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Danes, (Within.] Let her come in.

wear your rue with a difference.-There's a daisy: Laer. How now! what noise is that?

-I would give you some violets; but they withered Enler Ophelia, fantastically dressed with Straws all, when my father died :They say, he made a and Flowers.

good end,

For bonny sweet Robin is all my joy,O heat, dry up my brains! tears seven times salt,

(Sings. Burn out the sense and virtue of mine eye! By heaven, thy madness shall be paid with weight, she turns to favour, and to pretiiness.

Laer. Thought and affliction, passion, hell itself. Till our scale turn the beam. O, rose of May! Dear maid, kind sister, sweet Ophelia!

Oph. And will he not come again? (Sings. 0, heavens! is't possible, a young maid's wits

And will he not come again ? Should be as morial as an old man's life?

No, no, he is dead, Nature is finel in love ; and, where 'tis fine,

Go to thy death-bed, It sends some precious instance of itself

He never will come again. After the thing it loves.

His beard was as white as snow,
Oph. They bore him bare fac'd on the bier ;

Al flaren was his poll :
Hey no nonny, nonny hey nonny:

He is gone, he is gone,
And in his grave rain'd many a tear ;

And we cast away moan;
Fare you well, my dove!

God'a mercy on his soul ! Laer. Hadst thou thy wits, and didst persuade revenge,

And of all christian souls! I pray God. God be It could not move thus.

wi' you!

(Exit OPHELIA. Oph. You must sing, Down-a-down, an you call Laer. Do you see this, 0, God? him a-down-a. 0, how the wheel? becomes it! it King. Laertes, I must commune with your grief, is the false steward, that stole his master's daughter. Or you deny me right. Go but apart,

Laer. This nothing's more than matter. Make choice of whom your wisest friends you will,

Oph. There's rosemary, that's for remembrance ; And they shall hear and judge 'twixt you and me : 'pray you, love, remember: and there is pansies, if by direct or by collateral hand that's for thoughts.»

They find us touch'd, we will our kingdom give, Laer. A document in madness; thoughts and Our crown, our life, and all that we call ours, remembrance fitted.

To you in satisfaction; but, if not, Oph. There's fennel for you, and columbines :- Be you content to lend your patience to us, there's rue for you ; and here's some for me :-we may call it, herb of grace o' Sundays :-you may

* Rosemarie is for remembrance

Between us day and night; | Nature is fine in love." The three concluding

Wishing that I might alwaies have lines of this speech are not in the quarto. The meaning

You present in my sight.' appears to be, Nature is refined or subtilised by love, Rosemarie had this atribute because it was said to the senses are rendered more ethereal, and being thus strengthen the memory, and was therefore used as a lorefined, some precious portions of the mental energies ken of remembrance and aflittion between lovers, and fly off, or are sent after the beloved object ; when bereft was distributed as an emblem both at weddings and fu. of that object, they are lost to ixs, and we are left in a nerals. Why pansies (pensees) are emblems of thoughts slate of mental privation

is obvious. Fennel was emblematic of flattery, and Even so by love the young and tender wit, Dare finocchio, to give fennel,' was in other words to Is turn'd to folly.'

flatter, to dissemble, according to Florio. Thus in the • Love is a smoke, rais:d with the fume of sighs; ballad above cited : Being urg'd, a fire sparkling in lovers' eyes; Being vex'd, a sea nourish'd with lovers' lears:

· Fennel is for flatterers, What is it else?-a madness,' &c.

An evil thing 'uis sure.' 2 The roheel is the burthen of a ballad, from the Latin Browne, in his Britannia's Pastorals, says rota, a round, which is usually accompanied with a bur.

