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II.

GENERAL ASPECTS OF OPTICAL ACTIVITY.

A

Classification of Active Substances,

§ 7. Circular polarizing substances may be divided into two classes :

(1) Bodies which only in a crystalline state possess the property of rotating the plane of polarization, and which lose this property entirely when brought (either by solution or fusion) into an amorphous condition. Up to the present, only a few such active crystalline substances are known. In the table annexed these substances are recorded, along with the angle a, through which the ray D, or mean yellow light j (jaune), is rotated on passing through a plate of each substance 1 millm. in thickness.

Substances.

Formula.

a per 1 millm.

Observer.

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Cinnabar

HOS Rock crystal

Si0, Sodium chlorate

Na ČI 03 bromate

Na Br 03 periodate .. NaJ04 + 3 H2O Potassium dithionate

K,S,06 Strontium

Srs, 06 + 4 H,O Calcium

Ca 8,06 + 4 H,O Plumbic

PbS,06 + 4H2O Sodium sulphantimoniate NazŚbš, + 9 H,O Uranium sodium acetate.. (Ur0)2. Na . 3 C, H,02 Matico-camphor

CH160
Benzil

Ci4H1002
Ethylene-diamine sulphate (NH, C,H)H, SO,
Guanidine carbonate (CH, N9), H,có,
Diacetyl-phenol-phtaleïn C2820.) C1,0),

1,20(O,

32.5° ар

21.67 Oj =

3.67 aj 2.80

23.3 ар

8.39 aj

1.64 2:09 5:53

2:7 aj

1.8 ap

2:4 ap

24.92

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Aj =
AD =

Marbach

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Hintze
Descloizeaux
v. Lang
Bodewig

ap

14.35 19.7

ad =

The crystals of these substances are, without exception, either single-refracting (regular) or uniaxial double-refracting (hexagonal or quadratic). In the latter, the optical power is only displayed in the direction of the principal axis, and we have therefore to use plates cut perpendicularly thereto. Moreover, every one of the above specified substances occurs both in right-rotating and leftrotating crystals, and the amounts of deviation are exactly the same for plates of equal thickness.

Several of these substances-quartz, sodium periodate, dithionates, guanidine carbonate, and matico-camphor, give external evidence of the possession of this property by the existence of hemihedral or tetartohedral faces, which are right-handed or lefthanded according as the crystal rotates to the right or left.

$ 8. (2) Bodies which display rotatory power when dissolved, and, consequently, in the amorphous state. The substances of this class are, without exception, carbon-compounds, and either occur naturally in vegetable or animal organisms, or as derivatives from these by simple metamorphoses. No inorganic substance is known which in solution exhibits rotatory power, and it would seem that this property is a peculiar attribute of the carbon-atom.

The substances in this class are either right-rotating (+) only or left-rotating (-) only, with the exception of a few which manifest the power in both directions. The subjoined table contains as complete a list as possible of all active substances known

up

to the present time, with their most important derivatives, and also, in the last column, a list of compounds which, although nearly related to these substances, are inactive :

[blocks in formation]

Lævulose
Invert-sugar
Inverted Synanthrose

Sugars
C. H12 06

Dextrose (Honey

sugar, Grape-
sugar, Starch-
sugar, Salicin-,
Amygdalin-,
Phlorhizin-sugar,

Gum-sugar).
Galactose, Eucalyn

Sorbin

Inosite

[blocks in formation]

Acetyl derivatives of Acetyl derivatives of
Inulin

Dextrose, Milk-
sugar, Mannite,
Mannitan, Dulcite

and Starch
Gummic Acid Glucosan, Saccharic Levulinic Acid

Mucic Acid Fermentation Amyl- Amyl-alcohol from Fermentation Butylalcohol

Derivatives

of the above Groups.

Acid

Dextro-amyl Chlo- alcohol
ride

Octyl-alcohol from
Derivatives of Lævo- Ricinus Oil

amyl-alcohol (Di- Methyl-amyl
amyl, Ethyl-amyl, Amyl hydride
Amyl chloride, io- | Amylene from active
dide and cyanide, Amyl-alcohol
Amylamine, Amyl-
valerate, Valeric al-
dehyde, Valerianic

Acid, Capronic Acid)
Para-lactic Acid Salts Para-lactic Acid

and Ether Anhy-
drides

Substances.

Lævo-rotatory.

Dextro-rotatory.

Inactive.

