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N noticing Dr. Morton's į and establishes his claim to respect and sympa
Crania Ægyptiaca, we had { thy.
occasion remark

The book, although written in a very diffuse the thorough and searching style is intensely interesting ; and if the author manner in which historical throughout appears more in the character of a inquiries are conducted at special pleader than a judge, it cannot be denied the present time. Nothing that she has fairly cited the authorities on both could more forcibly illus- sides, and has sifted the motives of the writers trate this fact than the light with as much impartiality as shrewdness and

which has recently been discrimination. After showing the state of the throoms thrown upon the real charac. kingdom with respect to society, politics and the ter of Richard the Third of England. Horace attitude of parties previous to Richard's time, Walpole's veneration for royalty and all that she takes up the narrative from his birth, and appertains to it, had led him into such a scru- examines every action of his life, so far as exhitiny of old regal documents as conducted him to } bited by existing histories, chronicles and his « Historic Doubts" respecting Richard's } documents, heaping authority upon authority unmitigated depravity ; but his indolence pre- and citing chapter and verse to prove every vented his arriving at the full conviction to } thing which she asserts. She shows concluwhich a later, and more industrious and patient sively that, up to the moment when he became inquirer has arrived, viz : that Richard the protector, with the charge of Edward the Fourth's Third was not a usurper, nor an unnatural children, no imputation rested upon his characmonster, but a legitimate sovereign acquiring ter ; but that, on the contrary he was not only the throne by means justified by the position in the ablest statesman but the most popular man which he was placed, and the political maxims in the kingdom ; that the revolution which of his age; and exercising his power, when placed him on the throne was with respect to acquired, with justice, public spirit, magnanimity the mode of its accomplishment precisely analoand enlightened devotion to the interests of the gous with that which is called the " glorious kingdom. The author, who has had the courage revolution" of 1688, which gave the sovereignty to defend so remarkable a paradox as this, is to William and Mary; and that his administra. Caroline A. Halsted, in a work recently tion of the government was just and enlightened reprinted from the London edition by Messrs. to a degree that was far in advance of the age Carey and Hart of this city, entitled - Richard in which he lived. III. as Duke of Gloucester and King of Eng. If we were to yield implicit belief to the land." By consulting all the chronicles extant } representations of the Tudor historians, we which were written in the reign of Richard III. should suppose that Richard was a deformed and examining the public archives and private { wretch both physically and morally, and the letters of contemporaries, and carefully compar- object of detestation through his whole life ; and ing them with the histories compiled under the should recognize the propriety of Shakspeare's direct influence of the Tudor dynasty, whose assigning this circumstance as his motive for interest it was to defame the deceased king, deliberately resolving to be a villain.” But she has been enabled to bring forward a mass this is all shewn to be pure romance. Richard of evidence which completely exculpates Richard was not deformed. The portraits taken during from most of the crimes, laid to his charge ; his life time all represent him as straight in


he was

figure and of a handsome countenance. Hey and ability for government, they could not have received more numerous and unqualified testi- } acquired sufficient ascendency over their fellowmonials of personal affection and public appro- men to break the direct line of succession, and bation, than any other sovereign of England } to be invested with the sovereign power. ever received in the same space of time, not " But such political changes, when brought even excepting Elizabeth; and it is undoubtedly | about by the voice of the country, and without true that the introduction of that dynasty which having recource to arms, by no means imply the sought to repair its own defective title by sys- elevation of a tyrant, although it may denote tematically calumniating the last of the Plan- incapacity in the monarch deposed. If Richard tagenet kings, was one of the greatest misfortunes erred in yielding to the evil counsels of those which England has ever suffered. How much who knew that ambition was inherent in his English history may be falsified by political race, and formed the 'predominant feature in his motives we may easily perceive by reading any character he at least proved himself, when cal. of their narratives of the revolutionary war in led upon to exercise the regal power, a patriotic this country, or any of their accounts of the and enterprising monarch, distinguished for wisnaval contests in which they were so dreadfully dom in the senate and for prowess in the field. beaten during the war of 1812.

The same sys.

