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ILLITERACY - 1920 CENSUS REPRESENTING ONLY THOSE WHO HAVE HAD NO SCHOOLING WHATEVER-1920 CENSUS VOLI P.10

I NEW YORK

1425002 2 GEORGIA

328838 3 PENNSYLVANIA

SI 2,699 4 LOUISIANA

299,092 S TEXAS

295,844 6 ALABAMA

278,082 7 NORTH CAROLINA

241,603 8 MISSISSIPPI

229,7541 9 SOUTH CAROLINA

220,667 IO VIRGINIA

195,159 Il TENNESSEE

182,629 12 LLINOIS

173,987 13 KENTUCKY

155,014 14 MASSACHUSETTS

146,607 IS OHIO

131,006 16 NEW JERSEY

127,661 17 ARKANSAS

121,837 18 CALIFORNIA

95,592 19 MICHIGAN

88,046 20 MISSOURI

83,403 21 FLORIDA

71,811 22 WEST VIRGINIA

69,415 23 CONNECTICUT

67,265 24 MARYLAND

644 34 25 OKLAHOMA

56,864 26 INDIANA

520 34 27., WISCONSIN

50,397 28 NEW MEXICO

41,637 29 ARIZONA

39,131 30 MINNESOTA

34,467 31. RHODE ISLAND

31,312 32 COLORADO

24,206 33 KANSAS

22,821 34 IOWA

20,680 35 MAINE

20,240 36 WASHINGTON

18,596 37 NEW HAMPSHIRE

15,788 38 NEBRASKA

13,784 39 DIST. OF COL.

10,509 40 DELAWARE

10,508; 41 NORTH DAKOTA

9,937 42 MONTANA

9.544 43 OREGON

9,317 44 VERMONT

8A88 45 SOUTH DAKOTA

8,109 46 UTAH

6264 47 IDAHO

4924 48 NEVADA

38,02 49 WYOMING

3,149 The figures given for each State as to the total number of illiterates are from the 1920 census, as is the quotation at head of the chart.

Mr. NORTON. Yes.
Mr. HASTINGS. All ages above 10?
Mr. NORTON. Yes; above 10 years of age.

Mr. ROBSION. I want to compliment your table. The witnesses have been emphasizing too much the need of this legislation for people in the highlands of the South. I have always taken the position that this was needed all over the country. That does not confine it to one section or one State, does it?

Mr. NORTON. No.
The CHAIRMAN. Kentucky has a pretty good record there.

Mr. HASTINGS. I always understood that Montana has less illiteracy than any other State, but it is the forty-second State according to that.

The CHAIRMAN. Wyoming stands high.

Mr. HASTINGS. Of course it is somewhat in relation to population, but, when you are considering the vote, the numbers are important. Montana could have the least percentage, could it not, and yet have a little larger number than these others?

Mr. NORTON. Yes. This next chart deals only with native-born illiterates.

Mr. DOUGHTON. This other chart includes both?
Mr. NORTON. Yes; native and foreign born.
Mr. HASTINGS. And this is still above 10 years of age ?

Mr. NORTON. Yes; native born, black and white; nearly 2,000,000 black and something over a million white, showing how the native born illiteracy problem is largely confined to the Southern States. But the whole problem as shown by the previous chart is not at all a southern problem exclusively; it is a national problem, because two of the first three States are Northern States.

Mr. LOWREY. You might give some of those figures.

Mr. NORTON. Georgia has 327,000 native-born illiterates; Louisiana, 288,000; Alabama, 276,000, North Carolina, 238,000, Mississippi, 228,000; South Carolina, 220,000; Virginia, 192,000; Texas, 182,000; Tennessee, 181,000; Kentucky, 152,000; Arkansas, 120,000 Florida, 68,000; Missouri, 65,000; West Virginia, 54,000; Pennsylvania, 53,000; Maryland, 50,000; Ohio, 46,000. Did you want all of them?

Mr. LOWREY. That gives us an idea. Have you any statistics as to what proportion the Southern States are white? Take Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, what proportion of those are white?

Mr. NORTON. Yes. I was going to present some tables on this problem of illiteracy. Will you please pass these around, each member retaining one?

May I ask that these tables, as well as the charts, be put in the record?

The CHAIRMAN. Yes.

Mr. NORTON. Now, to answer the question you have just asked, if

you will turn to Table 3, column 2 gives the number of native white illiterates and the percentage will be found in column 4.

If you compare that with all native born, the chart preceding, you can quickly tell what are white and what are black. For example, take Alabama. There are a total of 276,000 illiterates, native born. Now, of that number 65,000 are white. The remainder, of course, are black.

In Arkansas, for example, there is a total of 120,000 native-born illiterates. Of that number 41,000 are white. Is that clear?

The CHAIRMAN. About a third are white, then?

