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your Lordships that this kind of teaching had assumed any such positive or available form as to place it among the present resources of the education of the country.
But in truth I know no undertaking in which the promoters Great diliof a school would be more at a loss, nor any in which there troducing
culty in inwould now be a greater chance of their failing, than in the this as a introduction of this kind of teaching. I doubt whether the clementary whole of the training schools could furnish a master possessing enough, for the purpose, of that kind of scientific knowledge which must lie at the basis of it; and I am certain that none could be found who had given to that scientific knowledge the practical development which such a course supposes, and who was capable of adapting it to the purposes of elementary instruction. In truth, this adaptation is no easy task. It is not difficult to see that there is a science in common things applicable to our use, nor is there any dispute as to the utility and advantage of applying it to that use ; but actually to make the application requires the dedication to it of some powerful and original mind, and facilities such as are not to be found in an ordinary elementary school, of which the eldest scholars are usually still but little children, whose continuance cannot be calculated upon from month to month. That which is valuable in this kind of teaching is not, I apprehend, the knowledge of the “common things” professed to be taught, but “the science” of them. There can be little advantage in teaching children rules for the doing of common things, assumed to be better than those which of their own account they would hereafter follow, irrespective of the reasons of such rules. Better rules, unsupported by reasons, will be almost sure to be discarded by them, when they come to find them opposed to ancient usage, and the general practice. These will not fail to appear to them of greater authority than their teachers, and are only to be successfully contended against by their own perception of the common sense—that is the science—of the things. The same science is applicable to many common things. The first step, therefore, is the thorough study of such a science, so far as is necessary for its application to those things. The next is the application of the science.
The science of chemistry (which implies inore or less the Elements of knowledge of all the experimental sciences, they being all chemistry
welladapted ancillary to it) appears to me well adapted to this end. It is to be taught to a greater extent than any other a science of common tary schools. things. Agriculture, horticulture, the economy of food and fuel, cleanliness, ventilation, &c., are, under the highest forms, but the applications of it. It is, moreover, recommended by the fact that there are elementary books well adapted to the teaching of it. The one adopted by your Lordships,
with reference to your examination for grants of apparatus, well answers the purpose. Such works might, I am convinced, be thoroughly mastered in our elementary schools, by boys from the age of twelve to fourteen, if taught by a master who himself understood the subject, in the same systematic and persevering way in which Latin is taught in schools of a higher class. Indeed, I am claiming in this more than is needful, as the condition of success. It would not, I believe, require one tithe of the resolution, the patience, and the perseverance, to make a class of school-boys masters of the books which I have mentioned, that it is customary to expend on making boys of the same age familiar with the Latin grammar. It is a characteristic of the science of chemistry, that, with whatever is to be reasoned upon and understood, there is associated always something that is to be done. This connexion between thinking and doing is a pleasurable one, of which everybody must be conscious who has had experience of the drudgery of that labour which is not impregnated with thouglıt, which is directed to no purpose and adapted to no end; or who knows the pleasure that there is in accomplishing with our own hands a result for which we have ourselves in some nieasure devised the means.
This is the pleasure which God has assigned to labour, whose portion would otherwise be only sorrow; and, to whatever extent we contribute to give it to the man who lives by the sweat of his brow, we promote the designs of Providence, and lighten the burden of life.
These are the grounds of the recommendation which you have apparatus. been pleased to adopt for making grants in aid of the purchase
of apparatus in experimental science, to training schools and to elementary schools. Eleven schoolmasters presented themselves at as Christmas candidates for those grants, and all passed the prescribed examination. Some of them afforded evidence of a very good knowledge of the subjects of examination, and to all the task seemed to have been an easy and a pleasurable one.
Nothing shows more strikingly the deficiency of our elepoverty of training
mentary education in respect to experimental science, and the ath kinds of necessity that there is for some special encouragement of it at philosophi. your hands, than the fact of the extreme poverty of the
training schools in every kind of apparatus for teaching it. Excepting one small training school, which has profited by your offer of a grant in aid of the purchase of such apparatus, I believe that, if the scientific apparatus possessed by all the training schools for schoolmasters in this country were collected
* I am fortified in this opinion by the success which has, I believe, attended the teaching of Euclid in elementary schools, wherever it has been tried.
together, it would not be found to equal in quantity—and would be far inferior in quality to—that which was exhibited, at the Educational Exhibition at St. Martin's Hall, as the apparatus of one single model school for children in Norway.
The creation of the Department of Science and Art, at Department Marlborough House, and the movement in favour of the esta- and Art, blishment of trade schools in various parts of the country, of Trado. will tend to remedy this defect. The masterships of such schools will be offices of more than usual emolument and honor; and, the masters being sought from the training schools, the demand on those institutions will create a supply of the requisite teaching in those institutions. The Chester Training school is specially adapted to the train- Chester
training ing of such masters. I have borne testimony, from year to year, school well to the remarkable industry and success with which mechanical orlanted for processes are carried on in the workshops of that institution. of trade I have now to record that a staff of officers was collected there ters. at my last visit, who, by their scientific attainments, and by their skill as teachers, appeared to me well adapted to train masters for trade schools.
A class of schools above that of the National and British Foreign schools, but such as is not likely to be created or maintained schools. without the same aid which your Lordships are accustomed to give to those schools, is wanted in our towns. The trade school would well fill this vacant place. The trades and manufactures of the country would gain greatly; and the character of the operative, tradesman, and skilled workman would be greatly elevated, if each entered upon his trade having first made in such a school the study of that which belongs to the science of his trade. I am far from alleging that a knowledge of certain sciences is necessary for carrying on trades. But I do allege that many trades, if carried on in ignorance of certain branches of science, are carried on in ignorance of the principles on which they rest; and that whoever so carries them on misses that opportunity for the improvement of his mind which is supplied by the daily habit of reasoning on and understanding what he is about ; that he fails of one of the highest pleasures of which the human mind is capable—that of thus reasoning and understanding, and that he is wanting in that which is a legitimate source of moral dignity and selfrespect. I allege further, that, taken collectively, such trades cannot but suffer, in a commercial point of view, from an ignorance, on the part of those who carry them on, of the principles on which they depend ;- it being impossible but that new and improved processes of art and manufacture and expedients of construction should result from such knowledge.