“ His reign was signally advantageous to the tem was practised by Henry VII. and his descends realm; and he gave earnest of being disposed ants, with reference to Richard the Third ; and to make amends for any imputation of injustice it is only by a most laborious, and thorough that might be laid to his charge, arising from examination of contemporary records that Mrs. his irregular accession to the throne. Halsted has been enabled to unravel the tissue " The nation were indebted to him for of falsehood, and present the world with the provident statutes of lasting good ; and he was unvarnished truth.

alike a firm protector of the church, and strict We copy the concluding paragraphs of her } in the administration of justice to the laity. work as a specimen of her style, and a summary He was a generous enemy, notwithstanding that of her views respecting Richard's character.

an ill-requited friend; and that this

his clemency and forbearance did not arise from “ This monarch, by striving to suppress the personal fear, is evidenced by the intrepid hosts of military retainers, and above all, by bravery, undaunted courage, and contempt of his pronibitory enactments against the ancient danger, which even his enemies have perpetuacustom of giving badges, liveries, and family įted -devices to multitudes of armed followers, struck at the root of the evil, which arose from each

• He did a stately farewell take, chieftain having a standing and well disciplined | And, in his night of death, set like the sun; army at command, to overawe the crown and

For Richard in his West seem'd greater, than

When Richard shined in his meridian. perpetually disturb the peace of the realm.

Three years he acted ill, these two hours well But the odium which attached to this daring

And with unmated resolution strove : measure of abridging a power so dangerous to He fought as bravely as he justly fell, the throne led to Kiny Richard's ruin ; while As did the Capitol to Manlius prove, the merit of carrying out a policy which Richard So Bosworth did to him, the monument began, doubtless too precipitately and boldly, Both of his glory and his punishment.' has been exclusively apportioned to Henry VII. who, treading in the same steps with his prede- " A close examination into the earliest records cessor, although circumspectly and with caution connected with his career will prove that attained the object, and the appellation of the among all the heavy and fearful charges which Father of English liberty, from the identical are brought against him, few, if any, originate cause, and from pursuing the same measures with his cotemporaries, but that the dark deeds which laid King Richard in the dust, and pro

which have rendered his name so odious were 'cured for him the name and the character of a first promulgated as rumor, and admitted as tyrant !

such by Fabyan, Polydore Virgil, and Sir “ How far he merited this epithet must de- Thomas More, in the reign of his successor ; pend upon his acts, and the degree of credit that they were multiplied in number, and less which is due to those who have branded him unhesitatingly fixed upon him by Grafton, Hall, with it. Many of the greatest, wisest and most and Hollinshed, during the ensuing reign ; and powerful monarchs in all countries have been that towards the close of the Tudor dynasty usurpers, or ascended the throne irregularly ; every modification being cast aside, they were and the reason is obvious ; without rare talents { recorded as historical truths by Lord Bacon, Sir

Richard Baker, and many others, and rendered puted but unsubstantiated crimes, must respond yet more appalling by the moral and personal | to the sentiments of the old poet, deformity with which King Richard was by that

« Here leave his dust incorporate with mould : time invested by the aid of the drama. If,

He was a king, that challengeth respect.” however, by a retrogade movement, these calum. nies are found gradually to lessen one by one,

True it is, that from the great distance of time and that the progress can be traced to no more

in which he lived, some parts of his history copious sources than the evil fortune which must still rest upon reasoning and conjecture ; overwhelmed King Richard at Bosworth, and and mystery will, probably, ever envelope many gave the palm of victory to his rival,-if his portions of his career, the destruction of original administration, though brief, affords evidence of documents rendering impossible a close examinathe sound views which influenced his conduct, tion into several that rest on report alone ; yet and if, apart from fear and from jealousy of the if so great an advance has already been made as baronial power, he resolutely pursued that sys the admission that the “ personal monster whom tem of domestic policy which he felt would More and Shakespeare exhibited has vanished," ameliorate the condition of his people, and con and that the restless habits resulting from a tribute to the prosperity of the country at nervous temperament, and which have been large, then surely, as was observed at the made to indicate a Nero or Caligula, are shown opening of this memoir, it is time that justice to have been, not the result of a demoniacal was done him as a monarch, and that the temper, but the usual accompaniment of those strictest inquiry should be made into the measure impetuous feelings, and of that vivid rapidity of of his guilt as a man. Time, indeed, as was thought, which, seeing all things clearly, could further remarked, may not have softened the not brook opposition, or, the unmanly subterfuge asperity with which a hostile faction delighted of double dealing, it is earnestly to be hoped, to magnify his evil deeds; but time, and the for the credit of our national history, for the publication of cotemporary documents, have honor of England and of her monarchs, that made known many redeeming qualities, have { further discoveries, by throwing yet more light furnished proof of eminent virtue, and certified upon the dark and difficult times in which Richard to such noble exemplary deeds as already suffice III. flourished, will add to the proofs which to rescue King Richard's memory from at least already exist of his innocence as regards the a portion of the aggravated crimes which have great catalogue of crimes so long and so unjustly so long rendered his name odious, and inspired laid to his charge : and that thus his moral, great doubts as to the truth of other accusations equally with his personal, deformity may vanish which rest on no more stable authority.

