In consequence of these delays, before Valle reached Puno, it was again invested by Tupa Catari with a host of ten thousand Indians. The Indians prepared for battle ; and Valle had the fairest prospect of success; but fearful of losing the fruit of his late victories, he imprudently ordered Puno to be evacuated by the reluctant and indignant Orellana, and fell back upon Cuzco.

Nothing could have been more ill judged than this movement. The Indians were enriched by the pillage of Puno and its dependent villages, where they found a hundred thousand head of cattle, together with other rich spoil. Shortly afterwards they completely routed a large body of Spaniards in Sicasica. Elated by success, Tupa Catari now concentrated all his forces, and bent his whole strength to the reduction of La Paz.

Here it was, that this extraordinary adventurer held bis court. His actions were indicative of mad caprice, which sudden elevation from the lowest condition to the highest, and the exercise of unlimited power, usually engender in the human breast. Surrounded with all the pomp of an Asiatic despot, he ruled the submissive Indians with an Asiatic despot's prodigality of life. To secure obedience to his mandates by the influence of terror, he established twentyfour places of execution in the circumference of the blockading lines. Never was the gallows unemployed. Indians who deserted from the city, those of his own soldiers and captains, who betrayed the least sign of cowardice, nay, of despondency, all who in any way thwarted his humor, were condemned to the gallows, and their execution precipitated, to take away the chance of repentance. No ties of religion or decency controlled his mind, and the Indians were at length shocked by his sacrilege and impiety. Their murmurs induced him, therefore, to assume a devout exterior. He caused a temporary chapel to be erected, in which, sitting beneath a canopy at the side of his queen, surrounded by ambassadors and by his principal officers, he celebrated mass with the most splendid and sumptuous ceremonials.

Nevertheless, the Indians still yielded him implicit obedience, and prosecuted the siege of La Paz under his orders, with a contempt of death, an assiduity, a patience of fatigue, never surpassed. Segurola had contracted his entrenchments within the narrowest limits, leaving out all the suburbs of the city, on account of the smallness of the garrison. His only hope was in holding out until Don Ignacio Flores, who was collecting troops for that purpose in the province of Tucuman, should come to his relief. The Indians laid close siege to the place for one hundred and nine days, and scarce a day passed without a vigorous assault on their part, or a desperate sally of the Spaniards. The besiegers had six pieces of artillery, which caused the city great damage ; but, impatient of delay, and enraged at the determined resistance they met with, they attempted to set fire to the city, resolving to burn it to the ground, if they could not obtain possession of it otherwise. When all other expedients failed the Indians, and they saw that the assaults and sallies only produced mutual carnage, without bringing the siege any nearer to a close, they promised themselves final success from the all conquering power of famine. The besieged were now reduced to the utmost extremity of distress, and must speedily have surrendered themselves and the smoking ruins of the city, had not Flores providentially arrived, at this very conjuncture, and saved La Paz from total destruction.

We will not stop to describe the march of Flores and his troops from Tucuman.

Suffice it to say, that the name and the influence of Tupac Amaru had extended to the ridges of Salta and Jujui, and the whole Indian population was in arms for the Inca. The route to La Paz was a continued succession of battles. Even after passing the city of Chuquisaca, five sanguinary engagements took place, in one of which Tupa Catari himself commanded, and was routed with great slaughter. Finally, Flores arrived at La Paz and forced the Indians to raise the siege, but the relief, which he afforded the city, was of very short duration.

A considerable body of Indians encamped on a hill near the city. Flores and Segurola resented this, as an insult, and resolved to dislodge them. The Spaniards marched to the assault in three columns, commanded by their best officers; but were repulsed in such confusion, that scarcely a single man escaped uninjured. Flores, therefore, retreated to a post about four leagues from the city, and the vigilant Indians instantly resumed their old stations on the heights of La Paz. A portion of the Spanish force, also, the troops VOL. XX.NO. 47.


from Cochabamba, contending that their term of service had expired, deserted about this time, and separated to their respective homes. All these circumstances compelled Flores to go in quest of new auxiliaries, and in the meanwhile to abandon La Paz to its fate.

During the progress of the first siege of La Paz, the trial and execution of Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru and his family had taken place. When tortured by Areche, to compel him to disclose his accomplices, he nobly replied ; 'Two only are my accomplices, myself and you, who interrogate me; you, in continuing your robberies upon the people, and in endeavoring to prevent you.' A short sentence, says Pazos, which defines the nature of the Spanish government.

