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SUMMARY B.

Aggregate Annual Income, as stated by Managers, of 256 of the Schools

enumerated in Summary A.

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ASHBURTON PRIZES, 1834,

SCHOOLMASTERS.

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(Three Hours allowed for this Paper.) Two Questions to be answered out of each Section, and others as time may

permit.

Section 1. 1. Define the following words and phrases, and illustrate your meaning by their usage in matters of social life :-skill—industry-economy and forethought—wealth-money-value-price---labourers and employers of labour -capital and capitalist.

2. What is the usual consequence of an abundant or deficient harvest upon the price of food ? and upon the wages of labour?

3. What is meant by division of labour? and show the importance of this in advancing the wealth and well-being of a nation.

4. What are the principal conditions of industrial success among the labouring classes, and what kind of training in carly life is most likely to lead to it?

5. What are the necessary qualities of the food of a people, in order that the supply may be permanent? and how do foods for man and beast vary in this respect ?

6. What metals are the most useful ? Mention th: particular properties which make them so; and give the outline of a lesson on iron or lead, and its uses, from the state of ore up to a knife-blade or sheet-lead.

Section 2. 1. Point out the different ways in which the air in a dwelling-room is rendered impure, and the best way of ventilating the room,

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2. What are the best materials for building a cottage; the necessary conditions of health with reference to the building; and which is preferable, a slated or thatched roof, and why?

3. What vegetables are usually cultivated in a garden? Which do you consider the most nutritious ? and why? What rotation of crops would you recommend in a garden of one rood in extent ?

4. What is the difference between porus and retentive soils, and how would you treat them.? Explain the principle on which soils pulverize after frost, and the advantages of this.

5. Explain what is meant by a proper rotation of crops—by exhausting and non-exhausting plants. How would you ascertain what substances plants draw from the soil ? and, having done this, how would you manure the land?

Section 3. 1. What are the essential properties of matter? Define and explain some of them.

2. Explain what is meant by the attractions of cohesion and gravitation, and exemplify by giving instances of each.

3. Give Newton's three laws of motion, and illustrate the last by experiment.

4. What is meant by centripetal and centrifugal forces ? and show how in different latitudes the weight of bodies is affected by the latter.

5. A body let fall from the top of a tower is three seconds before it reaches the ground; how far did it fall in each second? and what was the height of the tower? If the action of gravity ceased at this point, how far would it fall in the next three seconds ?

Section 4. 1. To which of the mechanical powers do the following implements belong: -a spade and fork in digging—the plough-the saw—the axe-a pair of scissors, a pump handle--the screw? Give your reasons in each case.

2. Explain the principle of a pair of scales, and of a common steel-yard.

3. Explain the principle of the wheel and axle, and show how it is applied in raising up water from a well.

4. Show the use of the plumb-line, the square, and the spirit-level to the bricklayer and carpenter.

SchoolMASTERS.
AFTERNOON.

Section 1. 1. What are the principal bones of the human skeleton? How are they kept together at the joints; and of what sulistance are they composed ?

2. Explain the construction of the spine, or of the hand, and the mechanical contrivances for the different inovements which they are intended to perform.

3. How would you judge of the habits and food of animals from their jaws and teeth? Illustrate your answer by examples.

4. What are muscles and tendons, and their uses in the animal frame? And, in the movement of one bone against another in the joints, how is it they are not worn away?

5. What is the cause of a defect in vision in what are called short-sighted and long-sighteri persons, and what kind of glasses are required to correct it in each? What are the purposes of the eyelids and eyelashes ?

6. Point out any differences in the eyes and ears of animals which show adaptation to their respective wants.

Section 2. 1. What is the difference between an artery and a vein, between arterial and venous blood; and why is the cutting or rup!ure of an artery more dangerous than a vein ?

2. Give your reasons for thinking that exercise is necessary, and generally beneficial to all the animal functions.

3. What is meant by respiration? Explain how the chest expands and contracts in this process? And in what does the air breathed out from the lungs differ from common atmosphere air? What experiment would show this?

4. Does the blood undergo any and what change in circulating through the body? And explain the functions of the heart, arteries, and veins, in this circulation.

5. What are the properties of milk as a food, and the substances it contains ? Is it equally good at all periods of life?

6. What analogy is there between the blood of animals and the sap of vegetables? In each case mention as many substances as you can for forming which they must contain the materials ?

Section 3. 1. What are the constituent parts of the atmosphere ? How are they combined, and in what way are they subservient to the wants of animal and vegetable life?

2. What is meant by the specific gravity of bodies; and under what conditions is water taken as the standard ? How would you ascertain the specific gravity of substances heavier and lighter than water.

3. Explain the principle and construction of the common barometer. When the mercury stands at 28.7 inches, at what altitude would the water stand in a water barometer?

4. Describe a common suction pump or syphon; and explain the principle of its action.

5. A vessel will float on water whose specific gravity is 1, with a burden of 200 tons; what weight of cargo would it carry if floated on sea-water whose specific gravity is 1.035—or on mercury?

