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A damn'd defeat' was made. Am I a coward ? Ros. Most like a gentleman.
Who calls me villaiu ? breaks my pate across ? Guil. But with much forcing of his disposition.
Plucks off my beard, and blows it in my face? Ros. Niggard of question ; but, of our demands,
Tweaks me by the nose? gives me ihe lie i' the Most free in his reply.ro
throat,

Queen.

Did you assay him As deep as to the lungs ? Who does me this? To any pastime ? Ha !

Ros Madam, it so fell out, that certain players Why, I should take it : for it cannot be,

Weo'er-raughts on the way': of these we iold him ; But I am pigeon-liver'd, and lack gall

And there did seem in him a kind of joy To make oppression bitter; or, ere this,

To hear of it: They are about the court; I should have fatted all the region kites

And, as I think, they have already order With this slave's offal: Bloody, bawdy villain ! This night to play before him. Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless Pol.

'Tis most true : villain!

And he beseech'd me to entreat your majesties, Why, what an ass am I? This is most brave; To hear and see the matter. That I, the son of a dear father murder'd,

King. With all my heart; and it doth much conPrompted to my revenge by heaven and hell,

tent me Must, like a whore, unpack my heart with words, To hear him so inclin'd. And fall a cursing like a very drab,

Good gentlemen, give him a further edge, A scullion !

And drive his purpose on to these delights. Fie upon't! foh! About my brains ! Humph! I Ros. We shall, my lord. have heard,

(Exeunt ROSENCRANTZ and GUILDENSTERN That guilty creatures, sitting at a play,'

King.

Sweet Gertrude, leave us too : Have, by the very cunning of the scene,

For we have closely sent for Hamlet hither ; Been struck so to the soul, that presently

That he, as 'twere by accident, may here They have proclaim'd their malefactions ;

Affrontia Ophelia : For murder, though it have no tongue, will speak Her father, and myself (lawful espials, 's) With most miraculous organ. I'll have these Will so bestow ourselves, that, seeing, unseen, players

We may of their encounter frankly judge ;
Play something like the murder of my father, And gather by him, as he is behavid,
Before mine uncle ; I'll observe his looks ;

If't be the affliction of his love, or no,
I'll tent him to the quick; if he do blench," That thus he suffers for.
I know my course. The spirit, that I have seen, Queen.

I shall obey, you :
May be a devil: and the devil hath power

And for your part, Ophelia, I do wish,
To assume a pleasing shape; yea, and, perhaps, Thai your good beauties be the happy cause
Out of my weakness, and my melancholy,

Of Hamlet's wildness: so shall I hope, your virtues (As he is very potent with such spirits,)

Will bring him to his wonted way again, Abuses me to damn me : I'll have grounds

To both your honours. More relative than this : The play's the thing,

Oph.

Madam, I wish it may. Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king.

[Exit Queen. (Ezil.

Pol. Ophelia, walk you here :-Gracious, so

please you, We will bestowia ourselves :-Read on this book ;

[T. OPHELIA. ACT III.

That show of such an exercise inay colour SCENE I. A Room in the Castle. Enter King, Your loneliness.1-_-We are oft to blame in this,

Queen, Polonius, OPHELIA, ROSENCRANTZ, "Tis too much prov'd,--that with devotion's visage, and GUILDENSTERN.

And pious action, we do sugar o'er
King. And can you, by no drift of conference The devil himself.
Get from him why he puts on this confusion ;

King.

0, 'uis too true! how smart Grating so harshly all his days of quiet

A lash that speech doth give my conscience ! With turbulent and dangerous lunacy?

The harlot's cheek, beautied with plast'ring art, Ros. He does confess, he feels himself distracted; Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it, But from what cause he will by no means speak. Than is my deed to my mosi painted word: Guil. Nor do we find him forward to he sounded; O, heavy burden!

(Aside. But with a crafty madness, keeps aloof,

Pol. I hear him coming ; let's withdraw, my lord. When we would bring him on to some confession

(Ereunt King and POLONIUS. Of his true state. Queen. Did he receive you well ?