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Vegetable

Acids and Allied Substances

Lævo-tartaric Acid Dextro-tartaric Acid Para-tartaric Acid
Salts

Salts Synthetic Tartaric Acid
Lævo-tartramide Dextro-tartramide Pyro-tartaric Acid

Meta-tartaric Acid Nitro-tartaric Acid

Di-tartaric Acid Synthetic Malic Acid Natural Malic Acid Malic Acid from Dex. Maleic Acid

tro-tartaric Acid Fumaric Acid

or Asparagine Succinic Acid Acid Malate of Am- Malate of Ammonia Citric Acid

monia in Water in Nitric Acid Citro-malic Acid
Malamide from Lævo- NeutralMalates (Zinc-
malic Acid

and Antimon-Am-
monium Malates) in

Water
AsparagininAqueous Asparagin in Acid

and Alkaline Solu- Solutions

tions Aspartic Acid in Al- Aspartic Acid in Acid Aspartic Acid from kaline Solutions Solutions

Fumaric or Maleic

Acid
Glutaric * Acid Glutamic Acid
Quinic Acid

Quinovic Acid in Al

kaline Solutions Lactonic Acid Dextronic (Gluconic) Atractylic Acid

Acid

Terpenes
CH6

Lævo-oil of
Dextro-oil of

Camphene
Turpentine or Turpentine or Camphilene
Terebenthene
Australene

Terebene
(French, from (English or American, Terebilene
Pinus maritima ; from Pinus balsamica, Polyterebenes
Venetian, from Australis and Taeda; Terpinol
P. Larix;

German, from
Templin-oil, from P. sylvestris, nigra,

P.Picea or Pumilio). and Abies);
Terebenthene hydro- Australene hydro-
chlorate

chlorate
Terecamphene Austracamphene
Liquid Terpinhy-
drate

Solid Terpinhydrate
Iso-terebenthene Tetra-terebenthene
Terpene from Parsley Terpene from Oils of
Oil

Lemon, Orange,

and Poplar Cicutene

Oils of Copaiba, Cu- Anethol, Oils of Cas- Oils of Anise, Cassia,

bebs, Lavender, carilla, Chamomile, Cloves, Cinnamon,
Parsley, Rue, Roses, Coriander, Fennel, Gaultheria, Bitter
Tansy, Thyme, Nutmeg, Myrtle, Almonds, Mustard,
Juniper,and Crisped Sassafras

Thymol
mint

Ethereal Oils

The following are both Dextro- and
Lævo-rotatory: Oils of Peppermint, Cu-
min, Rosemary, Salvia, Savine, Elemi, Cas-

carilla
* Probably this should be Glutanic acid (vide p. 232).—[D.C. R.)

[blocks in formation]

Matricaria-camphor Ordinary Camphor Lavandula-camphor
Menthol, Patchouli-, Borneol, Amber-cam-

Blumea-(Ng ai)and phor, Rosemary-
Rubia-camphor (Ledum) camphor

Ethyl- and Amyl- Camphrene

camphor

Camphor Bromide
Borneene
Camphoric Acid, Camphoric Acid, from Sulpho-camphoric

from Matricaria- ordinary Camphor Acid

camphor
Camphoric Anhy- Camphic Acid

dride and Cam-
phoronicAcid, from
Dextro - camphoric
Acid

Camphors and Allied Substances

Cymol, from Oil of All other Cymols
Cumin and Cu-

minol
Carvol, from Crisped Carvol, from Cumin-

oil

mint Oil
Citronellol
Absinthol

Safrol
Myristicol

Geraniol

Quinine, Cinchonidine Quinidine (Conchi-
Homocinchonidine nine), Quinicine,
Paytine, Cusconine Cinchonine, Cincho-
Aricine

nidine, Quinamine
Quinidamine,*
Quinamicine, Diho-

mo-cinchonicine *

Apodiquinicine *
Morphine, Codeine

Meconine
Narcotine in Alcohol Narcotine in Hydro- Narceine
Pseudomorphine chloric Acid Hydrocotarnine
Thebaine, Papaverine

Cryptopine
Laudanine

Laudanosine

Alkaloids

Strychnine, Brucine
Nicotine
Atropine
Aconitine

Conine
Cicutine
Pelosine (Buxine)

Aribine, Betaine
Paraconine
Berberine
Veratrine
Emetine
Piperine
Sanguinarine

Geissospermine

Pilocarpine

Indifferent
Substances

Santonin
Santonic Acid
Picrotoxin
Jalapin

Hydrosantonic Acid
Hæmatoxylin
Echicerin, Echitin
Echitein, Echiretin

Ostruthin
Leucotin
Oxyleucotin
Hydroootoin

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