The columbine, in tawny often taken, then frequently repeated. Thus also in old French, ro. Is then ascribed to such as are forsaken.' terie signified such a round or catch, and rotuenge, or rotruhenge. the hurthen or refrain as it is now called. Rue was for ruth or repentance. It was also commonly Our ok English term refretle, the foote of the dittie, a called herbgrace, probably from being accounted a verse often interlaced, or the burden of a song,' was present remedy against all poison, and a potent avr. probably from refrain; or from refresteler, to pipe iliary in exorcisms, all

evil things fleeing from it.' By over again. It is used by Chaucer in 'The Testament of wearing it with a difference (an heraldric term for a Love. This term was not obsolete in Cotyrave's time, mark of distinction) Ophelia may mean that the queen though it would now be as difficult to adduce an instance should wear it as a mark of repentance ; herself as a of its use as of the wheel, at the same time the quotation lohen of grief. The daisy was emblematic of a dissemwill show that the down of a ballad was another rerm for bler:- Next them grew the dissembling daisy, to the burlhen. “Refrain, the refret, burthen, or dorone of warne such light of love wenches not to trust every fair a ballad. All this discussion is rendered necessary, promise that such amorous batchelors make.:-Green's because Steevens unfortunately forgot 10 note from Quip for an Upstart Courtier. The violet is for faith. whence he made the following extract, though he knew fulness, and is thus characterised in The Lover's Noseit was from the preface to some black letter collection of gaie. eongs or sonners:--The song was accounted a good 4 Thoughi, among our ancestors, was used for grief, one, though it was not moche graced with the wheele, cure, pensireness. Curarum volvere in pectore. He which in no wise accorded with the subject matter there will die for sorrow and thoughi.'—Baret. Thus in An. of.' Thus also Nicholas Breton, in his Toyes for Idle tony and Cleopatra :Head, 1577 :

Cleo. What shall we do, Enobarbus? * That I may sing full merrily

Eno.

Think and die.' Not heigh ho wele, but care away.' It should be remembered that the old musical instrument of many old popular ballads. Bonny Robin' appears

5 Poor Ophelia in her madness remembers the ends called a role, from its wheel, was also termed vielle, to have been a favourite, for there were many others quasi wheel. It must surely have been out of a mere written to that tune. The editors have not traced tho spirit of controversy that Malone affected to think that present one. It is introduced in Eastward Hoe, written the spinning wheel was alluded to by Ophelia. by Jonson, Chapman, and Marston, where some parts

3 Our ancestors gave to almost every flower and plant of this play are apparently burlesqued. Hamlet is the its emblematic meaning, and like the ladies of the east, name given to a foolish footman in the same scene. I made them almost as expressive as written language, in know not why it should be considered an attack on their hieroglyphical sense. Perdita, in The Winter's Shakspeare ; it was the usual license of comedy to sport Tale, distributes her flowers in the same manner as with every thing serious and even sacred. Hamlet Tra. Ophelia, and some of them with the same meaning: Investie may as well be called an invidious attack on The Handfull of Pleasant Delites, 1584, recently re: Shakspeare. printed in Mr. Park's Heliconia, we have a ballad called 6 The folio reads common, which is only a varied or

A Nosegaje alwaies sweet for Lovers to send for To-thography of the same word. We will device and kens,' where we find :

common of these matters. -Barel

And we shall jointly labour with your soul As by your safety, greatnoss, wisdom, all things elso,
To give it due content.'

You mainly were stirr'd up.
Laer.
Let this be so;

King.

O, for two special reasons; His means of death, his obscure funeral,

Which may to you, perhaps, seem much unsinew'd, No trophy, sword, nor hatchment, o'er his bones, But yet to me they are strong. The queen, his No noble rite, nor formal ostentation,"

mother, Cry to be heard, as 'were from heaven to earth, Lives almost by his looks; and for myself, That I must call't in question.

(My virtue, or my plague, be it either which, King.

So you shall; She is so conjunctive io my life and soul, And where the offence is, let the great axe fall. That, as the star moves not but in his sphero, I pray you, go with me.

(Eseunt. I could not but by her. The other motive, SCENE VI. Another Room in the same. Enter is, the great love the general gender' bear him :

Why to a public count I might not go,
HORATIO and a Servant.

Who, dipping all his faults in iheir affection,
Hor. What are they that would speak with me? Would, like the spring that turneth wood to stone,
Serv.

Sailors,

sir; Convert bis gyves to graces ;'° so that my arrows, They say, they have letters for you.

Too slightly limber'd for so loud a wind,'" Hor.

Let them come in.- Would have reverted to my bow again,

(Exit Servant. And not where I had aim'd them. I do not know from what part of the world

Laer. And so have I a noble father lost; I should be greeted, if not from Lord Hamlet. A sister driven into desperate terms; Enter Sailors.

