I do repent : But heaven hath pleas'd it so,—

ACT IV. To punish me with this, and this with me;i

SCENE I. The same. Enter King, Queen, That I must be their scourge and minister, I will bestow him, and will answer well

Rosencrantz, and GUILDENSTERN. The death I gave him. So, again, good night!

King. There's matter in these sighs; these proI must be cruel, only to be kind :

found heaves : Thus bad beging, and worse remains behind.

You must translate: 'tis fit we understand them: But one word more, good lady.

Where is your son ? Queen.

What shall I do? Queen. Bestow this place on us a little while.1? Ham. Not this, by no means, that I bid you do:

[To Rosencrantz and GUILDENSTERN, Let the bloat king tempt you again to bed ;

who go out. Pinch wanton on your cheek; call you, his mouse ;2 Ah, my good lord, what have

I seen to-night! And let him, for a pair of reechya kisses,

King. What, Gertrude? How does Hamlet ? Or padling in your neck with his damn'd fingers, Queen. Mad as the sea, and wind, when both Make you to ravel all this matter out,

contendit That l'essentially am not in madness,

Which is the mightier : In his lawless fit,
But mad in craft. "Twere good, you let him know; Whips out his rapier, cries, A rat? a rat !

Behind the arras hearing soniething stir,
For who, that's but a queen, fair, sober, wise,
Would from a paddock, from a bat, a gib,s.

And, in this brainish apprehension, kills
Such dear concernings hide? who would do so ?

The unseen good old man. No, in despite of sense, and secresy,


O, heavy deed! Unpeg the basket on the house's top,

It had been so with us, had we been there: Lei the birds fly; and, like the famous ape,

His liberty is full of threats to all; To try conclusions, in the basket creep,

To you yourself, to us, to every one. And break your own neck down.

Alas! how shall this bloody deed be answer'd ? Queen. Be thou assurd if words he made of breath, Should have kept, short restrain’d,and out of haunt,"

It will be laid to us, whose providence
And breath of life, I have no life to breathe
What thou hast said to me."

This mad young man: but, so much was our love,

We would not understand what was most fit;
Ham. I must to England ;', you know that?

Alack, But, like the owner of a foul disease,
I had forgot ; 'tis so concluded on.

To keep it from divulging, let it feed Ham. (There's letters seald: and my two school. Even on the pith of life. Where is he gone ? fellows,

Queen. To draw apart the body he hath kill'd: Whom I will trust, as I will adders fang'd,

O’er whom his very madness, like some ore, They bear the mandate ; they must sweep. my way, Shows itself pure; he weeps for what is done,

Among a mineral of metals base,
And marshal me to knavery - Let it work ;
For 'tis the sport, to have the engineer

King. O, Gertrude, come away!.
Hoist with his own petar :'and it shall go hard,

The sun no sooner shall the mountains touch, But I will delve one yard below their mines,

But we will ship him hence; and this vile deed And blow them at the moon : 0, 'tis most sweet,

We must, with all our majesty and skill, When in one line two crafts directly meet.-)

Both countenance and excuse.-Ho! Guildenstern! This man shall set me packing.

Enter RosENCRANTZ and GUILDENSTERN. I'll lug the guts into the neighbour room :11 Friends both, go join you with some further aid : Mother, good night.-Indeed, this counsellor

Hamlet in madness hath Polonius slain,
Is now most still, most accret, and most grave,
Who was in life a foolish prating knave.

9 Thig and the eight following verses are omitted in Come, sir, to draw toward an end with you :- the folio. Good night, mother.

10 Hoist with his own pelur. Hoist for hoised. To [Éreunt severally; HAMLET dragging in hoyse was the old verb. A petar was a kind of mortar Polonius.

used to blow up gates.

11 lt must be confessed that this is coarse language for I 'To punish me by making me the instrument of a prince under any circumstances, and such as is not this man's death, and to punish this man by my hand called for by the occasion. But Hamlet has purposely

chosen grose expressions and coarse metaphors,

Thus 2 Mouse, a term of endearment formerly.

throughout the interview with his mother, perhaps to Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy – Pleasant make his appeal to her feelings the more forcible. names may be invented, bird, mouse, lamb, puss, Something may be said in extenuation. The word pigeon,' &c.

