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The presence of 1 gramme of each of the following salts was found to reduce the concentration of sugar solutions, as determined by the saccharimeter, by the respective amounts as below :Carbonate of potash 0.143 with c = 10
20 to 25
} (R. Z. J. 1866, 272). 0.044 5.4
17.3 (R. Z. J. 1877, 1036). Carbonate of soda
Pellet. Carbonate of ammonia 0.040
17.3 Phosphate of ammonia 0.016
c 5:4 (crystallized)
17.3 Acetate of lead added in the proportion of 25 grammes to 100 cubic centimetres of sugar-solution produces no change in rotation. Müntz (R. Z. J. 1876, 737).
Milk-sugar, C12H22 011 + H, 0. Dextro-rotatory.
Freshly prepared aqueous solutions exhibit bi-rotation ($ 27). Hesse obtained for constant rotation by heating the solutions (L. A. 176, 100) :
c = 2 to 12. t = 15°. [a]o 54 - 0.557 c + 0.05475 cm 0.001774 03. Alkalies reduce the specific rotation considerably.
Acetyl-derivatives of milk-sugar. Schützenberger (L. A. 160, 91).
(1) C12 H18 (C, H, O). 011 in water. 7:46. [a]o = 50•l.
c = 9•68. [a]o = 31. Minose. Trehalose, C12H22 01 + 2 H, 0. Dextro-rotatory.
Aqueous solutions, after standing twenty-four hours, exhibit no change of rotatory power :Mycose. c = 10:03. [a]; 173.2. Mitscherlich (L.A. 106.17). Trehalose. c = 8.4 to 14.8. t = 15°. [a]; 199 (anhydrous 220). Berthelot (A. C. P.
 55, 276).
Melitose, C12H22011 + 3 H,0. Dextro-rotatory. Water. c = 17.27. t = 25°. [a]; = 88 (anhydrous 102). Berthelot (A. C. P.  46, 69).
Melizitose, C12H,2011 + H, 0. Dextro-rotatory. Water. c = 186 anhydrous substance. t = 20°. [a]; 94:1 (anhydrous), 89.4
hydrated. Berthelot (A. C. P.  55, 284). Water. с not given. [a]ı 88.8 (hydrated). [a]; 04.8 (anhydrous). Villiers (A. C. P.
 12, 434).
Glucose. Dextrose, C. H 208 + H20. Dextro-rotatory.
Fresh solutions, prepared in the cold, exhibit bi-rotation ($ 27). The following numbers refer to the reduced constant of rotation.
The most accurate observations are those of Tollens ($ 38), whence the following formulæ are derived :
For C. H 2 06 + H, O. Aqueous solution. t = 200. p =
8 to 91. [a]. 47.925 + 0.015534 p + 0.0003883 p?. 2=
9 to 92. [a]o 53.362 0:093194 9 + 0.0003883 . For Cc H12 06
p = 7 to 83. [a]ı = 52.718 + 0.017087 p + 0.0004271 pa.
Hoppe-Seyler (Med. chem. Untersuchungen I., 163) determined the specific rotation of diabetic sugar by Broch's method, employing a solution in which c = 36-277 anhydrous substance, and found :
In more recent investigations, Hoppe. Seyler (Fresenius, Zeitsch. für analyt. Chem. 14, 305), employing solutions of diabetic sugar with c= 14 to 29, obtained a mean value for [a]] 56:4 (anhydrous substance).
Hesse (L. A. 176, 102) has investigated the specific rotation of [a]p of various glucoses, and found, at t = 15°, the following :
These sugars are therefore identical with one another. Along with them must also be included amygdalin-sugar, which, with c = 2,
gave [a] = 49.25 (hydrate). On the other hand, phlorhizin-sugar (hydrate) showed a lower rotation, viz., with c = 3, [a], 40·9, and with c 6, [a]D: = = 40.08. Another sample gave, with c = 8, [a] = 399; and with c = 10.52, [a] = 39.7. Hesse (L. A. 192, 174).
For the transition tint [a], the following rotation values are recorded:-52, Bondonneau. 52.5, Clerget Listing. 53-2, Dubrunfaut. 55.1, Pasteur. 56, Berthelot. 57, Schmidt. 57.4, Béchamp. 57.7, Jodin.
Lime reduces the rotatory power. A solution which contained, in 100 cubic centimetres, 0.98 gramme of lime for 6-9 grammes of grape-sugar, gave [a]; = 33·3. Jodin (C. R. 58, 613).
Fruit-sugar. Lævulose, C, H12O6. Lævo-rotatory.
The observations under this head are very incomplete, as the effects of concentration have not been investigated. This substance exhibits a marked decrease of rotation with increase of temperature. For lævulose obtained from invert-sugar by the lime process, Dubrunfaut (C. R. 42, 901) found the following values (c not recorded) :—
When the temperature exceeds 90°, a chemical change begins in the solutions.