It is this study of specialities which characterises the elespecial vranches of mentary education of France and Germany, as distinguished industry.
from that of England, in which it has no place. Whatever advantages these nations have gained over us in any branch of art or manufacture they appear to owe to this study. I have
I collected in a foot-note extracts from memorials to the Royal cessity of Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851,* from the great adding these
Testimonies to ne
• From Birminghum. “ Your memorialists have long felt the necessity of some more extended system of practical and scientific education in England, which should place within the reach of the industrial classes a much higher standard of scientific attainments than they cau now ever hope to possess without very ample means. Your memorialists are convinced that, with greater facilities in elementary scientific education, intimately connected with, and always accompanied by practical illustrations and manipulations, there would be found as much original genius and talent to develop in the people of this country as in those of the great continental states of Europe; and that such development would greatly facilitate the maintenance and extension of our manufactures and commerce.”
From Bristol. “ It would be superfluous in your memorialists to point out the advantages resulting to our artisans from having within their power the means of obtaining, at a moderate expense, a sound scientific and practical education in those branches of trade or manufacture to which their lives are to be devoted. These advantages are too obvious and well koown to your Honourable Board to require more than a simple allusion to them ; and your memorialists think that no more legitimate mode of applying the surplus at your disposal can exist than by appropriating it to the elevation of the character and intellect of the British workman, 10 whose skill and ingenuity (however untutored) the Great Exhibition owes so much, by encouraging discovery, stimulating industry, and viering hini the same facilities for acquiring knowledge in his profession which are enjoyed by his foreign competitors.”
From Hull. “ Your memorialists are in a position, from their connexion with the import and export trades, to state that the increased facilities of transport have of late years produced a greater distribution of fuel and of raw materials over the world ; and that the increased facilities thus afforded obviously necessitate an increased amount of knowledge, in its adaptatiou to manufactures, because the raw material, once from local circumstances confined to one country, now, at a reasonable rate, is made available to all countries. Your memoralists are informed that the great continental states of France and Germany are so fully convinced of this circunstance that they have established central colleges and provincial schools of arts and manufactures, which are exercising much influence in the progress of industry. Your memoralists perceive that, unless a system of industrial education is extended to this country, so as to enable our manufacturers to apply increased science and skill to their manufacturis, England cannot keep her position in the great industrial competition of all nations; a competition which has for its effect the increase in value of skill and intelligence, as applied to the manufacture of that raw material, which, by the facilities of transport, is becoming decreased in price. Your memorialisis see, therefore, to themselves a great advantage in giving to manufacturers the means of acquiring a scientific knowledge of the principles of their industries, so that they may apply them with the best advantage to their respective wants."
From Oldham. “ Your memoralists regret that there does not exist in this country any national institution devoted to instruction, on a similar basis to the schools of arts and manufactures established in France and Belgium, which, by imparting to their students the knowledge of the principles on which all improvements must be founded, have contributed so largely to the development of manufacturing skill.”
manufacturing and commercial towns, bearing testimony to to subjects this fact. The memorials are published in the Second Report tary instrucof the Commissioners.
My report on this sutject would be incomplete if I did not Society of advert to the great and important services which the Society of Arts has of late years rendered to the cause of education, and especially during the year when Mr. Harry Chester was chairman of its executive council. The great assembly of delegates from other similar institutions, affiliated to it in the great towns and manufacturing districts of the country, hore a conclusive testimony to the great power over the education of the people which is vested in its hands.
The idea of assembling, under the auspices of the Society Educational of Arts, from all parts of the world, examples of what have of Society of been well called the “material aids” to education, in an Educational Exhibition, was in itself new and original, and in its results it has been interesting and successful. That elementary teachers were not generally able to avail themselves of the opportunities for improvement which this exhibition afforded would have been a subject for lasting regret,* if your Lordships had not determined to make the exhibition permanent. It is not unlikely to lead to the formation of similar exbibitions on a smaller scale, in some of our provincial towns; an object to which the attention of Diocesan Boards of Education might perhaps with advantage be directed.
A prize offered by the Society of Arts for the best case of Prize an. mathematical instruments for the use of schools, and another Society of
From Sheffield. “Your memorialists recognise in such institutions a vise intention on the part of foreign governments to develop manufactures, by applying increased science, skill, and intelligence to their cultivation. They feel that, in the increasing competition of the world, it is necessary to join education to practice; and, although they do not think that a practical education in industrial science can ever of itself make manı. facturers, they are fully convinced that when the scientific principles of manufactures are more thoroughly understood by practical men, they will better be able to apply them with advantage in their respective industries, and to promote economy and improrements in manufacturing processes."
From the Staffordshire Potteries. “ Your memorialists are confidently of opinion that a more extended and practical system of scientific education is necessary in this country, a system which should offer on readily available terms to the industrial classes of England a much higher standard of productive acquirements than they now possess, and that ample facilities for a sound elementary education, in intimate connexion with, and accompanied by, practical illustrations, alone are wanting to develop in our artists and artisans as large an amount of genius and talent as is evidenced in the best productions of the great continental emporiums, and alsu that such a development would greatly tend to the increase of our manufactures and commerce.”
* I believe that it would be a great advantage to trachers to place them in possession of the interesting catalogue of the Exhibition.