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the solutions employed have not been recorded. The complete data are given only for:

Lævo-rotatory camphene. Terecamphene, C10 H16, obtained by heating terebenthene-chlorhydrate with an alcoholic solution of potash or with stearate of soda. Riban (Bull. soc. chim. 24, 10) found for alcoholic solutions with q = 62 to 90 per cent. alcohol, at a temperature of 130 to 14°: [a]] = - (53.80 – 0.03081 9).

=

3 117. Ethereal Oils.

Commercial ethereal oils, being invariably mixtures of substances often of opposite optical powers, exhibit so much diversity in respect of rotation values, that these are of no use as a test of their purity, and special data are accordingly worthless.

§ 118. Resins.

t

t =

Euphorbone, C15 H24 0 (from euphorbia resin). Dextrorotatory. Chloroform.

C = 4.

15. [a]. 18-8. Hesse (L. A. 192, 195). Ether. (d = 0·72). c = 4. 15. [a]. 11:7. Podocarpic acid, C, H22 Og. Dextro-rotatory.

Alcohol. C = 4 to 9. [a]. Ether.

4 to 7. [a]o 130. Sodium salt, C, H, Na 03 + 8 H, O. , H21

Oudemans
Water.

4.6. [a],
82.

(L. A. 166, 65)
6:4. [a]

79. 13.8. [a]

73. Alcohol of 93 per cent.

[a]. 86.

= 136.

C =

C =

C =

C=

9

$ 119. Camphors. Laurel-camphor, C10H16 O. Dextro-rotatory.

For specific rotation in various solvents ($ 36, p. 84). following others have been obtained :-

The

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Arndtsen (A. C. P. [3] 54, 418) has determined the specific rotation in alcoholic solutions for different rays, and with different

weight-percentages of alcohol (g). t = 22.9°. The formulæ hold

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[a]D

[a]E

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[a]b

[a],

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0-1451 q 0-1912 q

- 0.2346 q

Patchouli camphor, C15 H26 O. Lævo-rotatory.

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15

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Dextro

Camphoric acid, from laurel-camphor, C1o H16 04

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10

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6.052. t 20. [a]D

c = 12.100. t

Salts of dextro-camphoric acid.

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=

= 46.2.

21.5. [a]D = 460. Landolt.

Solutions in water.

[a]D = 14.39 0.06 c.
[a] = 16·62 + 0.06 c.

K2 C10 H14 04

C4 to 16.
1

9.

t

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t =

t = 20.
20.
20. [α]D

Na2 C10 H14 04 c 2

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(NH,), . Cho H 0, c = 4, 17.

14

=

16.98 0.13 c. Landolt.

Methyl-camphoric acid, CH3. C10 H15 04 Dextro-rotatory.

Alcohol. p = 143.04. t = 19.3. [a];

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For the rotatory power of other camphors and their derivatives no sufficient data exist.

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0.873 at 15°. a, for 1 decimetre = 15.6). Schiff (L. A. 166, 94). = 0.846 ,, 12.5°). Alcohol reduces specific rotation; ether, benzene, and oil have no effect. Petit (D. C. G. 1877, 896).

Nicotine, C10 H14 N. Lævo-rotatory. (See § 32, p. 72.)

CINCHONA ALKALOIDS.

Besides those already given, §§ 103, 104, the following data have been further recorded, mostly by Hesse.1

1 Numerous earlier observations on the rotatory powers of alkaloids were made by Bouchardat (Ann. chim phys. [3] 9, 213), Bouchardat and Boudet (Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim. [3] 23, 288), Buignet (Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim. [3] 40, 268), De Vrij and Alluard (Compt. rend. 59, 201). These data are for Biot's red ray; but they are not now of much use, as the nature of solvent employed is scarcely ever recorded with sufficient exactitude.

[The alcoholic chloroform mixture, much used by Hesse as solvent, consists of one volume alcohol of 97 per cent. (by volume) with two volumes chloroform.]