Whose worth, if praises may go back again,"

Stood challenger on mount of all the age 1 Sail. God bless

you,

sir. Hor. Let him bless thee too.

For her perfections:-But my revenge will come.

K’ing. Break not your sleeps for that: you must I Sail. He shall, sir, an't please him. There's a letter for you, sir: it comes from the ambassador That we are made of stuff so flat and dull,

not think, that was bound for England; if your name be Ho- That we can let our beard be shook with danger," ratin, as I am let to know it is.

And think it pastime. You shortly shall hear more : Hor, (Rearls.) Horatio, when thou shall have

I lov'd overlooked this, give these fellows some means to the And that, I hope, will teach you to imagine,

your father, and we love ourself;. king; they have letters for him. Ere we were two How now ?14 what news ? days old at sea, a pirate of very rrarlike appointment guve us chrise . Finding ourselves too slow of sail, we

Enter a Messenger. put on a compelled valour ; and in the grapple i boarded them on the instant, they got clear of our

Mess.

Letters, my lord, from Hamlot ship; ~ I alone became their prisoner. They have This is to your majesty; this to the queen. denli with me like thieves of mercy ; but they knew

King. From Hamlei! who broughi them? what they dil ; I am to do a good turn for them.

Mess. Sailors, my lord, they say: I saw them not ; Let the king have the letters I have sent; and repair They

were given me by Claudio, he receiv'd them thou to me with as much haste as thou would's fly of him that brought them.is death. I have words to speak in things ear, will make

King. Laertes, you shall hear them :thee dumb; yet are they much too light for the bore? Leave us.

[Exit Messenger. of the matter. These good fellows will bring thee

(Reads.) High and mighty, you shall know, I am where I am.

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern hold set naked on your kingdom. To-morrow shaú I beg their course for England : of them I have much to leave to see your kingly eyes : when I shall, first ask. tell thee. Farewell.

ing your pardon thereunto, recount the occasion of my He that thou knowest thine, Hamlet. sudden and more strange return.

Hamlet.

What should this mean! Are all the rest come back? Come, I will give you way for these your letters; And do't the speedier, that you may direct me

Or is it some abuse, and no such thing?
To him from whom you brought them. [Ereunt.

Laer. Know you the hand ?
SCENE VII. Another Room in the same. Enter And, in a postscript here, he says, alone :

King. "Tis Hamlet's character. Naked,
King and LAERTES.

Can you advise me? King. Now must your conscience my acquittance Laer. I am lost in it, my lord. But let him come; seal,

It warms the very sickness in my heart,
And you must put me in your heart for friend; That I shall live and tell him to his teeth,
Sith you have heard, and with a knowing ear, Thus diddest thou.
That'he, which hath your noble father slain,

King.

If it be so, Laertes, Pursu'd my life.

As how should it be so ? how otherwise ? Laer.

It well appears :-But tell me, Will you be ruld by me? Why you proceeded not against these feats,

Laer.

Ay, my lord; So crimeful and so capital in nature,

So you will not o'errule to me to a peace.16 1 Thus in the quarto, 1603 :

8 Quarto-Criminal. Greatness is omitted in the King. Content you, good Laertes, for a time,

folio. Although I know your grief is as a flood,

9 i. e. the common race of the people. We have Brim full of sorrow ; but sorbear a whilo,

the general and the million in other places in the samo And think already the revenge is done On him that makes you such a hapless son.

10. Would, like the spring which turneth wood to * Laer. You have prevail'd, my lord, awhile I'll strive stone, convert his fetters into graces:' punishment To bury grief within a tomb of wrath,

would only give him more grace in their opinion. Tho Which once unhearsed, then the world shall bear

quarto reads work for rould. Laertes had a father he held dear.

11

my arrows "King. No more of that, ere many days be done

Too slightly timber'd for so loud a wind. You shall hear that you do not dream upon.'