5 A number of instances of the kind are collected by

Thomas Heywood in his Apology for Actors. | Defeat here signifies destruction. It was frequently 6 To leni was to probe, to search a wound. used in the sense of undo or take away by our old wri. 7 To blench is to shrink or start Vide Winter's ters. Thus Chapman in his Revenge for Honour : Tale, Act i. Sc. 2.

“That he might meantime make a sure defeat 8 i. e. more near, more immediately connected. The On our good aged father's lise.?

first quarto reads, I will have sounder proofs.' 2 Kindless is uonatural.

9 Folio-circumstance. 3 The first folio reads thus :

10 · Slow to begin centersation, but free enough in Oh vengeance !

answering our demands.' Who? What an ass am I? I sure this is most brave, 11 i. e. reached, overlook. That I the sonne of the Deere murthered.'

12 i. e. meet her, encounter her; affrontare, Ital. See The quarto of 1604 omits Oh vengeance,' and reads, Winter's Tale, Act v. Sc. I. 'a deere murthered. The quarto of 1602, that I the 13 • Lawful espials ;' That is lawsul spies. 'An espiall son of my dear father.'

in warres, a scoutwatche, a beholder, a viewer.:- Baret. 4 I seems extraordinary that Mason and Steevens See King Henry VI. Part I. Act i. Sc. 4. An espy was could ever conceive that there was any allusion here to also in use for a spy. The two words are only sound the nautical phrase, about ship. 'Aboul my brains' is in the folio. nothing more than to work my brains. The common 14 · Beslow ourselves' is here used for hide or place phrase, to go about a thing, is not yet obsolete. Fal- ourselves. We have the word in the same sense in a staff humours the equivocal use of the word in The subsequent scene :Merry Wives of Windsor : No quips now, Pistol, ? Where the dead body is bestow'd, my lord, indeed I am in the waist too yards about ; but I am now We cannot get from him.' about no waste; I am about thrift.' Steevens's quota. We now use stou, One of our old dictionaries makes tion from Heywood's Iron Age should have taught him a discrimination between the acceptations of this word, beter

thus : To beslow, or lay out ; to beslow, or give · 10 My brain about again! for thou hast found bestow, or place." New projects now to work on.'

15 Quarto-lowliness.

Enter HAMLET.

Ham. Ha, ha! are you honest ?
Ham. To be, or not to be, that is the question:- Opi. My lord?
Whether 'uis nobler in the mind, to suffer

Ham. Are you fair?
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune; Oph. What means your lordship?
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,

Ham. That if you be honest and fair, your hoAnd, by opposing, end them ?-- To die,-to sleep,- nesty should admit no discourse to your beauty.14 No more ;-and, by a sleep, to say we end

Oph. Could beauty, my lord, have better comThe heari-ach, and the thousand natural shocks merce than with honesty? That flesh is heir to,tis a consummation

Ham. Ay, truly; for the power of beauty will Devoutly to be wish’d. To die ;—to sleep :-

sooner transform honesty from what it is to a bawdy To sleep! perchance to dream ;-ay, there's the rub; than the force of honesty can translate beauty into For in ihai sleep of death what dreams may come, his likeness; this was some time a paradox, but When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, now the time gives it proof. I did love you once. Must give us pause: There's the respect,

Oph. Indeed, my lord, you made me believe so. That makes calamity of so long life:

Ham. You should not have believed me; for For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, virtue cannot so inoculate our old stock, but we The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely, shall relish of it: I loved you not. The pangs of despis'd love, the law's delay,

Oph. I was the more deceived. The insolence of office, and the spurns

Hom. Get thee to a nunnery; Why would'st That patient merit of the unworthy takes,

thou be a brceder of sinners? I am myself indir When he himself might his quietus make

ferent honest; but yet I could accuse me of such With a bare bodkin 7e who would fardels? bear, things, that it were better, my mother had not borne To grunt and sweat under a weary life ;

me: I am very proud, revengeful, ambitious; with But that the dread of something after death, more offences at my beck, than I have thoughts to The undiscover'd country, from whose bourn put them in,'s imagination to give them shape, or No traveller returns,-puzzles the will ;

time to act them in; What should such fellows as And makes us rather bear those ills we have,

| 1 do crawling between earth and heaven! We are Than fly to others that we know not of ?

arrant knaves, all; believe none of us: Go thy Thus conscience does make cowards of us all ;10 ways to a nunnery. Where's your father. And thus the native hue of resolution

Oph. At home, my lord. Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought;

Ham. Let the doors be shut upon him; that he And enterprizes of great pith" and moment, may play the fool no wherel6 bui in's own house. With this regard, their currents turn awry,

Farewell.
And lose the name of action.-Soft you, now! Oph. O, help him, you sweet heavens !
The fair Ophelia :-Nymph, in thy órisonsła

Ham. Ir thou dost marry, I'll give thee this Be all my sins remember'd.

plague for thy dowry; Be thou as chaste as ice, as Oph.