Quinine hydrate, C20 H24 N20, + 3 H,0. Lævo-rotatory. Ether (d 0.7296)

C = 1.5 to 6. t. = 15°. [a]. (158.7 1.911 c). Alcohol of 97 per cent. (by vol.) c = 1 10. 15°. [ap (145•2 - 0.657 c). 80 per cent.

t = 15°. [a]o (165:81

8.203 c +1.0654 c2

0.04644 c3). Alcoholic chloroform.

c = 2.
150. [a]o =

141.0.
C = 5. t = 15°. [a]D 140.5. Hesse (L. A. 176, 206).
Anhydrous quinine, C2 H24 N, 02. Lævo-rotatory.

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6.

C = 1

t =

.

2

In absolute and aqueous alcohol. Oudemans, p. 203.
Alcohol of 97 per cent. (by vol.) t =

15°. c = 1. [a]o - 170.5. c = 2. [a]p

- 169.25. Chloroform. t = 15°. 2. [u]D 116.0. c = 5. [a] 106.6. Hesse

(L. A. 176, 208). Absolute alcohol. c = 1.64. t = 17°. [4]p 167.5. Benzene.

0.61.
17o. [a]o

136.

Oudemans Toluene. 0.39. 17. [4]p

- 127. Chloroform.

= 1.465.
17°. [a]o - 117.

(L. A. 182, 44). 0.775. t = 17°. [a]D

- 126.

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Quinine hydrochloride, C20 H24 N, 02. HCl + 2 H20, Lævo-rotatory. Water (p. 199). Hydrochloric acid (p. 200). Absolute alcohol (p. 204). Alcohol of 97 per cent. (by vol.) c = 1 to 10, t = 15°. [a]o (147.30 - 1.958 C

+ 0.1039 2

0.00211 c3). With aqueous alcohol, the specific rotation attains a maximum when the alcohol is in the proportion of 60 per cent. by volume. For c = 2, and t = 15°, the following values are given :Alcohol per cent. (by vol.) 97

90
85
80

70
[a] 143.86 160:75 168.25 174.75 182.27
Alcohol per cent. (by vol ) 60

50
43
20

0 (Water) [a]D 187.75 187.50 182.82 166:59 138.75 Alcoholic chloroform. 2. 15. [a]

126.25, The anhydrous compound dissolved in chloroform shows with c = 0.9 to 9 and

t = 15°. [a] = - (81.81 – 23.756 C + 3.9556 c2 0-2198 c3).

=

C =

t

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Solutions in dilute hydrochloric acid, with 1 molecule of the hydrochloride (c = 2) in 100 cubic centimetre solution, we have as follows:

Mols. of H C

0 [a]o = 138.75 Concentrated fuming acid.

1 223.2

=

2 225.7 [a]D

4
10

16
223.6 213.9 209.5

158-8. Hesse (L. A. 176, 210).

C = 2.

Diquinine sulphate (neutral), 2 (C20 H, N, 02). H, SO, + 8 H, 0. Lævo-rotatory.

2

4

Absolute alcohol (p. 200). Aqueous alcohol (p. 200).
Alcoholic chloroform.
c = 1 to 5. t = 15°. [a]o = (157·5 - 0.27 c).

Hesse (L. A. 176, 213).

2

2

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t

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D

C =

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t

t

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Quinine sulphate (Mono-acid), C20 H24 N, 02.H, SO4 + 7H, 0. Lævo-rotatory. Water (p. 200). Absolute alcohol (p. 204). Alcohol of 97 per cent. (by vol.) c = 2. 15°. [a]n 134.75. 80

2. t = 15°. [a] 142:75. Hesse (L. A. 60

2.
15°. [a]

155.91. 176, 215). Alcoholic chloroform.

C = 2.
15°. [a],

- 138.75. In alcoholic solutions with c = 2, the specific rotation decreases 0·65° for each 1° rise of temperature. Draper (Silliman's American Journal), [3] 11, 42).

Quinine disulphate (di-acid), C20 H24 N202 · 2 H,S 04 + 4 H, 0. Lævo-rotatory. Water.

c = 2 to 10.

t = 15°. [a]] (170•3 - 0.94 c). Alcohol of 80 per cent. (by vol.) t = 15°. c = 1. [a] 154.5. 80 t = 15° c = 3. [a]] 153.3.

Hesse (L. A. 176, 217). Quinine oxalate, 2 (C20H, N,0.).C, H, O, + 6 H,0. Lævorotatory. Absolute alcohol (p. 204). Alcoholic chloroform. c = 1 to 3. 15°. [a]o (141:58

0:58 ch.