Lighte shaftes cannot stand in a rough wind. As 2 Folio burial.

cham's Torophilus, 1599, p. 57. 3 The funerals of knights and persons of rank were 12 If praises may go back again.'. 'If I may praise made with great ceremony and ostentation formerly. what has been, but is now to be found no more." Sir John Hawkins, (himself of the order,) observes that 13 Idcirco stolidam præbet tibi vellere barbam 'the sword, the helmet, the gauntlet, spurs, and tabard, Jupiter?

Persius, Sat. ... are still hung over the grave of every knight!

14 How now is omitted in the quarto: as is letters in 4 Quarto-sea-faring men. 6 Folio-it came. the next speech. 6 Folio-your.

15 This hemistich is not in the folio. 7 The bore is the caliber of a gun. The matter, (says 16 First folio omitting Ay, my lord, reads, If so you’U Hamlet,) would carry heavier words.

not o'er-rule me to a peace.

sense.

King. To thinc own peace. If he be now re-l Your sudden coming o'er, to play with you. turn'd,

Now, out of this, As checking' at his voyage, and that he means Laer.

What out of this, my lord ? No more to undertake it, I will work him

King. Laertes, was your father dear to you? To an exploit, now ripe in my device,

Or are you like the painting of a sorrow,
Under the which he shall not choose but fall : A face without a heart?
And for his death no wind of blame shall breathe ; Laer.

Why ask you this?
But even his mother shall uncharge the practice, King. Not that I think, you did not love your
And call it accident.

father ; Laer.

My lord, I will be ruld; But that I know, love is begun by time;' The rather, if you could devise it so,

And that I see, in passages of proof, That I might be the organ.

Time qualifies the spark and fire of it, King.

It falls right.

There lives within the very flame of love You have been talk'd of since your travel much, A kind of wick, or snuff, that will abate it: And that in Hamlet's hearing, for a quality.

And nothing is at a like goodness still ; Wherein, they say, you shine : your sum of parts For goodness, growing to a plurisy, Did not together pluck such envy from him, Dies in his own too-much: That we would do, As did that one ; and that, in my regard,

We should do when we would ; for this would of the unworthiest siege.?

changes, Laer.

What part is that, my lord? And hath abatements and delays as many, King. A very riband in the cap of youth, As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents Yet needful too; for youth no less becomes And then this should is like a spendthrift's sigh, The light and careless livery that it wears,

That hurts by easing. But, to the quick o' the ulcer : Than settled age his sables and his weeds,

Hamlet comes back; What would you undertake, Importing, health and graveness. — Twó months To show yourself in deed your father's son since,

More than in words? Here was a gentleman of Normandy,

Laer.

To cut his throat i' the church. I have seen myself, and serv'd against the French, King. No place, indeed, should murder sancAnd they can well on horseback: but this gallant

tuarize; Had witchraft in't; he grew unto his seat; Revenge should have no bounds. But, good Laertes, And to such wondrous doing brought his horse, Will you do this, keep close within your chamber : As he had been incorps'd and demi-natur'd Hamlet, return'd, shall know you are come home : With the brave beast : so far he topp'd my thought, We'll put on those shall praise your excellence, That I, in forgery of shapes and tricks,

And set a double varnish on the fame Come short of what did.

The Frenchman gave you ; bring you, in fine, toLaer. A Norman was't ?

gether, King. A Norman.

And wager o'er your heads: he, being remiss,' Laer. Upon my life, Lamord.

Most generous and free from all contriving, King.

The very same. Will not peruse the foils : so that, with ease, Laer. I know him well : he is the brooch, indeed, Or with a little shuffling, you may choose And gem of all the nation.

A sword unbated, and in a pass of practice," King. He made confession of you ;

Reguite him for your father. And gave you such a masterly report,

Luer,

I will do't : For art and exercise in your defence,s

And, for the purpose, I'll anoint my sword.
And for your rapier most especial,

I bought an unction of a mountebank,
That he cried out, 'twould be a sight indeed, So mortal, that but dip a knife in it,
If one could match you : the scrimers of their Where it draws blood no cataplasm so rare,
nation,

Collected from all simples thai have virtue
He swore, had neither motion, guard, nor eye, Under the moon, can save the thing from death,
If you oppos'd them : Sir, this report of his That is but scratch'd withal: l'Il touch my point
Did Hamlet so envenom with his envy,