Good my lord, pure as snow, thou shalt not escape calurny. Get How does your honour for this many a day? thee to a nunnery; farewell: Or, if thou wilt Ham. I humbly thank you ; well.

needs marry, marry a fool; for wise men know well Oph. My lord, I have remembrances of yours,

enough, what monsters you make of them. To a That I have longed long to re-deliver ;

nunnery, go; and quickly too. Farewell. I pray you, now receive them.

Oph. Heavenly powers, restore him! Ham.

No, not I;

Ham. I have heard of your paintingslå too, well I never gave you aught.

enough; God hath given you one face, and you Oph. My honour'd lord, you know right well, make yourselves another : you jig, you amble, and

you lisp, and nickname God's creatures, and make And, with them, words of so sweet breath compos'd your wantonness your ignorance ;!' Go to; I'll no As made the things more rich : their

perfume lost, have no more marriages: those that are married

more of it: it hath made me mad. I say, we will Take these again; for to the noble mind, Rich gifts wax poor, when givers prove unkind.

already, all but one, shall live; the rest shall keep There, my lord.

as they are. To a nunnery, go.

(Exit HAMLET.

9 Mr. Douce points out the following passages in Cran| This mortal coil ;' that is, the tumult and bustle mer's Bible, which may have been in Shakspeare's of this life. It is remarkable that under garbuglio, mind :- Afore I goe thither, from whence I shull not which has the same meaning in Italian as our coil, Florio turne againe, even to the lande of darkuess, and sha. has 'a pecke of troubles ;' of which Shakspeare's sea dowe of death ; yea into that darke cloudie lande and of troubles' is only an aggrandized idea.

deadly shadow whereas is no order, but terrible seare as 2 i. e. the consideration. This is Shakspeare's most in the darknesse,'--Job, c. x. The way that I must usual sense of the word.

goe is at hande, but whence I shall not turne againe.' 3 Time, for the time, is a very usual expression with Ib. c. xvi. our old writers. Thus in Ben Jonson's Every Man

Weep not for Mortimer, Out of his Humour :

That scorns the world, and as a traveller • Oh, how I hate the monstrousness of time.'

Goes to discover countries yet unknown.' 4 Folio- the poor man's contumely.'

Marlowe's King Edward II. 5 The allusion is to the term quietus est, used in 10 I'll not meddle with it,-it makes a man a coward settling accounts at exchequer audits. Thus Webster -King Richard III. Act i. Sc. 4. And again :

O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me.' * You had the trick in audit time to be sick,

Ib. Act. v. Sc. 3. Till I had sign'd your quietus.'

11 Quartos-pitcha

12 Folio-array. And, more appositely, in Sir Thomas Overbury's char. 13 " This is a touch of nature. Hamlet, at the sight of acter of a Franklin : -- Lastly to end him, he cares Ophelia, does not immediately recollect that he is to per. not when his end comes; he needs not feare his audit, sonate madness, but makes an address grave and sofor his quietus is in heaven.'

lemn, such as the foregoing meditation excited in his 6 Bodkin was the ancient term for a small dagger.' thoughts. -Johnson. 7 Packs, burdens.

