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mand his services, let him bury his steel in the boulders, and shatter the rocks that deform his ground with gunpowder.
Would he make conquests and achieve victories!- here weeds and water are enemies; here uncultivated plains are his Mexico, and deep fens and morasses his Texas and California; and no philanthropist, or casuist, will complain of his conquests, should he subdue them. Let him guard against the ambush of the crow, the wire-worm, the squirrel, and the fox; and repel the invasion of the blight, the white weed, and the sorrel. He shall see his battle-fields not stained with blood, but blossoming with clover; and when, in his green old age, he points out to his children his Palo Alto, Buena Vista, Cerro Gordo, and Cherubusco, and recounts his bloodless achievements, he shall feel greater satisfaction than if his victories had been saddened by the sacrifices and tears of thousands!"
ART. V.-AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES,
THEIR IMPORTANCE AS AGENTS IN COLLECTING AND DISSEMINATING USEFUL FACTS. -THEIR PROPER OBJECTS ENUMERATED. MAY BE MADE EFFICIENT MORAL AGENTS.
WHEN arranging the plan of our Journal, we kept in view the principle of doing the greatest good to the greatest number of individuals; and hence agriculture-owing to the numbers employed in it as a pursuit- was adopted as the leading subject: but we must fail in carrying out this important principle, unless our agricultural readers will aid us in the collection of facts and materials.
We may collect commercial and manufacturing statistics, from books and public journals; and may also, occasionally, glean facts in relation to agriculture from the same sources; but there are many important facts connected with the economy of agriculture, which rarely find a place in the journals of the west, or perhaps, of any other country. Among these, may be enumerated, the adaptation of the climate and soil of particular locations, to the different varieties of plants and fruit; and the difference in the mode of culture, which is proper to be observed in regard to any particular plant or tree, when transferred from one climate or soil to another; the relative cost of production, including land and labor; and also, the relative value of the different varieties of plants and fruits at the place where they are produced; the adaptation of the different parts of the country to the vari ous kinds of stock; and the profits accruing from this branch of husbandry. These and many other facts of like nature, must come from the agriculturist: and to render them reliable and useful, they require to be established upon observations made through a series of years, and by more than one individual; for it may
happen, that from the variety of seasons, and of soils, as also, from a variety of treatment, the results will differ, not only in different years, but with different individuals; therefore the observations of a single individual for one, or a few years, are not to be fully relied upon.
And as the experience of every individual cannot be conveniently published, the best method of establishing agricultural facts, and of bringing them fairly before the country, is, through agency of agricultural societies.
These associations are calculated to bring together the best minds of the country; and the facts observed and noted by each individual, being canvassed, and submitted to the judgment of the society, its sanction would give them credibility, and authorize their adoption by the community.
To the ordinary objects of agricultural societies, should be added that of collecting statistics; these might embrace the following subjects, viz: the quantity of land cultivated; the quantity of each variety of produce; the number and value of each variety of stock; the number of manufactories and work-shops; the number of farm laborers, mechanics, artists and merchants; and also the amount of exports and imports of the several counties. These, with many other interesting and valuable facts, might be collected with but little labor, by the members of each society; and being published in some journal of general circulation, would enable the people of every part of the country, to form a correct opinion of the quantity of the products grown each year for market, as well as for home consumption. Such information would be beneficial to every part of the country. It would be the means of keeping both the purchasers and producers advised of the extent of the supply and demand of every article. It would furnish valuable information to such as wished to emigrate to the country, and bring the advantages of every location fairly before the people. And it would also be the means of attracting mechanics and laborers to those districts where their services were most in demand; and thus promote the convenience and prosperiiy of all parties.
In addition to those already mentioned, many other important subjects might be conveniently and profitably embraced among the objects of agricultural societies. Among these may be mentioned that of health: the diseases common to every country, are more or less frequent, or malignant, according to location; and it is often the case, that from some local cause, a certain point may be sickly, and another within a very short distance may be quite healthy. A few years of observation in regard to the causes of disease, would enable the people to indicate and select the more healthy locations; and thus they would escape from much bodily suffering, as well as the loss of labor and the payment of physicians. The number of schools, and the number of children attending them, in each county, would also constitute an important item in the statistics of the country: nor should religious statistics be neglected. In fine, agricultural societies, if directed to proper objects, are susceptible of being made most efficient literary and moral agents, as well as the promoters of agricultural prosperity.
We have only enumerated a few of the benefits which might be made to flow from these associations: there are many others which will doubtless suggest themselves to the mind of the reader; and we respectfully urge upon each one, to give the subject a fair and favorable consideration. We promise to do all in our power, to facilitate the proper objects of these societies, and shall at all times be pleased to make our Journal the organ of their proceedings.
We offer furthermore, to furnish every Agricultural Society in this, or either of the adjacent States with a copy of our Journal free of charge, (postage excepted) and will forward the same to the address of such officers of said societies as they may advise, so long as our Journal shall continue to be published.
ART. VI.-PIT COAL.
COMPARISON BETWEEN THE COAL FIELDS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUN
PRICES OF COAL IN GREAT BRITAIN THICKNESS AND DEPTH OF COAL
We published in our first number, an article respecting the coal mines of the United States, and also one upon the relative cost of steam and water power; the former was taken from the St. Louis Union, and the latter from the Louisville Journal-both over the signature of "S".-but at the time, we were not aware that the article upon coal was a portion of a more extensive treatise upon the sar subject. A few days since we received a well written pamphlet of forty-four pages, printed at Louisville, Kentucky, in which these articles are embraced. We are sorry to perceive that the article which we published was the latter part of the treatise; but as this arrangement of the subject will not materially lessen its value, we conclude that we cannot better serve our readers at present than to give them the first part, so that they may have the entire subject before them:
"If, of the two motive powers, water and steam, the latter is not only more convenient but less expensive, it is important to know where steam can be produced at the least cost.