3 i. e. reeky or fumant; reekant, as Florio calls it. The guls was not anciently so offensive to delicacy as it is at King has been already called the bloatking, which hints present; the courtly Lyly has used it in his Mydas, ai his intemperance. ' In Coriolanus we have the reechy 1592 ; Stanyhorst often in his translation of Virgil, and neck of a kitchen wench. Reeky and retchy are the Chapman in his version of the sixth Iliad :

in whose guts the king of men imprest same word, and always applied to any vaporous exha.

His ashen lance.' lation, even to the fumes of a dunghill. 4 The hint for Hamlet's reigned madness is taken In short, guts was used where we now use entrails.

12 This line does not appear in the folio, in which from the old Historie of Hamblett already mentioned. 5 For paddock, a toad, see Macbeth, Act i. Sc.1: Guildenstern and Rosencrantz are not brought on the

stage at all. and for gib, a cal, see King Herry IV. Part I. Act i.

13 Quarto-Ah, mine oron lord. Se. 2.

14 Thus in Lear:6 To try conclusions is to put to proof, or try experi.

he was met e'en now, ments. See Merchant of Venice, Act ii. Sc. 2. Sir

As mad as the ter'd sea.' John Suckling possibly alludes to the same story in one

15 Out of haunt means out of company. 'Frequentia, of his letters :- It is the story after all of the jacka. napes and the partridges; thou starest after a beauty till a great haunt or company of folk. Thus in'Antony

and Cleopatra : it be lost to thee, and then let'st out another, and starest Dido and her Sichæus shall want troops, after that till it is gone too."

And all the haunt be ours.' 7 The quarto of' 1603 has here another remarkable

And in Romeo and Juliet : variation :

"We talk here in the public haunt of men. “Hamlet, I vow by that Majesty

16 Shakspeare, with a licence not unusual among his That knows our thoughts and looks into our hearts,

contemporaries, uses ore for gold, and mineral for I will conceal, consent, and do my best,

mine. Bullokar and Blount both define or or ore, What stratagem soe'er thou shali devise.'

gold; of a golden colour. And the Cambridge Dic8 The manner in which Hamlet came to know that tionary, 1591, under the Latin word mineralia, will he was to be sent to England is not developed. He ex. show how the English mineral came to be used for a presses surprise when the king mentions it in a future mine. Thus also in The Golden Remaines of Hales of scene; but his design of passing for a madman may Econ, 1693 : Controversies of the times, like spirits in account for this.

ihe minerals, with all their labour nothing is done.'

And from his mother's closet hath he dragg'd him: This sudden sending him away must seem
Go, seek him out; speak fair, and bring the body Deliberate pause : Diseases, desperate grown,
Into the chapel. I pray you, haste in this. By desperale appliance are relieved,
[Ereunt Ros. and GUIL.

Come, Gertrude, we'll call up our wisest friends;
And let them know, both what we mean to do,

Or not at all.-How pow? what hath befallen? And what's untimely done: (so, haply, slander,

Rou. Where the dead body is bestow'd, my lord, Whose whisper o'er the world's diameter, Wecannot get from him. As level as the cannon to his blank,


But where is he? Transports Iris poison'd shot, may miss our name,

Ros. Without, my lord ; guarded, to know your And hit the woundless air.?)-0, come away!

pleasure. My soul is full of discord, and dismay. (Exeunt.

King. Bring him before us.
SCENE II. Another Room in the same. Enter

Ros. Ho, Guildenstern! bring in my lord.

Ham. Safely stowed, -(Ros. sc. within.

King. Now, Hamlet, where's Polonius ? Hamlet! Lord Hamlet!) But soft !3-—what noise ?

Ham. At supper. who calls on Hamlet ? O, here they come.