14 i. e. your honesty should not admit your beauty 8 Though to grunt has been degraded in modern lan to any discourse with her. The first quarto reads :-guage, it appears to have conveyed no vulgar or low im.. Your beauty should admit no discourse to your honesty.' age to the ear of our ancestors, as many quotaiions from That of 1604 :

-You should admit no discourse to your the old translations of the classics would show. 'Loke beauty. that the places about thee be so in silence that thy 15. Than I have thoughts to put them in. To put a corage and mynde gronte nor groudge nat.' Paynel's thing into thought' is 'io think on it." Translation of Erasmus de Contempt. Mundi. The 16 Folio--oay:

17 Folio-Go, farewell, fact seems to be, that to groan and to grunt were con. 18 The folio, for paintings, has prattlings : vertible terms. "Swyne wode for love groyneth.-Hor face has pace. man's Vulgaria. And Chaucer in The Monk's Tale :- 19. You mistake by wanton affectation, and pretend to

But never gront he at no stroke but og." mistake by ignorance'

you did :

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Oph. 0, what a noble mind is here o'erthrown! tatters, to very ragg, to split the ears of the ground The courtier's, soldier's, scholar's eye, tongue, lings: who, for the most part, are capable of nosword:

thing but inexplicable dumb shows, and noise : I The expectancy and rose of the fair state,

would have such a fellow whipped for o'er-doing The glass of fashion and the mould of form, 20 Termagant;' it out-herods Herod : 'Pray you, The observ'd of all observers ! quite, quite down ! avoid it. And I, of ladies most deject and wretched,

1 Play. I warrant your honour. That suck'd the honey of his music vows,

Ham. Be not too tame neither, but let your own Now see that noble and most sovereign reason, discretion be your tutor : suit the action to the word, Like sweet bells jangled, out of tunel and harsh the word to the action: with this special observance, That unmatch'd form and feature of blown youth, that you o'erstep not the modesty of nature : for Blasted with ecstacy :: 0, wo is me!

any thing so overdone is from the purpose of playTo have seen what I have seen, see what I see! ing, whose end, both at the first, and now, was, and Re-enter King and POLONIUS.

is, to hold, as 'were, the mirror up to nature; to

show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, King. Love! his affections do not that way tend ; and the very age and body of the time, his form and Nor what he spake, though it lack'd form a little, Was not like madness. There's something in his soul, though it make the unskilful laugh, cannot but

pressure. Now this, overdone, or come tardy off, O'er which his melancholy sits on brood;

make the judicious grieve; the censure of which And, I do doubt, the hatch, and the disclose," Will be some danger: Which for to prevent,

one, must in your allowance," o'erweigh & whole

theatre of others. O, there be players, that I have I have, in quick determination, Thus set it down ; He shall with speed to England, ly,--not to speak it profanely, that, neither having

seen play,—and heard others praise, and that highFor the demand of our neglected tribute :

the accent of Christians, nor the gait of Christian, Haply, the seas, and countries different, With variable objects, shall expel

Pagan, nor man, have so struited and bellowed

that I have thought some of nature's journeymen. This something-settled matter in his heart;

had made men, and not made them well, they imiWhereon his brains still beating, puts him thus From fashion of himself. What think you on't ?

tated humanity so abominably. Pol. It shall do well: But yet, I do believe,

1 Play. I hope we bave reformed that indiffer.

ently with us. The origin and commencement of his grief

Ham. O, reform it altogether. And let those Sprung from neglected love.- How now, Ophelia ? that play your clowns, speak no more than is set You need not tell us what lord Hamlet said;

down for them : for there be of them, that will We heard it all.—My Lord, do as you please ; themselves laugh, to set on some quantity of barren: But, if you hold it fit after the play,

spectators to laugh too; though, in the mean time, Let his queen mother all alone entreat him

some necessary question'o of the play be then to be To show his grief; let her be round" with him; considered: that's villanous ; and shows a most And I'll be plac'd, so please you, in the ear

pitiful ambition in the fool that uses it. Go, make Of all their conference: If she find himn not, To England send him ; or confine him, where

you ready.-

(Exeunt Players. Your wisdom best shall think.

Enter Polonius, ROSENCRANTZ, and GUILDEN. King. It shall be so:

STERN. Madness in great ones must not unwatch'd go. How now, my lord? will the king hear this piece of

(Ereunt. work? SCENE II. A Hall in the same. Enter HAMLET,

Pol. And the queen too, and that presently. and certain Players.

Ham. Bid the players make haste.