The sentence of death was executed on him with a studied cruelty, disgraceful to the Spanish government in the last degree. His judges seemed to have indulged in a spirit of personal vengeance, while pronouncing the doom of the law. He was forced to look on and behold the death of his wife, his children, and his kindred; bis tongue was next plucked out by the hands of the hangman ; and he was then torn asunder, limb from limb, by four wild horses. Such was the fate of a patriot and hero, who was only goaded into his attempt to vindicate the rights of his nation by arms, after the failure of reiterated efforts to procure a melioration of their condition by peaceable means. He perished a martyr to the cause of Peruvian independence, which it had been the darling wish of his heart to renovate, by overthrowing the Spanish tyranny, and reestablishing the empire of the Incas on its ruins. He did not fall unavenged. The savage vindictiveness displayed in the manner of his execution, worthy only of the ages of darkness and a government of barbarians, produced an effect directly contrary to that, which the Spaniards anticipated. The Indians fought, after this event, as if each individual had the death of his dearest kinsman to revenge ; and the survivors of the family of Tupac Amaru soon signalised the deepness of their own resentment. His brother, Diego Cristobal, united and sustained the interests of the Indians no less effectually than he had done; and a new adventurer arose, Miguel Bastidas, otherwise named Andres Tupac Amaru, claiming to be the son, but being in fact the nephew of Jose Gabriel, whose superior talents and sanguinary character made him still more terrible to the Spaniards. Andres was at this time

only seventeen years of age ; but he distinguished himself above all the Indian chiefs, by the siege and destruction of Sorata.

The Spaniards of the province of Larecaja had collected all their treasures in Sorata, where they entrenched themselves, and being well supplied with provisions and ammunition, courageously awaited the Indians. Andres Tupac Amaru, by the mere influence of the name he bore, gathered an army of fourteen thousand men, and beleaguered the town.

The Spaniards, upintimidated by his threats, made a brave defence, but were subdued at last by the laborious ingenuity of the Indians. A ridge of lofty mountains, called Tipuani, overlooked Sorata. Availing himself of the great number of men at his command, Andres Tupac Amaru dug a spacious dam on the side of the town, and conducted into it all the numerous mountain torrents of Tipuani, now swelled by the melting of the snows on its summit. When his artificial lake was filled, he poured out upon Sorata the immense body of water it contained, which tore up the entrenchments, washed away the houses, and submerged the whole town beneath an irresistible deluge. There was no longer any barrier to oppose to the impetuosity of the Indians. They rushed into the place as the water subsided, and in a sack of six days' duration, gained possession of an immense booty, and glutted their rage in the indiscriminate slaughter of the Spaniards.

After gathering the fruits of this important victory, Andres marched his forces to assist in reducing La Paz; and this now brings us back to the protracted siege of that ill starred city. Tupa Catari was much dissatisfied with Tupac Amaru's movement, who, he foresaw, would thus divide with him the glory of success, without having participated in half the labors of the siege. But after some altercation between them, they mutually agreed to bury their jealousy in the common zeal of assuring the triumph of their nation. The new siege presents a repetition of the same scenes, which marked the last, except that the ardor and obstinacy of the parties seem to bave been augmented by the greater hope of success entertained by the one, and the increased peril of the other.

Flores in the meantime was diligently engaged assembling forces at Oruro, where an army of five thousand men was at length formed, consisting partly of regulars, partly of the militia of Cochabamba, Charcas, Salta, Jujui, Valle, and Tucuman, and placed under the command of Don Jose de Reseguin. This officer was brave, prudent, cool, indefatigable, in short, every way worthy of the commission. He set forth on his march to La Paz without delay; and it was fortunate for the city that his progress was not much impeded; for La Paz was on the very point of yielding to the Indians. Instructed by the advantage they had obtained from the inundation of Sorata, they threw a strong dam across the river Chuquiaco, one of the sources of the main branch of the Amazon, which flows through the middle of La Paz. This huge mole was fifty yards high, a hundred and twenty long, and twelve thick at the foundation. Only two days before the arrival of Reseguin, the water burst away the embankment, and rose so high as to inundate the three bridges of the city. The terror, which this artificial flood inspired, and the probability of its being repeated with still worse effects, presented to the inhabitants the alternative of abandoning the city, or remaining exposed to the horrible catastrophe of Sorata. Such was the perilous condition of La Paz, when the waving of the Spanish banners on the distant heights, and the murmur of martial sounds, announced to the joyful inhabitants the approach of Reseguin and safety.

The Indians, conscious of their inability to cope with Reseguin, precipitately fled before him. Waiting at La Paz only three days to refresh his victorious troops, he pursued them, and overtaking them drawn up, as usual, on the upper side of a sloping ground, he joined battle without hesitation, and compelled them, after an obstinate struggle, to throw themselves among the ravines of the mountains.

After Reseguin's victory, universal consternation and despondency took possession of the Indians, in the place of their former energy and patriotism. Persuaded that all was lost, if they contended further, since every combat afforded fresh triumph to their enemies, they still distrusted the proffered clemency of the Spanish government. But finally, allured by the promises of Reseguin, Tupa Catari and Andres Tupac Amaru wrote letters to him from the place of their retreat, embracing the proposed conditions. Diego Cristobal Tupac Amaru sent, at the same time, to claim the benefit of the amnesty published at Lima, in favor, as well of the ordinary

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