under the bright influence of that searching If Lord Bacon could panegyrize « his whole- { examination into historical truth, that firm some laws,” and pronounce him - jealous for resolution of separating fact from fiction, which the honor of the English nation,"—if Grafton peculiarly characterize the present enlightened could so far eulogize his proceedings as to period. admit " that if he had continued lord protector, « These philosophical views having already the realm would have prospered, and he would rescued his memory from one portion of the have been praised and beloved,"—if Polydore fabulous tales which have made him a by.word Virgil could speak in commendation of his and reproach, to posterity, fair ground is open " piety and benevolence,” and laud - the good for belief that the day is not far distant when works which his sudden death alone rendered truth and justice will prevail over prejudice and incomplete,"—if cotemporary writers testify to long received opinion, and unite in discarding his noble conduct in the and the treachery { mere rumor and tradition for the recognition of that worked his destruction, and certify that facts that can be fully established, so that, the before his accession he was so " loved and character and conduct of this prince being dis. praised” that many would have - jeoparded life } played in its true light, his actions dispassionand goods with him,"—if the universities of ately considered, and the verified details of his Oxford and Cambridge perpetuate his love of { reign balanced against the unworthy motives letters, his patronage of the arts, and his munifi- attributed to him on no ground but surmise, cence to these seminaries of learing, -and if atonement, however tardy, may at length be the register of his public acts abounds in ex made to a monarch who, for three centuries and amples of liberality to the church, of equity, { upwards, has been so unsparingly reviled, so charity, beneficence and piety, surely every bitterly calumniated, as impartial mind, with reference to his long im.

Richard THE THIRD.

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MOST beautiful on passing the old Kirk, was startled by a light
engraving of the glimmering through the walls : on drawing near,

Bridge of Doon” he saw a cauldron hung over a fire, in which
on the River Ayr, the heads and limbs of children were simmering :
Scotland, is con- there was neither witch nor fiend to guard it, so
tained in our Maga- he unhooked the cauldron, turned out the con-
zine for this month. tents, and carried it home as a trophy. A
It was to gain the second tradition was of a man of Kyle, who,
key stone of this having been on a market night detained late in

bridge that Burns's Ayr, on crossing the old bridge of Doon, on his

«« Tam O'Shanter” way home, saw a light streaming through the urged forward his mare Maggie, after having gothic window of Alloway Kirk, and, on riding disturbed the witch revel in Kirk Alloway. near, beheld a batch of the district witches, The circumstances under which Burns's celebrated dancing merrily around their master, the devil, poem was written were these. Francis Grose, who kept them « louping and Ainging' to the the Antiquary, having been introduced to sound of bag pipes. He knew several of the Burns, offered, while wine and wit were old crones, and smiled at their gambols ; but active, to include old Kirk Alloway in his one of them, and she happened to be young and illustrations of the Antiquities of Scotland, if rosy, particularly attracted his attention. He the Bard of Doon would write a poem to ac- looked on her for a time highly delighted, and company it. Burns consented, and before then exclaimed. --- Weel luppen Maggie wi' the leaving the table at which he was taking a short sark!" Satan stopped his music, the convivial glass with Grose, all the various light was extinguished, and out rushed the hags traditions connected with the ruin were passing after the farmer, who started off full gallop for through his mind. One of these was of a far- } the Bridge of Doon, knowing that they could not mer, who, on a night wild with wind and rain, cross a stream : he escaped; but Maggie, who

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