(Erit POLONJUS. Ham. Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pro- Will you two help to hasten them? nounced it to you, trippingly on the tongue : but if Both. Ay, my lord. you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as [Ereunt ROSENCRANTZ, and GUILDENSTERN. lief the town crier spoke my lines.s Nor do not Ham. What, ho; Horatio ! saw the air too much with your hand, thus; but use

Enter HORATIO, all gently ; for in the very torrent, tempest, and (as I may say), whirlwind of your passion, you must

Hor. Here, sweet lord, at your service. acquire and beget a temperance, that may give it

Ham. Horatio, thou art e'en as just a man' smoothness. O, it offends me to the soul, to hear As e'er my conversation cop'd withal. a robustious periwig-pated fellow tear a passion to standing gentlemen of the ground;' and Shirley, 'grave

understanders.' 20 Speculum constetudinis.'--Cicero. The model by "No shows, no dance, and what you most delight in, whom all endeavoured to form themselves.

Grave understanders, here's no iarget-fighting: 1 Quarto-time.

Sir W. Cornwallis calls the ignorant earthlinge. I 2 Ecstasy is alienation of the mind. Vide Tempest, have not been ashamed to adventure mine eares with a Act iii. Sc. 3.

ballad-singer,--the profit to see earthlings satisfied with 3 To disclose was the ancient term for hutching birds such

coarse stuffe,' &C.-Essay 15. ed. 1623. of any kind ; from the Fr. esclos, and that from the Lat. 7 Termagaunt is the name given in old romances to exclusils. I believe to erclude is now the technical term. the tempestuous god of the Saracens. He is usually Thus in the Boke of St. Albans, ed. 1496 : For to joined with Mahound or Mahomet. Hall mentions him speke of hawkes; Fyrst they ben egges, and afterwarde in his first Satire : they ben dysclosed hawkys. And.comynly goshawkes Nor fright the reader with the Pagan vaunt ben disclosyd as soone as the choughs.'

or mighiy Mahound and great Termagaunt.' 4 See note on Act ii. Sc. 2,

8 Pressure is impression, resemblanoe. 5. Have you never seen a stalking stamping player, 9 i. e. approval, estimation. Vide King Lear, Act ijs. that will raise a tempest with his tongue, and thunder Sc. 4. with his heels.'-- The Puritan, a Comedy. The first 10 The quarto, 1603, 'Point in the play then to be ob. quarto has, 'I'd rather hear a town-bull Bellow, than served. Afterwards is added, ' And then you have some such a fellow speak my lives.'

again that keeps one suit of jests, as a man is known by 6 The first quarto reads, 'of the ignorant. Our an. one suit of apparel; and gentlemen quotes his jesis cient theatres were far from the commodious elegant down in their tables before they come to the play, as structures which later times have seen. The pit was, thus :-Cannot you stay till I eat my porridge ; and truly, what its name denotes, an unfloored space in the you onte me a quarter's wages; and your beer is sout, area of the house, sunk consiilerably beneath the level and blabbering with his lips : And thus keeping in his of the stage; and, by ancient representations, one may cinque a pace of jests; when, God knows, the warme judge that it was necessary to elevate the head very Clown cannot make a jest unless by chance, as the blind much to get a view of the performance. Hence this part man catcheth a hare: Masters, tell him of it.'-This of the audience were called groundlings. Jonson, in the passage was evidently levelled at the particular folly ! haduction to Bartholomew Fair, calls them the under. I some injudicious player contemporary with the poel

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Well, my

lord:

Hor. O, my dear lord,

Ham. No, nor mino now. My lord, -you played Ham,

Nay, do not think I flatter : once in the university, you say?" [To Polonius. For what advancement may I hope from thee, Pol. That did I, my lord ; and was accounted a That no revenue hast, but thy good spirits,

good actor. To feed, and clothe thee? Why should the poor be Ham. And what did you enact ? flatter'd ?