According to Neubauer (D. C. G. 1877, 829), at a temperature of 14°, [a] = 100 (e not given).
Jodin (C. R. 58, 613) gives the following values (t not given,
Lime causes a considerable reduction of the rotatory power. A solution with c = 5, giving [a]; =
- 106, on the addition of 0.64 lime
Invert-sugar, CH12O6. Lævo-rotatory.
The rotatory power decreases rapidly with increase of temperature. Dubrunfaut (C. R. 42, 901) found for a solution, the strength of which is not stated:
Tuchschmid's observations (J. P. C.  2, 235) show that an aqueous solution of invert-sugar with c = 17-21 has at 0° Cent. a
specific rotation [a]] 27.9, and that this value decreases with increase of temperature according to the formula [a]} = – (27.9 0:32 t). According to which, at t = 87.2°, rotation will be 0.
, Alcohol, according to Jodin (C. R. 58, 613), causes an important reduction in the lævo-rotation of invert-sugar, which can, moreover, by the application of heat, be converted into dextro-rotation. Lime also causes a decrease.
According to Maumené (C. R. 80, 1139) different specimens of invert-sugar exhibit similar properties only when in their preparation the proportions of water and acid, the temperature and duration of the action, and the mode of neutralization employed have been strictly identical.
Galactose, Co H120g. Dextro-rotatory.
Exhibits bi-rotation. According to Fudakowski (Hoppe-Seyler's Med. chem. Untersuchungen I., 164), it is a mixture of two different sugars of unequal rotatory powers. Sorbin, C6H12O6. Lævo-rotatory.
c= 23.9. [a]; = - 46.9. Berthelot. Pelouze (A. C. P.  35, 222).
$ 111. Mannite Group.
Mannite, Co H14 Oc. Pasteur (C. R. 77, 1192) and Bouchardat (C. R. 80, 120; A. C. P.  6, 100) have shown that in aqueous solutions (c = 15) with a tube-length of 3 to 4 metres, this substance gives a left-handed rotation of 0.1° to 0.3°, whence [a]; 0.03. Vignon (A. C. P.  2, 133), also Müntz and Aubin (A. C. P.  10, 533) consider mannite as inactive.
The addition of various substances to aqueous solutions of mannite renders them optically active, dextro-rotatory in the case of boracic acid, borax, and borate of lime, and more feebly so with chloride and sulphate of sodium; lævo-rotatory in the case of caustic potash, caustic soda, potassium carbonate, potassium, and hydrogen arsenate, lime, baryta, and magnesia. After saturation with acetic acid the solution either remains feebly lævo-rotatory or shows slight dextrorotation. Sulphuric acid or acetic acid added even in large proportion to mannite solutions produces no activity (Bouchardat, Vignon, Müntz, and Aubin, loc. cit.).
Certain derivatives of mannite are active, as, for example, nitromannite, diacetyl- and hexacetyl-mannite, which are dextro-rotatory, and mannite dichlorhydrin which is lævo-rotatory.
Mannitan is a variable mixture of dextro-rotatory and lævorotatory isomers, the proportions varying with the mode of production. (Bouchardat).
The mannite obtained by the action of nascent hydrogen on inactive glucose, invert-sugar, dextrose, lævulose (from invert-sugar or inulin) is also inactive, as well as that from manna. But each of them becomes active on addition of borax or conversion into nitromannite (Müntz and Aubin).
Nitro-mannite, C. Hg (O. NO2). D. xtro-rotatory.
Treated with ammonium sulphide, nitro-mannite passes into inactive (?) mannite, which by the action of nitric acid becomes once more active. Loir (Bull. soc. chim. 1861, 113). Krecke, loc. cit.
Dulcite is inactive. Biot. Jaquelain (J. B. 1850, 536). The acetyl-derivatives of dulcite and dulcitan rotate feebly to the right. Bouchardat (A. C. P. , 27; 68, 145).
Isodulcite, C. H12 05 + H2 O. Dextro-rotatory.
Water. c = 1 to 10. =
Hlasiwetz and Pfaundler (L. A. 127, 362).
24.3. Temperature without influence. Prunier (Bull. soc. chim. 28, 555, and C. R. 85, 808).
§ 112. Carbo-hydrates, (C, H10 О5)n
The rotation data given by different observers for substances of this class differ so widely from each other, that they cannot be used as characteristic marks for the substances.
Cellulose, dissolved in cadmium, or zincoxide-ammonia (obtained by treating cellulose dissolved in cupric-oxide ammonia, with cadmium or zinc until a colourless solution is obtained) is inactive. Krecke (Arch. Néerl. VI. 1871). Collodion, according to Krecke, is inactive. According to Schützenberger (L. A. 160, 77) it is dextrorotatory.
Starch boiled for a few hours in water, solution of potash or of chloride of zinc, gives dextro-rotatory liquids. For p = 2.22