louis; and as long as foreign emigration shall continue to flow into the west, we hazard little in expressing the opinion, that labor will be as cheap, and probably cheaper, here than in any other city in the Union.
The proprietors of the St. Louis Cotton Factory appear to have acted with caution in the commencement of their business, and having taken ample time to tes the experiment, they are about to add one thousand spindles to their establishment. When we take into consideration the sagacity and prudence of the proprietors, this increase in their business affords strong proof that it has been profitable.
We acknowledge our obligations to J. M. P., for his interesting communication upon the subject of Electric Light. We should have been pleased to have given it a place in the present number, but our matter had been arranged for the press before its reception. It will find a place in the May number
We are greatly indebted to Col. Benton and Judge Bowlin, for many valuable
ART. I.-SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES.
ALTHOUGH man is so constituted that by the aid of artificial means he can exist upon every part of the globe, yet, both his physical and moral condition is greatly influenced by climate and other physical causes. The effects flowing - from these causes, and the influence which they exert over the individual and social character of the inhabitants of the several divisions of the earth, are legitimate subjects of inquiry for the natural and social economist, and address themselves to the consideration of the people of every country.
These influences impress themselves upon the moral, political and religious institutions as well as upon the philosophy of every people, and finally give direction to their destiny. The statesman, the philosopher, or the divine, who has not made himself acquainted with this subject so as to enable him to perceive and appreciate its bearings upon the human character, is, to a great extent, incompetent to discharge the duties of his functions, and therefore liable to do injury, rather than to promote the cause in which he labors. The inhabitants of every clime are continually operated upon, and acting under these influences, without perceiving their force; and each wonders at the stupidity of those of other and different climes, in adopting and observing habits and customs so different from their own. He, therefore, who shall endeavor to remove and obliterate these influences must labor in vain; they are part and parcel of man's nature, and cannot be eradicated. They are, however, subject to modification, and are the legitimate agents to be used in giving direction to the genius and civilization of the people of every climate.
To the people of the United States, this subject is one of more than ordinary interest, arising from the fact that our territory extends through so many degrees of latitude, and embraces so many different interests.
The population of the United States, although coming principally from the same region, began to exhibit the effects of climate shortly after its settlement in VOL. I, NO. v-24