I inspect are connected with the Free Church, a sensible proportion of the pupil-teachers belong to other Christian denominations. It is of little importance, as an evidence of liberal feeling, that the schools are open to pupils of all denominations, for the most bigotted and intolerant sect might open its school to all classes of scholars, while it retained the power of training them in accordance with its own views. But it is a more pleasing sign of liberality, when, in schools supported in a great measure by the exertions of members of the Free Church, pupil-teachers froin other bodies are trained, who, at the same time, attend freely the ministrations of their own pastors. In signing the certificates of such apprentices, the minister with whose congregation the school is connected cannot, of course, speak directly of their attention to religious duties; sometimes he has done so, on information received from their minister; but more frequently this particular part of the certificate is signed by these ministers themselves; and thus the names of Episcopalian and Independent ministers, as well as of Presbyterians of different sections, have been attached to the certificates which I have had to transmit.

The normal schools which it is my duty to visit continue to Normal be conducted in a very satisfactory manner, both in the model schools, and in the training department. That in Edinburgh has been placed in circumstances calculated to excite much anxiety, in consequence of the serious illness of its excellent rector. The happy combination in Mr. Fulton, of business habits and of professional skill as a teacher, together with the influence of his personal character, has been of inestimable advantage to this institution, and his illness could not but be regarded by the Directors with deep regret and concern, both for his own sake, and on account of the school. Temporary arrrangements have been made to supply what, I trust, will be but a temporary lack of service on his part; and it is not the smallest part of the honour due to him, that the school has been brought, under his care, into so excellent a condition, as to continue to go on efficiently without his personal superintendence. I would by no means overlook the ability and good feeling displayed by the teachers who have undertaken the additional duties required in the circumstances. I trust they will have the satisfaction of seeing that their labours have been successful in maintaining the character of the school and the attainments of the students. But none are better qualified or more willing than they, to appreciate the value of him of whose co-operation and counsel they have for the present been deprived.

Both in Edinburgh and Glasgow some slight alterations have been made in the internal arrangements, chiefly with the view of promoting more effectually the instruction in

Queen's scholars

music and drawing. I do not think it necessary to specify these more particularly, though it is right to refer to them, as indicating the desire of the managers to bring up the standard of instruction to the point desired by Government. The chief alteration that has taken place, and the most important in its probable results, is one on which I am scarcely called as yet to offer an official opinion, as it has been introduced since the time

of my official inspection of the training-schools,-I mean, the instruction,

adoption of a graduated course of instruction for the students of different years. As the result, however, of various inquiries and conversations on the subject, I am strongly inclined to believe that the operation of the new plan will be very beneficial. Some modifications, in regard to Scotland, will probably be recommended by experience. It may be questioned, for example, whether Blackstone's Commentaries on English Law be more suitable in the training of a Scotch schoolmaster than Bell's Commentaries on the Laws of Scotland would be in that of an English one. The defect, however, is only accidental. The general training seems well calculated to raise the standard of attainnient in our teachers.

Of the students now attending the two normal seminaries, forty-one young men and eight young women obtained firstclass Queen's scholarships, and eleven male and two female students, second-class scholarships, at the last competition. Of the forty-nine in the first class, nineteen hold them now for the second year.

When we consider that all of these have been trained as apprentices to the practical work of a teacher, and that, along with the acquisition of valuable knowledge in literature and science, they are still receiving instruction in the methods and practice of education, we have good reason to expect that they will eventually furnish a body of able and accomplished educators.

In one respect the experiment is particularly instructive, and may suggest farther improvements : the mathematical teachers find a foundation laid in the instructions of the apprenticeship which enables them to prosecute their own labours with greater comfort and success. The students thus furnished possess, of course, a certain amount of knowledge of elementary mathematics ; but it is not so much their actual attainments, as the accurate school training which they have received, that enables the teacher in the normal school to carry forward their studies to a greater extent and with greater ease and rapidity. What is true of mathematics is equally true in regard to other branches of instruction in which the pupil-teachers are trained.

The knowledge of geograplıy and grammar acquired in the elementary school prepares the way for the study of physical

phenomena, and of the structure of language to be prosecuted in the training school.

If Latin is to be considered desirable in a schoolmaster, as it is generally thought to be in Scotland, it is in the same way that it will be most likely to be acquired. The rudiments of such a language will be more easily mastered at the age of thirteen than at twenty. And, however able and zealous the masters in the normal schools may be, they can hardly be expected to make classical scholars of many of those who have known nothing of the subject till they came to the training schools.

The examinations for certificates of merit were held by ine Certificates at Glasgow in June, and at Aberdeen in October, and by Mr. Wilson at Edinburgh in June. These examinations were attended in the aggregate by forty teachers and 128 students. The result may be exhibited as on former occasions in a tabular form :

of merit,

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From this table it appears that of the forty teachers, thirtythree (or fully four fifths) were successful; and of the 128 students, 115 (or fully eight ninths): and taking all the candidates together, seven eighths gained a certificate of some degree. The numbers last year corresponding with the lowest line of the above table were :

144, 14, 44, 57, from which it appears that, while the proportion of successful candidates this year is somewhat greater, the number of those in the first class is both absolutely and proportionally much less. The facts taken together may afford both an encouragement and a stimulus.

I have the honor to be, &c.

JAMES CUMMING. To the Right Honorable

The Lords of the Committee of Council on Education.


EsQ., M.A.


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* The amount of accommodation in square feet, divided by 8, will give the number of children who can be properly accommodated. Calculations of area in school-rooms, as compared with the average attendance of scholars, should be made upon this basis.

+ At the date of closing this return. * These per-centages are confined to boys' and girls' schools, and do not include infants.


Aggregate Annual Income, as stated by Managers, of 270 of the Schools

enumerated in Summary A.

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Aggregate Annual Expenditure, as stated by Managers, of

270 of the Schools enumerated in Summary A.


Books and



s. d. 22,147 18 1

s. d. 509 14 4

8. d. 3,230 0 3}

8. d. 25,887 12 8}

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