Pol. I did enact Julius Caesar: I was killed i No, let the candied tongue lick absurd pomp ; the Capitol ; Brutus killed me. And crook the pregnant hinges of the knee,

Ham. It was a brute part of him, to kill so capiWhere thrift may follow fawning. Dost thou hear? tal a calf there.—Be the players ready? Since my dear soul was mistress of her choice, Ros. Ay, my lord ; they stays upon your patience. And could of men distinguish her election,

Queen. Come hither, my dear Hamlet, sit by me. She hath seal'd thee for herself: for thou hast been Ham. No, good mother, here's metal more at. As one, in suffering all, that suffers nothing;

tractive. A man, that fortune's buffets and rewards

Pol. O, ho! do you mark that? [To the King. Hast ta'en with equal thanks; and bless'd are those, Ham. Lady, shall I lie in your lap ? Whose blood and judgment are so well co-mingled,"

(Lying down at OPHELIA's Feet. That they are not a pipe for fortune's finger

Oph. No, my lord.
To sound what stop she please : Give me that man Ham. I mean, my head upon your lap?
That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him Oph. Ay, my lord.
In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart,

Ham. Do you think, I meant contrary matters?
As I do thee.-Something too much of this.- Oph. I think nothing, my lord.
There is a play to-night before the king;

Ham. That's a fair thought to lie between maids' One scene of it comes near the circumstance, legs. Which I have told thee of my father's death. Oph. What is, my lord ? I pr’ythee, when thou seest ihat act afoot,

Ham. Nothing. Even with the very comment of thy soul

Oph. You are merry, my lord. Observe my uncle : if his occulted guilt

Ham. Who, I? Do not itself unkennel in one speech,

Oph. Ay, my lord. It is a damned ghost that we have seen;

Ham. O! your only jig-maker.10 What should And my imaginations are as foul

a man do, but be merry ? "for, look you, how cheer. As Vulcan's stithy. Give him heedful note : fully my mother looks, and my father died within For I mine eyes will rivet to his face ;s

these two hours. And, after, we will both our judgments join

Oph. Nay, 'tis twice two months, my lord. In censures of his seeming.

Hain. So long? Nay, then let the devil wear Hor.

black, for I'll have a suit of sables." O, heaverts ! If he steal aught, the whilst this play is playing, die two months ago, and not forgotten yet? Then And scape detecting, I will pay the theft.

there's hope, a great man's memory may outlive Ham. They are coming to the play; I must be idle: his life half a year: But, by'r-lady, he must build Get you a place.

churches then: or else shall he suffer not thinking Danish March. A Flourish. Enter King, Queen, on, with the hobby-horse;'? whose epitaph is, For,

Polonius, OPHELIA, Rosencrantz, Guil- | 0, for, O, the hobby-horse is forgot.
DENSTERN, and others.

Trumpels sound. The Dumb Show's follows. King. How fares our cousin Hamlet?

Enter a King and a Queen, very lovingly; the Ham. Excellent, i' faith ; of the chameleon's dish : Queen embracing him, and he her.

She kneels, I eat the air, promise-crammed ; You cannot feed and makes show of protestation unto him. He

takes her up, and declines his head upon her neck : capons so. King. I have nothing with this answer, Hamlet;

lays him down upon a bank of flowers ; she, seethese words are not mine.

ing him asleep, leaves him. Anon comes in a

Fellow, takes of his crown, kisses it, and pours 1 Pregnant, quick, ready.

poison in the King's ears, and exit. The Queen 2. According to the doctrine of the four humours, desire and confidence were seated in the blood, and

returns : finds the King dead, and makes pas. judgment in the phlegm, and the due mixtures of the 9 This is the reading of the quarto 1603. The quarto humours made a perfect character. -Johnson.

1604 and the folio read country. 3 Quarto, 1601--co-meddled.'

10 lı may here be added that a jig sometimes signified 4 Pulcan's stithy is Vulcan's workshop or smithy; a spritely dance, as al present. In addition to the ex. slith being an anvil.

amples before given, take the following from Ford's 5 Here the first quarto has :

Love's Sacrifice :- Giacopo ! Petrarch was a dunce, "And if he do not blench and change at that,

Dante a jig.maker, Sannazar a goose, and Ariosto a It is a damned ghost that we have seen;

puck-first to me.'--Act ii. Sc. 2. Horatio, have a care, observe him well.

11 i. e. a dress ornamented with the rich fur of that Hor. My lord, mine eyes shall still be on his face, name, said to be the skin of the sable martin. By the And not the smallest alteration

statute of apparel, 24 Hen. VIII. c. 13, it is ordamed that That shall appear in him, but I shall note it.'

none under the degree of an earl may use sables.6 i. e. judgment, opinion.