NATIVE BORN ILLITER ATES

1920

327.911

I GEORGIA 2 LOUISIANA 3 ALABAMA 4 NORTH CAROLINA 5 MIS SIS SIPPI 6 SOUTH CAROLINA 7 VIRGINIA & TEXAS 9 TENNESSEE IO KENTUCKY IL ARKANSAS 12 FLORIDA 13 MISSOURI 14 WEST VIRGINIA 15 PENNSLY VANIA 16 MARYLAND 17 OHIO 18 OKLAHOMA 19 ILLINOIS 20 INDIANA 21 NEW YORK 22 NEW MEXICO 23 MICHIGAN 24 NEW JERSEY 25 KANSAS 26 WISCONSIN 27 MASSACHUSETTS 28 CALIFORNIA 29 IOWA 30 COLORADO JI DIST. OF COLUMBIA 32 MAINE 33 DELAWARE 34 MINNESOTA 36 CONNETICUT 36 NEBRASKA 37 VERMONT 38 ARIZONA 39 RHODE ISLAND 40 WASHINGTON 41 OREGON 42 NEW HAMPSHIRE 43 SOUTH DAKOTA 44 NORTH DAKOTA 45 MONTANA 46 UTAH 47 IDAHO 48 WYOMING 49 NEVADA

288,687
276,084
2 38,518
2 28,055
220,164
192,797
182,696
181,341
152,754
120,656
68,808
65,594
54,837
53.515
50,772
46,441
44,623
41,383
34,405
33,438
25747
16,375
15,606
11,407
10,631
10,345
1932.6
9,558
9,243
8,695
8,460
7,127
6,196
4,005
3,916
3,641
3,571
3,094
2624
2,079
2006
1,525
1,323
1.154
984
958
487
175

These figures as to the number of native-born illiterates in each State are from the Federal census. There are more native-born than foreign-born illiterates in the United States.

Mr. NORTON. Yes. In these tables that I have given you will find detailed figures, both as to the number and percentage of illiteracy in all the States. All are based on the Federal census, and please keep in mind in studying the tables and charts that we refer to those that have had no schooling whatever. Double that if you want to consider those who have had perhaps too little schooling to be effective citizens in a democracy.

THE ILLITERACY PROBLEM

The subsequent five tables give the figures on illiteracy as taken from the Federal census:

TABLE I.The States and the illiteracy problem, 1920 Census, Volume III

[blocks in formation]

6 12 28 30

29 17 18 33 23 40 39 21

47 12 26 34 31 13

4 35 24 14 19 30

19 35 11

7 46 27 38 49 45 13

1 29

Alabama
Arizona.
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida..
Georgia.
Idaho
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa..
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine.
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan.
Minnesota..
Mississippi
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska.
Nevada.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York.
North Carolina.
North Dakota..
Ohio
Oklahoma..
Oregon.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Texas.
Utah.
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

32
42
3

278, 082

39, 131 121, 837 95, 592 24, 208 67, 265 10, 508 10, 509 71, 811 328, 838

4, 924 173, 987 52, 034 20, 680 22, 821 155, 014 299, 092 20, 240 64, 434 146, 607 88, 046 34, 487 229, 734 83, 403

9, 544 13, 784

3, 802 15, 788 127, 661 41, 637 425, 022 241, 603

9, 937 131, 006 56, 864

9, 317 312, 699

31, 312 220, 667

16.1 15. 3 9.4 3. 3 3. 2 6. 2 5.9 2.8 9.6 15. 3

1.5 3. 4 2. 2 1. 1 1.6 8.4 21.9 3.3 5. 6 4. 7 3.0 1.8 17. 2 3.0 2. 3 1.4 5.9 4.4 5. 1 15. 6

5. 1 13. 1 2.1 2.8 3. 8 1.5 4.6

20 42 38 18 37 16 28 1 7 41

1, 730, 421

225, 461 1, 302, 905 2,870, 855

747, 485 1,087, 797

178, 930 377, 295

751, 787 2, 150, 230

326, 051 5, 184, 943 2, 356, 214 1, 913, 155 1, 396, 725 1,837, 434 1, 366, 066

621, 233 1, 158, 953 3, 106, 769 2,895, 606 1,877, 132 1, 338, 612 2,737, 771

421, 443 1,012, 552

63, 905 361, 930 2, 494, 246

267, 595 8, 402, 786 1, 844, 673

470, 210 4, 624, 456 1,513, 951

638, 987 6, 769, 322

483, 788 1, 219, 316

48
18
25
21

22

8 39 34

43

32

6.5

47
24
15

8, 109 182,629 295, 844

6, 264

8, 488 195, 159 18, 526 69, 413 50, 397 3, 149

482, 195 1, 770, 762 3,556, 614

331, 530

284, 472 1,748, 868 1, 101, 929 1,083, 395 2,069, 567

150, 993

45
11

5
46
44
10
36

18.1

1.7 10.3 8. 3 1.9 3.0 11. 2 1.7 6.4 2.4 2.1

2 43 10 14 41 33

44
16
36
40

27
49

Table II.-- The States and the problem of illiteracy among the native born, 1920

census, Volume III

[graphic]

Continental United States.
Alabama
Arizona.
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut

Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia.
Idaho
Illinois.
Indiana
Iowa.
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana..
Maine.
Maryland.
Massachusetts
Michigan.
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska.
Nevada.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York,
North Carolina.
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma.
Oregon,
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island
South Carolina.
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas.
Utah
Vermont.
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin.
Wyoming--

68, 915, 088 1, 712, 696

160, 244 1, 288, 877 2, 108, 558

630, 072 715, 333 159, 339 348, 304

709, 079 2, 133, 903

283, 481 3,986, 530 2, 206, 504 1, 688, 707 1, 286, 732 1, 806, 721 1, 320, 560

515, 853 1,057, 378 2,040, 137 2, 177, 168 1,388, 191 1, 329, 550 2,552, 670

319, 982 861, 403

44, 150 272, 334 1,762, 855

226, 255 5, 637, 938 1, 829, 750

335, 529 3,953, 285 1, 434, 943

528, 412 5,395, 409

312, 417 1, 212, 637

388, 280 1, 755, 343 3, 221, 052

271, 014

241, 740 1, 717,577

833, 798 1,022, 608 1,605, 901

123, 889

94041—241-10

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