With this contagion ; that, if I gall him slightly, That he could nothing do, but wish and beg It may be death.13

12

1 To check, to hold off, or fly from, as in fear. It is from the Governal of Helth,' wherein he lakes sythes a phrase taken from falconry – For who knows not, (times) to signify sighs. Shakspeare in King Henry quoth she, that this hawk, which comes now so fair to VI. has 'blood-consuming sighs. And in Fenton's the fist, may to-morrow check at the lure -Hinde's Tragical Discourses: • Your scorching sighes that Eliostó Libidinoso, 1606.

have already drained your body of his wholesome hu. 2 . Of the unworthiest siegr,' of the lowest rank: siege moures. The reading of the old copies, which I have for seat or place :

restored, had been altered in the modern editions to 'a I fetch my birth

spendthrift sigh,' without reason. Mr. Blakeway From men of royal siege.: Othello. justly observes, that Sorrow for neglected opportu. 3 I. e. implying or denoting gravity and attention to nities and time abused seems most aptly compared to health. Ir we should not rather read realih for health. the sigh of a spendthrifl-good resolutions not carried That in forgery of shapes and tricks.'

into effeci are deeply injurious to the moral character. • That I, in imagining and describing his seals,' &c.

Like sighs, they hurt by easing, they unburden the 5 Science of defence, i. e. fencing.

mind and satisfy the conscience, without producing any

effect 6 Scrimers, fencers, from escrimeur, Fr. This un. upon the conduct.' favourable description of French swordsmen is not in

10 He being remiss.' He being not vigilant ; or in.

cautious. the folio. 7. But that I know love is begun by time,' &c. As

11 i. e. unblunted, to bale, or rather' to rebate, was love is begon by time, and has its gradual increase, so to make dull. Aciem ferre hebetare.' Thus in Love's time qualifies and abates it.' Passages of proof are

Labour's Lost we have transactions of daily experience. The next ten lines

"That honour which shall bate his scythe's keen edge are not in the folio.

And in Measure for Measure:8 Plurisy is superabundance; our ancestors used

-rebate and blunt his natural edge." the word in this sense, as if it came from plus, pluris, 12 Pass of practice is an insidious thrust. Shak. and not from pleura. The disease was formerly speare, in common with many of his contemporaries, thoughe to proceed from too much blood flowing to the always usos practice for art, deceit, treachery. part affected :

13 Ritson has exclaimed with just indignation and ab. in a word,

horrence against the villanous assassin-like ireachery of Thy plurisy of goodness is thy ill."

Laertes in this horrid plot : he observes, "There is moro Massinger's Unnatural Combat. occasion that he should be pointed out for an object of 9 Johnson says it is a prevalent notion that sighs abhorrence, as he is a character we are led to respect impair the strength, and wear out the animal powers.' and admire in some preceding scenes.' In the old quarto Stoerens makes a ludicrous mistake in the quotation of 1603 this contrivance originales with the king

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King. Let's further think of this ;

The woman will be out.13--Adieu, my lord! Weigh, what convenience, both of time and means, I have a speech of fire, that fain would blaze, May fit us to our shape : If this should fail, But that this folly drowns'4 it.

[Exit. And that our drift look through our bad performance, King.

Let's follow, Gertrude: "Twere better not assay'd : therefore this project How much I had to do to calm his rage! Should have a back, or second, that might hold, Now fear I, this will give it start again; If this should blast in proof:'--Soft, let me see:- Therefore, let's follow.

[Exeunt. We'll make a solemn wager on your cunnings, a I ha't: When in your motion you are hot and dry,

ACT V. (As makes your bouts more violent to that end,) And that he calls for drink, I'll have prepar’de him SCENE I. A Church Yard. Enter Two Clowns, A chalice for the nonce; whereou but sipping,

with Spades, &c. If he by coance escape your venoın'd stuck,

I Clo. Is she to be buried in Christian burial, Our purpose may hold there. But stay, what noise?s that wilfully seeks her own salvation ? Enter Queen.

2 Clo. I tell thee she is ; therefore make her How now, sweet queen ?

grave straight:the crowner hath set on her, and Queen. One wo doth tread upon another's heel,

finds it Christian burial. Su fast they follow:-Your sister's drown’d, Laerles. self in her own defonce ?