King. At supper? Where? Enter RosENCRANTZ and GuildENSTERN. Ham. Not where he eats, but where he is eaten : Ros. What have you done, my lord, with the a certain convocation of politic worms are e'en at dead body?

him. Your worm is your only emperor for diet: we Ham. Compounded it with dust, whereto 'tis kin. fat all creatures else, to fat us; and we fat ourselves Ros. Tell us where 'tis; that we may take it for magots; Your sat king, and your lean beggar, thence,

is but variable service; two dishes, but to one table ; And bear it to the chapel.

that's the end. Ham. Do not believe it.

(King. Alas, alas! Ros. Believe what?

Ham. A man may fish with the worm that hath Ham. That I can keep your counsel, and not cat of a king; and eat of the fish that hath fed of mine own.

Besides, to be demanded of a sponge! that worm.") -what replication should be made by the son of a King. What dost thou mean by this? king?

Han. Nothing, but to show you how a king may Ros. Take you me for a sponge, my lord ? go a progressio through the guts of a beggar. Ham. Ay, sir; that soaks up the king's counte

King. Where is Polonius? Dance, his rewards, his authorities. But such offi- Ham. In heaven; send thither to see: if your cers do the king best services in the end : He keeps messenger find him not there, seek him i'ihe other them, like an ape doth nuts, in the corner of his place yourself

. But, indeed, if you find him pot jaw; first mouthed to be last'swallowed: When he within this month, you shall nose him as you go up needs what you have gleaned, it is but squeezing the stairs into the lobby you, and, sponge, you shall be dry again.

King. Go seck him there. (To some Attendants. Ros. I understand you not, my lord.

Ham. He will stay till you come. Ham. I am glad of it: A knavish speech sleeps

[Ereunt Attendants. in a foolish ear.

King. Hamlet, this deed, for thine especial Ros. My lord, you must tell us where the body

safety,is, and go with us to the king.

Which we do tender, as we dearly grieve Ham. The body is with the king, but the king is For that which thou hast done,-must send thea not with the body' The king is a thing

hence Guil. A thing, my lord ?

With fiery quickness: Therefore prepare thyself; Ham. Of nothing: bring me to him. Hide fox, The bark is ready, and the wind ai help," and all after.

(Exeunt. The associates tond, '2 and every thing is bent SCENE III. Another Room in the same. Enter For England.

King, attended.

For England ?
King. I have sent to seek him, and to find the


Ay, Hamlet.

Good. body.

King. So is it, if thou know'st our purposes. How dangerous is it, that this man goes loose!

Ham. I see a cherub, that sees them.-But, Yet must not we put the strong law on him: He's lov'd of the distracted multitude,

come ; for England !--Farewell

, dear mother. Who like not in their judgment, but their eyes;

King. Thy loving father, Hamlet. And, where 'tis so, the offender's scourge is weigh’d, and wife ; man and wife is one flesh; and so, my

Ham. My mother; Faiher and mother is man But never the offence. To bear all smooth and even, mother. 'Come, for England.

(Exit. 1 The blank was the mark at which shots or arrows were directed. Thus in The Winter's Tale, Act ii. nothing.' Johnson would have altered. Of nothing to Sc. 3:

Or nothing; but Steevens and Farmer, by their superior Out of the blank and level of my aim.' acquaintance with our elder writers, soon clearly show. 2 The passage in brackets is not in the folio. The ed, by several examples, that the text was right. words. So, haply, slander,' are also omitted in the g Hide fox, and all after. This was a juvenile quartos ; they were supplied by Theobald. The addition sport, most probably what is now called hoop, or hide is supported by a passage in Cymbeline :

and seek ; in which one child hides himself, and the No, 'lis slander,

rest run all after, seeking him. The words are not in Whose edge is sharper than the sword, whose longue the quarto. ()ut-venoms all the worms of Nile, whose breath 9. Alas, Alas! This speech and the following one of Rides on the posting winds, and doch bely

Hamlet, are omitted in the folio. All corners of the world."

10 A progress is a journey. Steevens says it alludes 3' But soft,' these two words are not in the folio. to the royal journies of state, always styled progresses.