Section 4. 1. What is meant by the terms “warm” and “cold;" and why do not all substances of the same temperature feel equally so when touched ?

2. What is the general effect which heat has upon matter; and what are the different ways in which solid and fluid bodies are heated ?

3. What are the phenomena attending the melting of ice, and heating the water till it boils away in steam?

4. Explain how dew is formed, and its effects on vegetable life. Why does it not fall equally on grass and gravel ?

5. What is meant by the number of inches of rain which fall during the year at any particular place; and how is this ascertained ?

6. What is meant by the solvent powers of water? Enumerate the substances you know to be solvent in it. How does it affect the growth of plants and animals ?

SCHOOLMISTRESSES.

MORNING.

Section 1. 1. Define the following words:-skill--industry--economy and forethought -wealth-money--and illustrate your answer by their application in matters of social life.

2. What are the principal conditions of industrial success among the labouring classes, and what kind of training in early life is most likely to lead to it?

3. What are the advantages of paying ready money in your dealings, and the disadvantages of the contrary practice?

4. What are the advantages of clothing clubs for the labouring classes, and how ought they to be conducted ?

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Section 2. 1. What are the necessary conditions of a cottage, in order that it may be healthy and comfortable? What is the use of a fire-place in a bed-room?

2. Mention some of the various ways with which you are acquainted of preserving meat or vegetables, so as to lay them up in store for future use.

3. Of the modes of cooking animal food-roasting, boiling, stewingwhich do you consider the most economical, and why?

4. What are the nutritive properties of milk? Explain the processes of making butter and cheese, and the way in which they must be treated in order to make them keep.

5. What do you consider a proper and economical diet table, for a week, for a family consisting of a man, his wife, and four children, earnings 12s. a-week ?

Section 3. 1. What is the difference between an artery and a vein-between arterial and venous blood ?-and why is the cutting or rupture of an artery more dangerous than a vein ?

2. Does the blood undergo any and what change in circulating through the body? And explain the functions of the heart, arteries, and veins in the circulation.

3. What are muscles, tendons, and nerves, and their uses in the animal frame?

4. How would you treat a scald or a burn?

5. Give your reason for thinking that exercise is necessary and generally beneficial for health,

6. What are the advantages of cleaning the teeth daily? And what are the disadvantages of losing them or of their decaying in early life?

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SCHOOLMISTRESSES.

AFTERNOON.

Section 1. 1. Draw out a series of lessons on domestic economy, such as you think would prove useful to the elder girls of your school, and describe one lesson in the way in which you judge necessary to impart it.

2. In what respect do you perceive the homes of your scholars to be deficient, and the teaching of your school to act as a remedy?

3. Describe the manner in which you conduct the needle-work of your school. What distinction do you make between the useful and the fancy work which the children do ?

4. Give an outline of a lesson on soap, and its uses.

5. Give your reasons (if any) for regarding a popular knowledge of the atmosphere, water, heat, gases, animal economy, &c., as not unsuited to girls.

Section 2. 1. What is meant by “hard and soft” water? What is the cause of it? And what are the effects of hard water in cooking and washing ?

2. What kind of substances are removed by filtering and by boiling water ? Explain the process in both cases.

3. Why do woollen things shrink when washed ? 4. What are the advantages of woollen cotton things, as clothing for the labouring classes, over linen ? And why is cotton preferred in warm climates ?

5. What is the best tea-pot to use, and why?

ADJUDICATION. Ashburton Prizes for instruction in Common Things 1854. Though all the competitors' papers, with scarcely an exception, are entitled to much commendation, yet, owing doubtless to the short interval for preparation which elapsed between the first proposal of these prizes and the examination for them, no set of answers has this year quite reached the standard which had been fixed for the first-class prizes, and from which it is not thought expedient to depart. For the second class, however, the standard has been exceeded in a remarkably creditable manner by more than one competitor. While for the first class, therefore, no award is made, two additional prizes of the second rank (71. each), and for schoolmistresses three (5l. each), have been adjudged instead of the unawarded prizes.

Schoolmasters.
Three prizes, of 71. each, adjudged to:

Mr. E. Goddard, King's Somborne. Hants. Equal and named alphabetically Mr. W. Pettit, Brown Candover, Hants.

Mr. J. Sterndall, Wellow, Hants.
One students' prize, 81., divided (41. each) between :-
Mr. A. Ei Clarke, } Winchester Training School.

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Schoolmistresses.
One prize, 71., to Miss Burningham, Cholderton, Wilts.
Three prizes, 51. each, to :-

Miss E. Cox, Stockbridge, Hants.
Equal Miss C. Davy, Old Alresford, Hants.

Miss E. Maton, Fordingbridge, Hants.
Students' prize, 81., divided (say 31. each) between :-

Miss R. J. Smith,
Equal Miss E. S. Spreadbury, Salisbury Training School.

Miss H. Wyatt, The prizes may be taken in money or books (with an inscription), or both, or indeed in any suitable form, at the option of the claimant, who should signify what would be most acceptable.

(Signed on behalf of the examiners) W. H. BROOKFIELD.

Equal { Mr. F. Earle,

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