1 Clo. How can that be unless she drowned her Laer. Drowu'd! 0, where? Queen. There is á willow grows ascaunt the

2 Clo. Why, 'tis found so. brook,

i Clo. It must be se offendendo ; it cannot be That shows his hoar leaves in the glassy stream:

else. For here lies the point : If I drown myself Therewith fantastic garlands did she make

wittingly, it argues an act; and an act hath three of crow-flowers, netiles, daisies, and long purples," branches; it is, to act, to do, and to perform ;** That liberal shepherds give a grosser name,

Argal, she drowned herself wittingly. But our cold maids do dvad men's fingers call them:

2 Clo. Nay, but hear you, goodnan delver. There on the pendant boughs her coronet weeds

1 Clo. Give me leave. Here lies the water; Clambering to hang, an envious sliver broke ; good; here stands the man; good: If the man go When down her weedy trophies, and herself,

to this water, and drown himself

, it is, will he, nill Fell in the weeping brook. Her clothes spread he, he goes; mark you that: bat if the water wide;

come to him, and drown him, he drowns not himAnd, mermaid-like, awhile they bore her up:

self: Argal, he that is not guilty of his own death, Whích time, she chanted snatches of old tunes ;'

shortens not his own life.

2 Clo. But is this law ? As one incapablelof her own distress, Or like a creature native and indu'd"

1 Clo. Ay, marry is't ; crowner's-quest law. Unto that element: but long it could not be,

2 Clo. Will you ha' the truth on't? If this had Till that her garments, heavy with their drink,

not been a gentlewoman, she should have been Pullid the poor wretch from her melodious lay

buried out of Christian burial. To muddy death.

I Clo. Why, there thou say'st : And the more Laer. Alas, then, she is drowu'd ?

pity; that great folks shall have countenance in Queen. Drown'd, drown'd.

ihis world to drown or hang themselves more than Lner. Too much of water hast thou, poor Ophelia, their even-Christian.' Come, my spade, there is And therefore I forbid my tears : But yell?

no ancient gentlemen but gardeners, ditchers, and It is our trick; nature her custom holds,

gravc-makers: they hold up Adam's profession. Let shame say what it will : when these are gone,

2 Clo. Was he a gentleman ?

I Clo. He was the first that ever bore arms. "When you are hot in midst of all your play, Amung the foils shall a keen rapier lie, Steeped in a mixture of deadly poison,

13 Thus in King Henry V. Act iv. Sc. 6:That if it draws but the least dram of blood

But all my mother came into my eyes,
In any part of him, he cannot live."

And gave me up to tears.'

14 The folio reads-double it. 1 If this should blast in proof, as fire arms sometimes burst in proving their strength.

15 How Johnson could think that any particular mode 2 Cunning is skill.

of making Ophelia's grave was meant I cannot imagine 3 The quarto reads prefar'd; the folio prepar'd. The Noching is so common as this mode of expression : modern editors read preferrd, but I think without good diately. Numerous examples are to be found in Shak. reason.

4 A stuck is a thrust. Stoccata, Ital. Sometimes speare; one may suffice from this very play: in Act iii. called a staccado in English.

Sc. 4. Polonius says 5 But stay, what noise?" these words are not in

• He will come straight.' the folio.

And Malone cices from G. Herbert's Jacula Prudentium, 6 Ascaunt, thus the quarto : the folio reads aslant. 1651 - There is no churchyard so handsome that a Ascaunce is the same as asked, sideways, overthwart; man would desire siraight to be buried there." a travers, Fr.

16 Warburton says that this is a ridicule on scholastic 7 The ancient botanical name of the long purples was divisions without distinction ; and of distinctions without testiculis morionis, or orchis priapiscus. The grosser difference. Shakspeare certainly aims at the legal subname to which the queen alludes is sufficiently known lleties used upon occasion of inquests. Sir John Haw. in man" parts of England. It had kindred appellations kios points out the case of Dame Hales, in Plowden's in other languages. In Sussex it is said to be called Commentaries. Her husband Sir James drowned him. dead men's hands. Its various names may be seen in self in a fit of insanity (produced, as it was supposed, Lyte's Herbal, 1373, or in Coigrave's Dictionary. by his having been one of the judges who condemned