4 Here the quarto, 1603, inserts that makes his This was probably in Shakspeare's mind, for the word liberality your storehouse, but,' &c.

was certainly applied to those periodical journeys of the 5. The omission of the words doth nuts,' in the old sovereign to visit their noble subjects, but by no means copies. had obecured this passage. Dr. Farmer pro- exclusively. Sir William Drury, in a Letter to Sir posed to read like an ape an apple. The words are Nicholas Throckmorton, among the Conway papers, now supplied from the newly discovered quarto of 1603. tells him he is going a little progresse to be merry 6 'He's but a spunge, and shortly neeils must leese, with his neighbours. And that popular book of John His wrong gol juice, when greatness' fist shall Bunyan's, The Pilgrim's Progress, is surely not the squeese

account of a regal predatory excursion.' His liquor oul.

Marston, Sat. vii. 11 i. e. in modern phrase the wind serves,' or is right 7 Hamlet affects obscurity. His meaning may be to aid or help you on your way. The king is a body without a kingly soul, a thing-of 12 i. e. attend.

King. Follow him at foot ; tempt him with speed That in ward breaks, and shows no cause without aboard ;

Why the man dies.- 1 humbly thank you, sir. Delay it not, I'll have him hence to-night;

Cap. God be wi' you, sir. (Exit Captain Away; for every thing is seald and done


Will't please you go, my lord ? That else leans on the affair : Pray you, make haste. Ham. I will be with you straight. Go a little (Exeunt Ros. and GUIL.


(Eceunt Ros, and GUIL. And, Enyland, if my love thou hold'st at aughi, How all occasions do inform against me, (As my great power thereof may give thee sense; And spur my dull revenge! What is a man, Since yei thy cicatrice looks raw and red

If his chief good, and market of his time, Afier ihe Danish sword, and thy free awe

Be but to sleep and feed? a beast, no more.
Pays homage to us,) thou may'st not coldly sel! Sure, he, that made us with such large discourse,'
Our sovereiga process; which inports at full, Looking before, and after, gave us not
By letters conjuring to that effect,

That capability and godlike reason
The present death of Hamlet. Do it, England; To fust in us unus'd. Now, whether it be
For like the hectic in iny blood he rages,

Bestial oblivion, or some craveno scruple
And thou must cure me: Till I know 'us done, Of thinking too precisely on the event, -
Howe'er my haps, my joys will ne'er begin." A thought, which, quarter'd, hath but ono part


wisdom, SCENE IV. A Plain in Denmark. Enter For- Why ret I live to say, This thing's to do :

And, ever, three parts coward,—I do not know TINBRAS, anul Forces, marching.

Sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means, For. Go, captain, from me greet the Danish To do't. Examples, gross as earth, exhort me: king;

Witness, this army of such mass and charge,
Tell him, that, by his licence, Fortinbras

Led by a delicate and tender prince ;
Claim the conveyance of a promis'd march Whose spirit, with divine ambition puff'd,
Over his kingdom.' You know the rendezvous. Makes mouths at the invisible event;
If that his majesty would aught with us,

Exposing what is mortal, and unsure,
We shall express our duty in his eye.

To all that fortune, death, and danger, daro, And let him know so.

Even for an egg-shell. Rightly to be great, Сар. .

I will do't, my lord. Is, not to stir without great argument; For. Go softly on.

But greatly to find quarrel in a strawy (Ereunt FORTINBRAS and Forces. When honour's at the stake. How stand I, thon,

That have a saiher kill'd, a mother stain's,

Excitements of my reason, and my blood,"
STERN, fc.

And let all sleep? while, to my shame, I seo
[* Ham. Good sir, whose powers are these? | The imminent death of twenty thousand men,
Cap. They are of Norway, sir.

That, for a fantasy, and trick of fame, Ham.

How purpos’d, sir, Go to their graves like beds: fight for a plot!! I pray you ?

Whereon the numbers cannot try the cause, Cap. Against some part of Poland. Which is not tomb enough, and continent,"? Ham.

Who To hide the slain ?-0, from this time forth, Commands them, sir?

My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth! Cap. The nephew to old Norway, Fortinbras.

(Exil. Ham. Goes it against the main of Poland, sir,

SCENE V. Elsinore. A Room in the Castle. Or for some frontier ?

Enter Queen and HORATIO.
Cap. Truly to speak, sir, and with no addition,
We go to gain a little patch of ground,

Queen. I will not speak with her.
That'hath in it no profit but the name.