"Were I to state, briefly, that our Western coal fields are more extensive, richer in quality, and far more accessible than any other known; that, on the Ohio, we can obtain coal at four cents per bushel as good as that which sells at sixteen cents per bushel at Manchester, England, I might not be believed. We have heard and read so much of the enormous quantity of coal used in and exported from England, of the wealth it has produced, and of the dense population on and around her coal measures, that we infer that the English coal seams are of greater purity, of vast thickness, and more cheaply worked than in any other country. Text books and Encyclopædias give us very few details of collieries;
and the following facts, which I have gathered from books devoted exclusively to the subject, and from topographical works, may be of interest, while they sustain my position.
"The only coal measures of practical interest to us are those of France, Belgium, Great Britain, Nova Scotia, and the United States. There are indications of coal in about thirty of the departments of France-that of Aveyron, near Spain, is said to be the most extensive, but, from the character of the country, or some unknown cause, is least worked. The latest authority I can find, gives only 7,000 persons employed in all the departments in the coal mines, and the supply of coals for the French steam marine is obtained from Belgium and Eng. land. There is a bed of coal, about 700 feet beneath the surface, extending from Valenciennes, France, under Mons and Namur to Liege, in Belgium. This is 150 miles in length, and six miles in width, and about 35,000 colliers are there employed. The quality of the coal is inferior, and its cost and distance from the sea prevent its coming in competition with the English coal.
The coal beds of Ireland and Scotland are, on the whole, inferior to those of England, but have the same general characteristics.
"The coal measures of England are west of a straight line drawn from Gosport to the mouth of the river Tees; the most important being on the British channel, in South Wales; in Flintshire, North Wales; in Lancaster and Cumberland, on the Irish Sea; Durham and Northumberland, on the North Sea; and in Staffordshire and West Riding, in central England. The coal in South Wales is only used on the spot for the smelting and manufacture of iron, in the smelting of copper ore brought from Cornwall, and in manufacture of tin plate. The quantity thus used is about 40,000,000 bushels per annum. The Lancaster and Cumberland mines supply manufacturing cities in these counties, Liverpool and other cities on the channel, and a large quantity required for exportation to France, the West Indies, the Mediterranean, Ireland, and the United States. I may here remark that this coal (known as "Liverpool,” “Orell," &c., in the Eastern and New Orleans markets,) will continue to be imported by us, at the present duty, as long as it will bring from twenty to twenty-five cents per bushel; but, at this rate, it cannot pay freight. It is used as ballast, and of course the price at which it is sold, is no criterion of its cost.
"The Durham and Northumberland, known generally as the Newcastle, colleries supply the western and southern sections of England, and the demand in France, Belgium and the Baltic; the chief market being London. Of the quantity required in that city, some idea can be formed from the consumption of nearly seven millions of bushels in her gas works.
"The coal of central England is used in Birmingham, Stafford, Sheffield, and other manufacturing cities. Edinburg is supplied with coal from the vicinity; and the extensive cotton manufactories of Glasgow and Paisley are also furnished from collieries in the immediate district.
"In stating the cost of coal to the manufacturing consumer, and for domestic purposes, this explanation is necessary: It is of kinds and names unknown to us. Seventy distinct varieties are sent to London, and the screened and the small coal, the slack and the cinder of the same variety are of different prices; often several varieties are combined, and the prices are as numerous as the compounds. Bovey coal is bituminous wood, holding an intermediate place between peat and pit coal; yet it is worked an hundred feet below the grass.' Sulphurious coal is dangerous to work; culm is of but little more value and neither are used when better coal can be had. The Orell and Cannel varieties are the best for manufacturing purposes, and come nearest, in appearance and value, to our Western coal. At New Orleans, for manufacturing purposes, the Pittsburg coal is, on the whole, preferred to them; at the Boston gas works the Indiana coal has been tested with and found superior to them; and in the accurate and numerous experiments made by Prof. W. R. Johnson, under direction of Congress, both Pittsburg and Indiana coal are proved superior to the best Liverpool and Newcastle coal for the generation of steam. When we shall separate the lamina of our coal seams, we shall probably find all the best varieties for the manufacture of iron known in England.
"At Sheffield the prices of household coal (a mixture of hard, small or sleck, and round or cobblings) is near seven cents per bushel; the strong, clear and hard kinds used for iron work, about fourteen cents. The immense consumption of coal in Manchester is supplied from collieries within eight miles, and at the cost of from six cents to fifteen cents. At Birmingham the price ranges from six cents to sixteen cents. The Leeds coal is inferior, and sells at about seven cents. At Liverpool the average cost of small coal is quoted at ten cents, and of hard at thirteen and three-fourths of a cent. At the Staffordshire potteries the price is occasionally less than six cents; but the coal seam is so soft that only one-third is mined.
"The London prices quoted are: Hetton' and Walsend' 25 1-10 cents, and Newcastle, first and second qualities, average twenty-two and a half cents. These high prices, however, are caused by city charges and transportation.
"By the term 'hard' coal is meant the hard layers of bituminous coal.
I do not find any tabular statements of cost except in connection with gas works. Here, generally, the best Liverpool, Wigan and Cannel is preferred; and I give the table below, taken from report of J. Hedley, to the House of Commons in 1837:
Price per Ton.
Price per Bushel.
Half cannel, a 19s.