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F

§ 12. The value of notes and rests is relative. Long and short tones may be represented according to the fractional or relative value of notes.

§ 13. The pitch of tones is represented by writing notes upon the staff.

§ 14. The staff consists of five parallel horizontal lines, with the four intervening spaces, each of which is called a degree.

5th line.-
4th line.-

EXAMPLE. 3d line.

2d line.-
1st line.-

BUDIMENTS OF MUSIC

G

§ 15. The staff is sometimes extended by adding short (or leger) lines either above or below.

§ 16. The degrees of the staff are named after the first seven letters of alphabet, to determine the pitch of tones represented thereon.

§ 17. The arrangement of letters upon the staff is determined by a sign called a clef.

§18. There are two clefs in common use, viz: the G clef,

and the F clef, 2:2

§19. The G clef signifies that the letter G is written upon the second line of the staff, while the others follow upwards in alphabetical order, and downwards by reversing the order.

B

E

ARRANGEMENT OF LETTERS WITH THE G CLEF.

G

8

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B

-A

§ 20. The F clef signifies that the letter F is written upon the fourth line.

4th space. -3d space. -2d space.

-1st space.

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NOTE.-The a clef represents tones one octave higher than the F clef.
NOTE.-Each pupil should learn the arrangements of letters perfectly.

RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

ARRANGEMENT OF LETTERS WITH THE F CLEF.

-E

-C- Ꭰ

-F

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B

§21. The major scale is composed of eight progressive tones, occurring one after another in a particular order as they are numbered.

§22. According to the "universal system" the first tone of the scale is represented upon the letter C, (added line below, G clef,) the second on D, the third on E, and so on.

§ 23. The interval between the tones of the scale is called a second.

Mi Fa
B T

DIVISION II.

THE MAJOR SCALE.

§ 24. There are two kinds of seconds, viz:-the major (large) second, and the minor (small) second. $25. The Latin syllables, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si, and Do, are applied to the scale.

Sol

G

B

DIAGRAM OF THE MAJOR SCALE.

With Letters, Syllables, and Numerals applied, and also the order of Seconds represented

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F CLEF 9

EXERCISE 2.

EXERCISE 3.

EXERCISE 4.

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Fa

F

Sol

G

5

RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.

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La

A

6

Si Do

B

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7

Do

0

Si

B

7

NOTE. The pupil should make this scale an exercise of daily practice, but should first become familiar with the syllables, letters, and numerals corresponding to the notes, and also the order of seconds.

NOTE-The following exercises should first be sung by the teacher in a slow and careful manner. Great care should be taken that the pupils sit erect and sing with correct intonation. Care should also be taken that the pupils sing without changing the vowel sounds of the syllables

EXERCISE 1. Key of C, (blank signature.)

La

A

6

Sol Fa MI

G

F E

5

4

8

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Re

D

2

Do

0

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BUDIMENTS OF MUSIC

DIVISION III.

MEASURES, BARS, AND ACCENT.

§ 25. Rhythm is the measured outline of music, and determines the periodical recurrence of accent.

§ 26. The notes of a melody are divided into sections called measures.

§ 27. A measure is tae quantity and value of notes between every two bars. § 28. A bar is a short perpendicular line drawn across the staff.

§ 29. A measure having two parts, or counts, is called Double Measure, and is indicated by the numeral 2, placed next after the clef, on the upper part of the staff, which corresponds to the number of parts, or counts."

§ 30. The first part of Double Measure is accented, the second is unaccented.

§ 31. In Double Measure a downward motion of the right hand is made to the first part, and an upward motion to the second part, (sometimes called "beating time," or marking time.)

NOTE.-The motions should be made promptly and at equal intervals of time

DOUBLE MEASURE.
2

§ 33. The numeral 2, below, indicates half notes in the measure,

one at a count.

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§ 32. The numeral standing for the fractional name of the note representing each part of the measure, is placed next after the clef, on the lower part of the staff.

NOTE.-The numerator indicates the kind of measure, (i.e., the number of counts,) and the denominator the kind of notes with which each part is filled.

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1 2 Half Notes.

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1 2 Half Notes.

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Here we meet with joy together, Here to learn our songs to raise; O, how sweet the hour of singing, Hearts and voices joined in praise.

NOTE.-Music is not to be performed faster merely because each count is represented by a quarter note instead of a half; for the duration of tones as represented by notes is not absolute, excepting so far as they may belong to the same melody or exercise.

§ 37. The motion of the hand is down for the first count, left for the second, and up for the third.

§ 35. A measure having three counts is called Triple Measure, and is indicated by the numeral 3. § 36. The first count is accented.

TRIPLE MEASURE.

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