Hor. She is importunate ; indeed, distract;

Her mood will needs be pitied. To pay five ducats, five, I would not farm it;


What would she havo ? Nor will it yield to Norway, or the Pole,

Hor. She speaks much of her father; says, sho A ranker rate, should it be sold in fee. Ham. Why, then the Polack never will defend it. There's tricks i' the world; and hems, and beats her

hears, Cap. Yes, 'tis already garrison'd. Ham. Two thousand souls, and twenty thousand Spurns enviouslyis at straws; speaks things in

heart; ducats, Will not debate the question of this straw:


That This is the imposthume of much wealth and peace;


but half sense : her speech is nothing,

• Or velde the til us als creant.' 1 To set formerly meant to estimute. There is no And in Richard Ceur de Lion (Weber, vol. ii. p. 203) ellipsis, a: Malone supposed. "To sette, or tell the On knees he fel down, and cryde, “ Creauni.”ı pryce; estimare.! To set much or liule by a thing, is it then became crarant, craveni, and at length craven, to estimate it much or little.

It is superfluous to add that recreant is from the samo "I would forget her, but a ferer she

Reigns in my
blood.' Lore's Labour's Lost.

10 * Excitements of my reason and my blood.' 3 The folin reads :

Provocations which excite both my reason and my pas Howe'er my haps, my joys were ne'er begun.' 4 The quarto reads--crares.

11 A plot of ground. Thus in The Mirror for Magis. 5 Eye for presence. In the Regulations for the esta trates : blishment of the Queen's Household, 1627 :- All such of ground to win a plot, a while to dwell, as doe service in the puren's eye.' And in the Esta. We venture lives, and send our souls to hell." blishment of Prince Henry's Household, 1610:- All 12 Continent means that which comprehends or onsuch as doe service in the prince's eye.' It was the closes. Thue in Lear :formulary for the royal presence.

• Rive your concealing continents. 6 The remainder of this scene is omitted in the folio. And in Chapman's version of the third Iliad :7 i. e. profil.

did take 8 See noie on Act i. Sc. 2. It is evident that discursive Thy fair form for a continent of parts as fair.' powers of mind are meant ; or, as Johnson explains it, If there he no fulnesse, then is the continent greater such latitude of comprehension, such power of review. than the content.'--Bacon 8 Advancement of Learning, ing the past, and anticipating the future. Since I wrote

1633, p. 7. the former note, I find that Bishop Wilkins makes ralio. 13 Envy is often used by Shakspeare and his contemcination and discourse convertible terms.

poraries for malice, spite, or hatred :9 Craven is recreant, cowardly. It may be satisfac.

• You turn the good we offer into endy.' torily traced from crant, creant, the old French word for

King Henry VIII. an act of submission. It is so written in the old metri. See Merchant of Venico, Act iv. Sc. i. Indeed 'en. cal ronance of Ywaine and Gawaine (Ritson, vol i. p. viously, and spitefully,' are treated as synonymous by 183):

our old writers.


sions to vengeance.

your table !

Then up

O, ho!

Yet the unshaped use of it doth move

are, but know not what we may be. God be at The hearers to collection ;' they aim? at it, And botch the words up fii to their own thoughts ; King. Conceit upon her father. Which, as her winks and nods, and gestures yield Oph. Pray, let us have no words of this ; but them,

when they ask you,

what it means, say you this : Indeed, would make one think, there might be Good morrow, 'tis Saint Valentine's day," thought,

All in the morning betime, Though nothing sure, yet much unhappily.*

And I a maid at your window, Queen, "Twere good, she were spoken with ; for

To be your Valentine :
she may strew


and don'd his clothes, Dangerous conjectures in ill-breeding minds :

And dupp'd' the chamber door ; Let her come in.

(Erit Horatio.

Let in the maid, that out a maid
To my sick soul, as sin's true nature is,

Never departed more.
Each toy seems prologue to some greai amiss :6
So full of artless jealousy is guilt,

King. Pretty Ophelia !