Bishop, in his Blossoms, 1577, speaking of extra. 7 A Latin play on the subject of Cæsar's death was vagance, says, that a thousand ducalea were sometimes performed ai Christ Church, in Oxford, in 1582. Malone given for a face of sables. But Hamlet meant to use the ihinks that there was an English play on the same sub word equivocally. ject, previous to Shakspeare's. Caesar was killed in 12 The hobby horse, whose omission in the morris Pompey's portico, and not in the Capitol : but the error dance is so pathetically lamented in many of our old is at least as old as Chaucer's time.

dramas, in the very words which Hamlet calls his . This Julius to the Capitolie wente

epitaph, was long a distinguished favourite in the May Upon a day, that he was wont to gon,

Games. He was driven froni luis station by the Puritans, And in the Capitolie anon him hente

as an impious and Pagan superstition ; bui restored after This false Brutus and his other soon,

the promulgation of the Book of Sports. The hobby. And sticked him with bodekins anon

horse was formed of a pasteboard borse's head, and With many a wound,' &c.

probably a light frame made of wicker-work to form the Chaucer's Monkes Tale, v. 14621. hinder parts ; this was fastened round the body of a man, I have cited this passage to show that Chaucer uses and covered with a footcloth, which nearly reached the bodkin for dagger, like Shakspeare.

ground, and concealed the legs of the performer ; who 8 i. e. they wait upon your sufferance or will, displayed his antic equestrian skill, and performed Johnson would have changed the word to pleasure ; various juggling tricks, wigh-hie.ing or neighing, to the bat Shakspeare has again used it in a similar sense in no small delight of the bystanders. The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act iii. Sc. 1 :

13 This dumb show appears to be superfluous, and

even incongruous; for as the murder is there circum. And think my patience more than thy desert stantially represented, the King ought to have been 15 privilege for thy departuro hence."

struck with it then, without waiting for the djalogus.

Go,

now,

the play,

gone round

moon

sionate action. The Poisoner, with some two or Such love must needs be treason in my breast; three Mutes, comes in again, seeming to lament In second husband let me be accurst! with her. T'he dead body is carried away. The None wed the second, but who kill'd the first. Poisoner woos the Queen with gifts; she seems Ham, That's wormwood. loath and unwilling awhile; bul, in the end, ac- P. Queen. The instances,' that second marriage cepts his love.

(Exeunt.

move, Oph. What means this, my lord ?

Are base respects of thrift, but none of love ; Ham. Marry, this is míching malicho ;' it means When second Irusband kisses me in bed.

A second time I kill my husband dead, mischief. Oph. Belike, this show imports the argument of

P. King. I do believe, you think what now you the play.

speak; Enter Prologue.

But, what we do determine oft we break. Ham. We shall know by this fellow: the players of violent birih, but poor validity:

Purpose is but the slave to memory ;* cannot keep counsel; they'll tell all.

Which like fruit unripe, sticks on the tree ; Oph. Will he tell us what this show meant? Hum. Ay, or any show that you'll show him: Most necessary 'tis, that we forget

But fall, unshaken, when they mellow be. Be not you ashamed 10 show, he'll not shame to To pay ourselves what to ourselves is debt : tell you

what it means.? Oph. You are naught, you are naught; I'll mark The passion ending, doth the purpose lose.

What to ourselves in passion we propose,

The violence of either grief or joy Pro. For us, and for our tragedy,

Their own enaclures' with themselves destroy ; Here stooping to your clemency,

Where joy most revels, grief dotb most lament; We beg your hearing patiently. Ham. Is this a prologue, or the posy of a ring ? This world is not for ave; nor ’ris not strange,

Grief joys, joy greves, on slender accident. Oph. "Tis brief, my lord,

That even our loves should with our fortunes change; Ham. As woman's love.

For 'tis a question left us yet to prove,
Enter a King and a Queen.

Whether love lead fortune, or else fortune love.
P. King. Full thirty times hath Phæbus' cart | The great man down, you mark his favourite flies;

The poor advanc'd makes friends of enemies. Neptune's salt wash, and Tellus' orbed ground;

And hitherto doth love on fortune tend: And thirty dozen moons, with borrow'd sheen,

For who not needs, shall never lack a friend ; About the world have times twelve thirties been;

And who in want a hollow friend doth try, Since love our hearts, and Hymen did our hands,

Directly seasons'' him his enemy.
Unite commutual in most sacred bands.