8 i. . licentious. See Much Ado about Nothing, Act Lady Jane Grey,) and the question was about the foriv. Sc. I, and Othello, Act ii. Sc. I.

feiture of a lease. There was a great deal of this law 9 Thé quarto reads "snatches of old lauds,' i. e. logic used on the occasion, as whether he was the hymns. Hymns of praise were so called from the psalm agent or patient ; or in other words, (as the clown Laudate Dominum.

says,) whether he went to the water, or the water came 10 i. e. unsusceptible of it. See note 10, p. 496. lo him. Malone thinks because Powden was in law 11 Indu'd was anciently used in the sense of endowed French that Shakspeare could not read him! and yet with qualities of any kind, as in the phrase, “a child Malone has shown that Shakspeare is very fond of indued with the grace and dexteritie that his father had.' legal phraseology, and supposes that he must have Shakspeare may, however, have used it for habited, passed some part of his life in the office of an attorney; accustomed.

17 Even-christian, for fellow-christian, was the old 12 Thus the quarto 1603 :

mode of expression; and is to be found in Chaucer and Therefore I will not drown thee in my tears, the Chroniclers. Wickliffe has even-servant for fellow Revenge it is must yield this heart relief,

servant. The fact is, that even, like, and equal wore For wo begels wo, and grief hangs on grief.' synonymous.

2 Clo. Why, he had none.'

which this ass now o'erreaches ;* one that would I Clo. What, art a healhen? How dost thou circumvent God, might it not ? understand the scripture? The scripture says, Hor. It might, my lord. Adam digged: Could he dig without arms? I'll Ham. Or of a courtier; which could say, Good. put another question to thee : if thou answerest me morrow, sweet lord: How dost thou, good lord ? This not to the purpose, confess thyself

might be my lord such-a-one, that praised my lord 2 Clo. Go to.

such-a-one's horse, when he meant to beg it; might I Clo. What is he, that builds stronger than it not ?" either the mason, the shipwright, or the carpenter? Hor. Ay, my lord.

2 Cl. The gallows-maker, for that frame out- Ham. Why, e'en so: and now my lady Worm's ;* lives a thousand tenants.

chapless, and knocked about the mazzard with a i Clo. I like thy wit well, in good faith; the gal- sexton's spade: Here's fine revolution, an we had lows does well : But how does it well ? it does the trick to see't. Did these bones cost no more well to those that do ill: now thou dost ill, to say, the breeding, but to play at loggats’ with them ? the gallows is built stronger than the church; argal, mine ache to think on't. the gallows may do well to thee. To't again : come. I Clo. A piekare and a spade, a sparle, (Sings. 2 Clo. Who builds stronger than a mason, a ship

For-and a shrouding sheet wright or a carpenter ?

0, a pit of clay for to be made 1 Clo. Ay, tell me that, and unyoke.

For such a guest is meel. 2 Clo. Marry, now I can tell.

(Throws up a scull. 1 Clo. To't.

Ham. There's another : Why may not that be 2 Clo. Mass, I cannot tell.

the scull of a lawyer ? Where be his quiddits' now Enter HAMLET and HORATIO, at a distance. his quillets, his cases, his tenures, and his tricks ? 1 Clo. Cudgel thy brains no more about it; for why does he suffer this rude knave now to knock your dull ass will not mend his pace with beating : him about the sconce with a dirty shovel, and will and, when you are asked this question next, say, a not tell him of his action of battery? Humph! This grave-maker; the houses that he makes, last till fellow might be in's time a great buyer of land, doomsday. Go, get thee to Vaughan, and setch me with his statutes, his recognizances, his fines, his a stoup of liquor.

(Exit 2 Clown. double vouchers, his recoveries : Is this the fine of I Clown digs, and sings.

his fines, and the recovery of his recoveries," to

have his fine pate full of fine dirt ? will his vouchers In youth, when I did love, did love, 3

vouch him no more of his purchases, and double Methought, it was very sweet,

ones too, than the length and breadth of a pair of To contract, 0, the time, for, ah, my behove, indentures ? The very conveyances of his lands will O, methought there was nothing meet.

hardly lie in this box; and must the inheritor him. Ham. Has this fellow no feeling of his business ? self have no more ? ha ? he sings at grave-making.