Oph. Indeed, without an oath, I'll make an end It spills itself in fearing to be spilt.

on't : Re-enter Honatio, with Ophelia.'

By Gis, and by Saint Charity,'s Oph. Where is the beauteous majesty of Den- Alack, and fie for shame! mark?

Young men will do't, if they come to't ; Queen. How now, Ophelia ?

By cock, they are to blame.
Oph. How should I your true love know,

Quoth she, before you tumbled me,
From another one ?

You promis'il me to wed :
By his cockle hat and staff,

[He answers.)
And his sandal shoon.


So would I ha' done, by yonder sun, Queen. Alas, sweet lady, what imports this song ?

An thou haulst not come to my bed.
Oph. Say you ? nay; 'pray you, mark.

King. How long hath she been thus ?
He is dead and gone, lady,

We must be
Oph. I hope, all will be well.

[Sings. He is dead and gone;

patient : but I cannot choose but weep, to think, Al his head a grass-green turf

they should lay him i' the cold ground: My brother At his heels a stone.

shall know of it, and so I thank you for your good

counsel. Come, my coach! Good night, ladies ; Queen. Nay, but Ophelia,

good night, sweet ladies : good night, good night. Oph. 'Pray you, mark.

(Exit. White his shroud as the mountain snow.

King. Follow her close ! give her good watch, I (Sings. pray you.

(Erit HORATIO Enter King.

O! this is the poison of deep grief; it springs

All from her father's death : And now behold, Quern. Alas, look here, my lord. Oph. Larded all with sweet flowers;

0, Gertrude, Gertrude, 16

When sorrows come, they come not single spies,
Which bewepl to the gravel" did go, But in battalions ! First, her father slain;
With true love showers.

Next, your son gone ; and he most violent author King. How do you, pretty lady?

Of his own just remove : The people muddied, Oph. Well, God'ield"' you! They say, the owl | Thick and unwholesome in their thoughts and whiswas a baker's daughter !12 Lord, we know what we

pers, I To collection, that is, to guther or deduce conse bly induce l our Saviour to transform her into that bird quences from such premises. Thus in Cymbeline, for her wickedness. The story is related to deter chil. Act v. Sc. 5:-

dren from illiberal behaviour to the poor. whose containing

13 The old copies read :Is so from sense to hardness, that I can

To-morrow 'lis Saint Valentine's day.' Make no collection of it.'

The emendation was made by Dr. Farmer. The origin See note on that passage.

of the choosing of Valentines has not been clearly de. 2 The quartos read-yavon. To aim, is to guess. veloped. Mr. Douce traces il in a Pagan custom of the 3 Folio--would.

same kind during the Lupercalia feasis in honour of Unhappily, that is, mischievously.

Pan and Juno, celebrated in the month of February by 5 The three first lines of this speech are given to Ho the Romans. The anniversary of the good bishop, or ratio in the quarto.

Saint Valentine, happening in this month, the pions 6 Shakspeare is not singular in his use of amise as a early promoters of Christianity placed this popular cus. substantive. Several instances are adduced by Stee. lom under the patronage of the saint, in order to eradi. vens, and more by Mr. Nares in his Glossary. Each cate the notion of its pagan origin. In France the Va. loy,' is each irise.

lantin was a moveable feast, celebrated on the first 7. There is no part of this play in its representation Sunday in Lent, which was called the jour des bran. on the stage more pathetic than this scene; which, I sup. dons, because the boys carried about lighted torches on pose, proceeds from the utter insensibility Ophelia has that day. It is very probable that the saint has nothing to her own misfortunes. A great sensibility, or none at to do with the custom ; his legend gives no clue to any all, seem 19 produce the same effects. In the latter such supposition. The popular potion that the birds (case) the audience supply what is wanting, and with choose their mates about this period has its rise in the the former they sympathize.'--Sir J. Reynolds. poetical world of fiction.

8 These were the badges of pilgrims. The cockle 14. To dup is to do up, as to don is to do on, to doff to shell was an emblem of their intention to go beyond do off,' &c. Thus in Damon and Pythias, 1582 :- The sea. The habit being held sacred, was often assumed as porters are druuk will they not dup the gate to-day » a disguise in love adventures. In The Old Wive's Tale, The phrase probably had its origin from doing up or by Peele, 1595:-'I will give thee a palmer's staff of lifting the laich. In the old cant language to dup the ivory, and a scallop shell or beaten gold.'

gyger was to open the door. See Harman's Caveat for 9 Garnished.