But, orderly to end where I begun,-
P. Queen. So many journeys may the sun and Our wills and fates, do so contrary run,

That our devices still are overthrown;
Make us again count o'er, ere love he done!

Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our own: But, wo is me, you are so sick of late,

So think thou wilt no second husband wed; So far from cheer, and from your former state,

But die thy thoughts, when thy first lord is dead. That I distrust you. Yet, though I distrust,

P. Queen. Nor earth to me give food, nor heaver Discomfort you, my lord, it nothing must:

light! For women fear too much, even as they love ;*

Sport and repose lock from me, day, and night! And women's fear and love hold quantity;

To desperation turn my trust and hope ! In neither aught, or in extremnity:

An anchor'sll cheer in prison be my scope ! Now, what my love is, proof hath made you know ; Meet what I would have well, and it destroy !

Each opposite, that blanks the face of joy,
And as my love is siz'd, my fear is so.
Where love is great, the litilest doubts are fear;

Both here, and hence, pursue me lasting strife, Where little fears grow great, great love grows there. If, once a widow, ever I be wife!

Ham. If she should break it now, P. King. 'Faith, I must leave thee, love, and

(To ОРА. shortly too;

P. King. 'Tis deeply sworn. Sweet, leave me

here a while; My operant powers their functions leave to do; And thou shalt live in this fair world behind,

My spirits grow dull, and sain I would beguile Honour'd, belov'd ; and, haply, one as kind

The tedious day with sleep.

[Sleeps. For husband shalt thou

P. Queen.

Sleep rock thy brain; P. Queen. o, confound the rest! And never come mischance between us twain !

(Exit. 1 Miching malicho is lurking mischief, or evil doing. Ham. Madam, how like you this play? To mich, for to skulk, lo lurk, was an old English verb Quren. The lady doth proiest too much, methinks. In common use in Shakspeare's time; and malicho or malhecho, misdeed, he has borrowed from the Spanish. 4 This line is omited in the folio. There appears to Many stray words of Spanish and Italian were then have been a line omitted in the quarto which should affeciedly used in common conversation, as we have have rhymed to this. seen French used in more recent times. The quarto 5 Cleopatra expresses herself much in the same manspells the word mallico. Our ancestors were not parti. ner for the loss of Antony cular in orbography, and often spelt according to the

our size of sorrow

Proportiond to our cause, must be as great 2 The conversation with Ophelia, as Steevens re- As that which makes it.' marks, cannot fail to disgust every modern reader. It 6 i. e, active. was, no doubt, such as was current in society in that 7 Instances are motives. See note on King Richard age, which had not yet learnt to throw a veil of decency II. Act iii. Sc. 2. over corrupt manners. Yet still I think that such dis. 8 'Bul thought's the slare of life.'— King Henry IV. course would not have been put into the mouth of Ham. Part I. let by the poet, had he 11ot meant it to mark the feigned 9. I. e. their own determinations, what they enact. madness of Hamlet the stronger from its inconsistence 10 See note on Act I. Sc. 3. “This quaint phrase (says with his character as a prince and polished gentleman. Steevens), infrsis almost every ancient English coni.

3 Carl, car, or chariot, were used indiscriminately for position. Why infesls? Surely it is as forcible and any carriage formerly. Mr. Todd has adduced the fol. intelligible as many other metaphorical expressinne lowing passage from the Comical History of Alphonsus, retained in the language. It has been remarked that by R. G. 1399, which, he thinks, Shakspeare meant to our ancestors were much better judges of the powers of burlesque :

language than we are. The Latin writers did not scru. * Thrice ten times Phæbus with his golden beameg ple w apply their verh condire in the same manner. Hath compassed the circle of the skie;

11 Anchor's for anchorel's. Thus in Hall's second 1 hrice ten times Ceres hath her workmen hird, Satire, b. iv. :And filled her barnes with fruteful crops of corne, Sil seven years pining in an unchor's cheyre, Since first io priesthood I did lead my life.

To win some patched shreds of minivere."

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