Hor. Not a jot more, my lord. Hor. Custom hath made it in him a property of

Ham. Is not parchment made of sheep-skins ? casiness.

Hor. Ay, my lord, and of calves-skins too. Ham. 'Tis e'en so: the hand of little employment Ham. They are sheep, and calves, which seek hath the daintier sense.

out assurance2 in that. I will speak to this fellow : I Clo. But age, with his stealing steps

Whose grave's this, sirrah ?

I Clo. Mine sir.-
Hath claw'd me in his clutch,
And hath shipped me into the land,

0, a pit of clay for to be made [Sings. As if I had never been such.

For such a guest is meel. [Throws up a scull. Ham. I think it be thine, indeed, for thou liest in't.! Ham. That scull had a tongue in it, and could

1 Clo. You lie out on't, sir, and therefore it is not sing once : How the knave jowls it to the ground, yours: for my part, I do not lie in't, yet it is mine. as if it were Cain's jawbone, that did the first murder ! This might be the pate of a politician,

My lord, you gave

Good words the other day of a bay courser 1 This speech and the nexi, as far as arms, is not in

I rode on : it is yours, because you liked it.' the quarto.

Timon of Athens, Act i. 2 Ay, tell me that, and unyoke." This was a com

6 The skull that was my lord such-a-one's is now my mon phrase for giving over or ceasing to do a thing, a

lady Worm's. metaphor derived from the unyoking of oxen at the end

7 Loggels, small logs or pieces of wood. Hence log. of their labour. Thus in a Dittie of the Workmen of gets was the name of an ancient rustic game, in which Dover, preserved in the additions to Holinshed :

a stake was fixed in the ground at which loggals were

thrown; in short, a ruder kind of quoit play. "My bow is broke, I would unyoke,

8 Quiddits are quirks, or subtle questions: and quil. My foot is sore, I can worke no more.'

lels are nice and frivolous distinctions. The etymology These pithy questions were doubtless the fireside amuse of this last foolish word has plagued many learned ment of our rustic ancestors. Steevens mentions a col. heads. I think that Blount, in his Glossography, clearly Bection of them in print, preserved in a volume of scarce points out quodlibet as the origin of it. Bishop Wil. tracts in the university library at Cambridge, D. 5. 2. kins calls a quillel' a frivolousness;' and Coles, in his “The innocence of these demaundes joyous (he says) Latin Dict. res frirola. I find the quarto of 1603 has may deserve a praise not always due to their delicacy. quirks instead of quiddils.

3 The original ballad from whence these stanzas are 9 See Comedy of Errors, Act i. Se. 2. note. taken is printed in Tottel's Miscellany, or "Songes and 10 Shakspeare here is profuse of his legal learning. Sonnettes' by Lord Surrey and others, 1575. The bal. Ritson, a lawyer, shall interpret for him :- A recovery lad is attributed to Loril Vaux, and is printed by Dr. Percy with double roucher, is the one usually suffered, and is in the first volume of his Reliques of Antient Poetry. so called from tro persons (the latter of whom is al. The ohs and the ans were most probably meant to ex. ways the common crier, or some such inferior person,) press the interruption of the song by the forcible c pis being successively roucher, or called upon to warrant sion of the grave digger's breath at each stroke on the the tenant's title. Both fines and recoreries are fictions mattock. The original runs thus S

of law, used to convert an estate tail into a fee simple I lothe that I did love;

Statutes are (not acts of parliament,) but statutes mer. In youth that I thought swete :

chant, and staple, particular modes of recognizance or As time requires for my be hove,

acknowledgment for securing debts, which thereby be. Methinks they are not mete.

come a charge upon the party's land. Statules and re. • For age with stealing steps

cognizances are constanuly mentioned together in the Hath claude me with his crouch;

covenants of a purchase deed.' And lusty youth away he leaps,

11 Is this the fine of his fines, and the recovery of As there had bene none such

his recoveries,' omitted in the quarto. 4 The folio reads-ore-offices

12 A quibblé is intended. Deeds (or parchment) are called the common assurances of the realm

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