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insurgents, as of the authors and leaders of the insurrection. Reseguin, fearing some treachery, dexterously required these chiefs to make their submission in person. Tupa Catari was unwilling to do this without a safe conduct, but Andres came in with his principal adherents, and being very cordially received by Reseguin, made a formal capitulation, and swore allegiance anew to the king, as the condition of his own and his companions' pardon.

Although Reseguin possessed a robust constitution, his health had sunk beneath the hardships of the actice service in which he was engaged, and he now labored under severe illness. Nevertheless, having set out for the districts, which still inaintained a show of war, he persisted in marching thither, and entered the villages on the ready shoulders of the Indians, who, as basely humble in adversity as they were fiercely proud in prosperity, greeted his entry with their acclamations.

While these Indians were prostrating theniselves at the feet of Reseguin, Tupa Catari was exciting those of Hachacachi to continue the war. Reseguin, considering the machinations of this chief the only obstacle to peace, resorted to artifice to obtain possession of his person. He corrupted Tupa Catari's most intimate friend, Tomas Inga Lipe, and by this means succeeded in making him prisoner. He was tried, condemned, and sentenced to the same punishment which Tupac Amaru had suffered. After being torn asunder by horses, his head was sent to La Paz, and his limbs distributed in various places, as a terror to the Indians.

The auditor of Chile, Don Francisco de Medina, was attached to Reseguin in quality of judicial adviser. He began by the premature imprisonment of Andres Tupac Amaru and his chiefs, who had surrendered under a solemn pledge of free pardon. This act was regarded by Diego Cristobal as a violation of the public faith; and he lost no time in stirring up the Indians anew in the provinces of Carabuco, Hachacachi, and Guarina. Had he improved this opportunity for attacking Reseguin, the attack must have been fatal to the Spanish general; for Reseguin was extremely sick ; and bis army, reduced to three hundred and ninety four men, by the desertion of the militia, was in no condition to withstand the Indians. But Diego let slip the propitious moment, and it never again recurred. The Indians were grown weary of the contest, and in almost all the provinces about La Paz claimed the benefit of the indulgence, and delivered up their chiefs in evidence of the sincerity of their submission. Diego soon followed their example. Persuaded that the cause o. his nation was hopeless, he sent a memorial to Don Jose del Valle, in the beginning of the year 1782, praying for the royal pardon, and was admitted to render the oath of allegiance at the Indian village of Siguani.

The fame of the revolution was nearly extinct; but it still sent forth a few broken flashes in the remoter provinces. The Indians of Los Yungas especially, and those of a valley called the Quebrada of the river Abaxo in Sicasica, and Chulumani, held out with great obstinacy. Arrogant with their many victories over the small detachments sent against them, they maintained a fierce and savage independence. At length Flores assembled a powerful force, and commissioned Reseguin to finish the war. This expedition was memorable for the many bloody victories gained in it over the Indians. Pazos describes the manner in which battles were fought, whenever the Indians and Spaniards met in open field; and it is easy to conceive from his description, that, as he says, the slaughter among the Indians in all the war was immense.

"They (the Indians were ignorant of military discipline, had but few firearms, and were principally armed with slings. The royal army from Buenos Ayres, Tucuman, and Cochabamba, consisted of regular troops. The Buenos Ayreans were armed and equipped like European soldiers ; the Tucumans composed the cavalry, and were armed with butcher knives, and ropes from twenty five to thirty yards !ong, which they used in catching wild cattle. The arms of the Cochabambians were short clubs loaded with lead, to which a rope of two or three yards in length was fastened, and which were used like slings, and were very deadly weapons. The Indians were scattered all over the plains, in no reguiar order or ranks, and were nothing more than an undisciplined and unarmed mob. The mode of attacking them was as follows. The Tucuman horsemen first rode among the Indians and threw them down with their ropes, and the Cochabambians followed with their clubs and despatched them. Letters to Mr Clay, p. 254.

The battle of Hucumarimi, being the most obstinately disputed of all that were fought during the revolution, and the most successful for the Spaniards, acquired the name of the

decisive. The country here was broken into precipices, irregular acclivities, and quebradas, among which, on the side of a mountain, the Indians had encamped. The impediments, which they threw in the way of an attack, were enough to appal the stoutest hearts. Scarcely had the Spaniards begun the ascent, when, as in other similar engagements, of some of which we have already given an account, showers of stones, mingled with great masses of rock broken off by levers, and rolled down the sides of the mountain, filled the assailants with consternation. In spite of all this, by almost superhuman exertion, climbing from cliff to cliff, they succeeded in driving the Indians from their seemingly impregnable post. The Indians were struck with superstitious dread. They thought the Spaniards fought by enchantment.

No longer making any systematic resistance, they were hunted like wild beasts by the Spaniards from mountain to mountain, among the fastnesses of this rugged region.