10 Quarto-ground. Cursetors, 1375. 11 See Macbeth, Acı i. Sc. 6.

15 Saint Charity is found in the Martyrology on the 12 This (says Mr. Douce) is a common tradition in first of August. Romwe passio sanctarum virginuin Gloucestershire, and is thus related :-'Our Saviour Fidei, Spei, et Charitas, quæ sub Hadriano principe went into a baker's shop where they were baking, and martyrim coronam adeptie sunt.' Spenser mentions her asked for some bread to eat. The mistress of the shop in Eclog. v. 225. By gis and by cock are only corrupimmediately put a piece of dough in the oven to bake tions, or rather substitutions, for different forms of for him; but was reprimanded by her daughter, who, imprecation by the sacred name. insisting that the piece of dough was too large, reduced 16 In the quarto 1603 the King sayo :it to a very small size. The dough, however, imme. "Ah, pretty wretch! this is a change indeed : diately began to swell, and presently became of a most O lime, how swiftly runs our joys away? enormous size. Whereupon the baker's daughter cried Content on earth was never certain bred, oui, Hough, heugh, heugh, which owl-like noise proba. To-day we laugh and live, lo-morrow dead."

trude ;

with :

For good Polonius' death; and we have done but Laer. That drop of blood that's calm, prociaims greenly,'

me' bastard; In hugger.muggero to inter him: Poor Ophelia Cries, cuckold, to my father; brands the harlot Divided from herself, and her fair judgment; Even here, between the chąste unsmirched brow Without the which we are pictures, or mere beasts. Of my true mother. Last, and as much containing as all these,


What is the cause, Laertes, Her brother is in secret come from France : That thy rebellion looks so giant-like? Feeds on his wonder, keeps himself in clouds, Let him go, Gertrude; do not fear our person ; And wants not buzzers to infect his ear

There's such divinity doth hedge'' a king, With pestilent speeches of his father's death; That creason can but peep to what it would, Wherein necessity, of matter beggar'd,

Acts little of his will. Tell me, Laertes, Will nothing stick our person to arraign

Why thou art thus incens'd ;-Let him go, Ger-
In ear and ear. O, iny dear Gertrude, this,
Like to a murdering piece, in many places Speak, man.
Gives me superfluous death! (A noise within. Laer. Where is my father?
Alack! what noise is this? King.


But not by him.
Enter a Gentleman.

King. Let him demand his fill. King. Attend.

Laer. How came he dead? I'll not be juggled Where are iny Switzers ? Let them guard the door : What is the matter?

To hell, allegiance! vows, to the blackest devil ! Gent.

Save yourself, my lord ; Conscience, and grace, to the profoundest pit ! The ocean, overpeering of his list,

I dare damnation : To this point I stand,
Eats not the fla's with more impetuous haste, That both the worlds I give to negligence,"
Than young Laertes, in a riotous head,

Let come what comes ; only I'll be reveng'd
O'erbears your officers! The rabble call him lord; Most thoroughly for my father.
And, as the world were now but to begin,


Who shall stay you? Antiquity forgot, custom not known,

Laer. My will, not all the world's : The ratifiers and props of every word,

And, for my means, I'll husband them so well, They cry, Choose we; Laertes shall be king !?

They shall go far with little. Caps, hands, and tongues, applaud it to the clouds, King.

Good Laertes, Laerles shall be king, Laertes king!

If you desire to know the certainty Queen. How cheerfully on the false trail they cry! of your dear father's death, is't writ in your revenge, O, this is counter.' vou false Danish dogs.

That, sweepstake, you will draw both friend and foe, King. The doors are broke. (Noise within. Winner and loser ? Enter LAERTES, armed; Danes following.

Laer. None but his enemies.

King. Laer. Where is this king?-Sirs, stand you all

Will you know them, then?