Hesse (L. A. 176, 218).
Cinchonidine, C20 H24 N, 0. Lævo-rotatory.

Alcohol 97 per cent. (by vol.) (p. 201). Absolute and aqueous alcohols (p. 205). Alcohol of 95 per cent. (by vol.) c = 2. t = 15°. [a] - (113.53 – 0•426 c). 80

c = 2.
= 15. [a]=

119.5. Alcoholic chloroform

C= 2.
t = 15. [a]o

108.9. Chloroform

C= 2.
15. [a]}

83.9.

Hesse L. A. 176, 219). Absolute alcohol

c = 1.54. t = 17. [a]] 109.6. Oudemans Chloroform

c= 1.545. t

77.3. (L. A. 182, c= 3:41. t = 17. [a]] = 74.0. 44). Cinchonidine hydrochloride, C2, H24 N,0. HCl + H, 0. Lævorotatory.

24

2

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Water (p. 201). Hydrochloric acid (p. 201). Absolute alcohol (p. 205).
Alcohol of 97 per cent. (by vol.) c = 3. t = 15°. [a]= 108.0.

Hesse
80

2.

15°. [a]] 135.25. (L. A. 176, Anhydrous salt: Chloroform C = 2.85. t =

15°. [a]ı

24.2. 220).

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t =

2

0. Dicinchonidine sulphate, 2 (C20 H24 N20). H, SO4 + 6 H, Lævo-rotatory. Water. c = 1.06.

15°. [a]p - 106.8. Salt with 3 mols. water: alcohol of 80 per cent. (by vol.) c = 2. t = 15°. [a]!

144.5. Hesse (L. A. 176, 221). Cinchonidine sulphate, C20 H24 N, 0.H, SO4 + 5 H20. Lævorotatory. Water (p. 201). Alcohol of 80 per cent. (by vol.) c = 2. t = 15°. [a]o 109.0.) Hesse (L. Alcoholic chloroform.

t = 15°. [a] – 101:0. I A. 176, 222). Cinchonidine nitrate (p. 205).

Cinchonidine oxalate, 2 (C20H24 N2O). C, H,04 + 2 H20. Lævorotatory. Alcoholic chloroform. = 1 to 3. t =

15°. [a]ó =

- 987. Hesse (L. A. 176, 222). Quinidine (conchinine) hydrate, C20 H24 N2O + 24 H, 0. Dextro-rotatory.

C = 2.

2

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t =

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C =

t =

C

t =

2

Alcohol of 97 per cent. (by vol.) (p. 201). 80

2. t = 15°. [a]e 232.7. Alcoholic chloroform

c = 1.

t = 15°. [a]D 244.5. 2. 15°. [a]p

241.75. Anhydrous alkaloid : Chloroform c = 1.756. t = 15. [a]p = 230•35.

Hesse (L. A. 176, 223). Absolute alcohol (anhydrous alkaloid): c = 1.62. t = 17°. [a] 255.4. Benzene

1.62. 17. [4]p

195.2. Toluene

1.62. 17. [a]p 206.6. Chloroform

C = 1.62. t =

17. [a]p 228.8.

Oudemans (L. A. 182, 44). Quinidine hydrochloride, C2 H24 N, 02.HCl + H, 0. Dextrorotatory. Water, hydrochloric acid (p. 201). Absolute alcohol (p. 205). Alcohol of 97 per cent. (by vol.) c = 2 to 5. t = 15°. [a]ı = 212:0

2-56 c. 80

C = 2.

t = 15°. [a] 230.25. Acid salt: C20 H, N, 02. 2 HCl + H, 0. Water. c = 2. t = 15°. [a]] 250.3.

Hesse (L. A. 176, 225). Diquinidine sulphate, 2 C2 H2N,0,.H, SO. + 2 H,0. Dextrorotatory. Water. Sulphuric acid. Hydrochloric acid (p. 202). Alcohol of 80 per cent. (by vol.) c = 2. t = 15°. [a]D

= 218.2.
60

C = 2.
15°. [a] = 227.0.

=

=

20

-24

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t =

Hesse Alcoholic chloroform.

15°. [a]o 209.25. Anhydrous salt: Chloroform.

= 3. [c] 184.2. (L. A. 176, 226).

5. [a]] 180.1.

C = 2.

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