Everything now conspired to put an end to the insurrection. Leaders were no more, except Diego Cristobal Tupac Amaru, and he, although he submitted under the formal guarantee of an amnesty, and continued to live tranquilly in his family, was afterwards, through a base and insidious policy, arrested under the pretext of a new conspiracy, and executed in the same cruel way with his brother and Tupa Catari. The great body of the Indian population quietly returned to vassalage, and resumed the yoke of slavery. Such was the issue of an insurrection, which filled Peru with bloodshed and misery for the space of two years, and of a war, in which, if we may believe the authority of Don Vincente Pazos, himself a native of La Paz, one third of the whole population of Peru perished by the hand of violence. Twenty years after these events happened, this enlightened and patriotic South American saw the plains of Sicasica and Calamarca, for an extent of fourteen leagues, covered with numberless heaps of unburied human bones, lying in the very places where the wretched Indians fell, to bleach beneath the tropical dews. Their unfortunate attempt produced no permanent or important change in their condition. None of their grievances were abolished, except the repartos. They were rigidly prohibited the use of arms. The tribute pressed more heavily afterwards, because it was more strictly levied ; the mita was the more unmercifully apportioned, because all risk of opposition was removed ; and they were treated the more contemptuously, in revenge of their unsuccessful and disastrous rebellion.

What permanent effect the recent revolution may have upon the condition of the Indians, cannot as yet be satisfactorily ascertained. Thus far, the tendency of it has been highly favorable to them, and there is every cause to believe it will continue so hereafter. The independence of a part of Peru is not yet sufficiently confirmed to have allowed the temporary governments, which have succeeded one another there, to do much for the internal improvement of the country ; but in the districts formerly dependent on Buenos Ayres, something is already accomplished. The revolution has swept away at once the old distinctions, which the colonial system created and maintained. At the cry of liberty, the degraded castes rose simultaneously to vindicate their title to the rights of men and of freemen, all equally inspired with enthusiasm in the cause of independence, and admitted on equal terms to unite with the patriotic Spanish Americans in establishing a free representative government. The creoles are all natives of the country, in common with the Indians, and common tenants of the soil. It is their home. They do not come there across the

of realising a sudden fortune by rapacious exactions, and then returning to pour out their ill gotten gold into the lap of Spain. Their interest, on the contrary, is inseparably united to their native soil, and it will be their anxious endeavor to free South America from the infamy of its barbarous laws against the Indians; laws as fatal to the future prosperity of Peru, as they have been derogatory to the honor and humanity of its Spanish rulers.

ocean, for the purpose

ART. IV.-1. Fundamenta Astronomiæ pro anno MDCCLV,

deducta ex observationibus viri incomparabilis James Bradley in Specula Astronomica Grenovicensi per annos 1750—1762 institutis. Auctore FRIDERICO WILHELMO BESSEL, Acad. Berol. Atque Petrop. Sodali, Instituti

Gallici Corresp. Regiomonti, 1818. T. 1. pp. 328. 2. Tables Astronomiques publiées par le Bureau des Longitudes de France, viz.

Tables de La Lune. Par M. BURCKHARDT, Membre de l'Institut, etc. Paris. 1812.

Nouvelles Tables de Jupiter et de Saturne, calculées d'apres la théorie de M. Laplace, et suivant la division décimale de l'angle droit. Par M. BOUVARD. Paris. 1808.

Tables écliptiques des Satellites de Jupiter, d'apres la théorie de M. le Marquis de Laplace, et la totalité des Observations faites depuis 1662 jusqu'à l'an 1802. Par

M. DELAMBRE. Paris. 1817. 3. Tables. By B. DE LINDENEAU, viz.

Tabulæ Veneris novæ et correctæ, etc. Gothæ. 1810. Tabulæ Martis novæ et correcte, etc. Eisenberg. 1811. Investigatio nova orbita a Hercurio circa solem descripta accedunt Tabulæ Planetæ, etc. Gothæ. 1813. 4. Mémoire sur la figure de la Terre.

Par M.

DE LAPLACE, Mem. Acad. Sciences. Paris. 1817, 1818. The science of Astronomy offers to our contemplation some of the most powerful efforts of the human mind. Copernicus, by the discovery of the motion of the planets about the sun ; Kepler, by his elliptical theory, and the laws regulating the motions and distances of the planets, with the times of their periodical revolution ; finally, Newton, by the discovery of the theory of gravity, opened the way for all the improvements, which have lately been made in this science. In the Principia, published in 1687, Newton pointed out the origin of the inequalities of the motions of the heavenly bodies, which had then been discovered by observation, and deduced others from the theory of gravity. No material alteration was made in his methods for more than half a century. Then began a new epoch in Astronomy, and the history of that science, for the last hundred years, will be forever memoVOL. XX.-N0. 47.

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