Laer. To his good friends thus wide I'll ope my without.

Danes. No, let's come in.
I pray you, give me leave. Repast them with my blood."

And like the kind life-rendering pelican,
Danes. We will, we will.

[They retire without the Door. Like a good child, and a true gentleman.

Why, now you speak Laer. I thank you :-keep the door.—0, thou vile That I am guiltless

of your father's death, king,

And am most sensiblyis in grief for it,
Give me my father.

It shall as level to your judgment pierce!
Calmly, good Laertes.

As day does to your eye.
I Greenly is unskilfully, with inerperience

8 Hounds are said to run counter when they are upon 2 i. e. secretly: "Clandestinare, to hide or conceal by stealth, or in hugger mugyer.-Florio. Thus in

a false scent, or hunt it by the heel, running backward North's translation of Plutarch :- Antonius, thinking Errors, Act iv. Sc. 2.

and mistaking the course of the game. See Comedy of that his body should be honourably buried, and not in

9 Unsmirched is unsullied, spotless. See Act i. Sc. 3. hugger mugger.'. Pope, offended at this strange phrase, changed it to private, and was followed by others. following anecdote of Queen Elizabeth as an apposite

10 Quarto 1603—wall. Mr. Boswell has adduced the Upon which Johnson remarks :- If phraseology is 10 be changed as words grow uncouth by disuse, or gross

illustration of this passage :- While her majesty was by vulgarity, the history of every language will be lost :

on the Thames, near Greenwich, a shot was fired by we shall no longer have the words of any author : and accident, which struck the royal barge, and hurt a as these alterations will be often unskillully made, we

waterman near her. The French ambassador being shall in time have very liule of his meaning.'

amazed, and all crying Treason, Treason! yet she, 3 The quarto reads : Keeps on his wonder.' The barge, and bade them never fear, for if the shot were

with an undaunted spirit, came to the open place of the folio_Feeds on this wonder. 4 A murdering.piece, or murderer, was a small piece made at her, they durst not shoot again : such majesty

had her presence, and such boldness her heart, that she of artillery; in French meurtriere. It took its name from the loop.holes and embrasures in towers and despised lear, and was, as all princes are, or should be, fortifications, which were so called. The port-holes so full of divine fullness, that guiltie mortalitie durst

not behold her but with dazzled eyes.'-Henry Chellle's in the forecastle of a ship were also thus denominated.

Meurtriere, c'est un petit canonniere, comme celles England's Mourning Gurment. des tours et murailles, ainsi appelle, parceque tirant par

11° But let the frame of things disjoint, both the icelle a desceu, ceux auquels on tire soit facilement

worlds suffer.'-- Macbeth. meurtri,' Ficot. "Visiere meurtriere, a port-hole for

12 The folio reads politician instead of pelican. This a murthering-piece in the forecastle of a ship.'-Cot: fabulous bird is not unfrequently made use of for purgrave. Case shoe, filled with small bullets, hails, old poses of poetical illustration by our elder poets : Shak. fron, &c. was often used in these murderers. This speare has again referred to it in King Richard II. and

in King Lear: accounts for the raking fire attributed to them in the text, and in Beaumont and Fletcher's Double Marriage :

'Twas this flesh begot these pelican daughters." !-- like a murdering-piece, aims not at me,

In the old play of King Leir, 1605, it is also used, but

in a different sense : But all that stand within the dangerous level. 5 The speech of the queen is omited in the quartos.

"I am as kind as is the pelican, 6 Switzers, for royal guards. The Swiss were then, That kills itself to save her young ones' lives.' as sinee, mercenary soldiers of any nation that could 13 Folio_sensible. afford to pay them.

14 Pierce is the reading of the folio. The quarto has 7 The meaning of this contested passage appears to 'pear, an awkward contraction of appear. I do not me this: “The rabble call him lord; and (as if the see why appear is more intelligible. Indeed as level is world were now but to begin, as if antiquity were for- here used for direct, Shakspeare's usual meaning of got, and custom were unknown) this rabble, the ratifiers the word, the reading of the quarto, preferred by Johnand props of every idle word, cry Choose we,' &c. son and Steevens, is less propor

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