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TABLE III.The States and the problem of native-white illiteracy

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60, 861, 863 1,038, 692

152, 875

925, 474 2,075, 167

620, 163 697,892 134, 741 254, 522

450, 630 1, 237, 776

282, 667 3, 829, 325 2, 138, 143 1,672, 805 1, 238, 566 1, 614,064

784, 198 514, 762

862, 553 2, 002, 534 2, 124, 975 1, 380, 415

625, 923 2,399, 809

318, 532 849, 914

43, 837 271, 844 1, 666, 154

220, 893 5, 466, 635 1, 284, 308

335, 124 3, 795, 373 1, 320, 407

526, 519 5, 155, 382

304, 225 593, 709

387, 602 1, 400, 917 2, 648, 333

269, 741

241, 286 1, 196, 920

827, 734

953, 822 1, 601, 443

122, 638

TABLE IV.-The States and the problem of illiteracy among native-born minors,

1920 Census, Volume III

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22, 360
1, 379
1, 204

615
374

285 13, 080 67,512

152 3, 328 1, 721

977

914
18, 736
68, 525
1, 358
5, 377
1, 455
1, 591
1, 251
47, 310
5, 647

217

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29

Alabama. Arizona.. Arkansas. California Colorado Connecticut Delaware. District of Columbia Florida.. Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa. Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine. Maryland. Massachusetts. Michigan.. Minnesota. Mississippi Missouri. Montana Nebraska. Nevada. New Hampshire. New Jersey. New Mexico New York.. North Carolina. North Dakota Ohio. Oklahoma. Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island. South Carolina South Dakota.. Tennessee. Texas. Utah Vermont. Virginia Washington. West Virginia Wisconsin. Wyoming

255

26 10. 2

.8

581

585, 640

45, 029 434, 906 488, 842 173, 185 222, 889 41, 112 70, 052 211, 325 727, 400

88, 964 1, 163, 430

567, 493 475, 059 364, 743 553, 203 438, 520 135, 621 288, 999 620, 284 628, 854 ) 474, 715 461, 558 688, 029

15 45 35 49 44 24 18 19

33 221 1, 580 3, 927 3,856 36, 612

332 3, 381 7, 202

287 5, 485

302 41, 149

299 29, 442 38, 199

210

271 32, 678

414 7, 457 1, 398

76

18 16 39 36 35

2 20 40 44 25 28 30 99 41

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. 233 .220 . 334

92, 365 266, 213

9, 848 73, 465 541, 678

72, 222 1, 662, 542

630, 427

136, 848 1, 018, 471

473, 867

136, 069 1, 632, 575

100, 947 438, 852 130, 165

554, 823 1, 059, 072

98, 535 62, 956 539, 074 226, 502 325, 822 517, 910 33, 199

7 38 20 14 41 16 39

5 40 9 6 46 43

8 36 13 26 48

8 38 26 17 45 24 29

3 42 10 12 46

. 30
. 29
5.4

.232
5.9
.24
. 332
1.5
. 21
. 336
299
9.4

.229
5. 3
3.6
. 21
. 43
6.1

.18
2.3
. 270

48
14
34
43

.222

TABLE V.-The States and the problem of illiteracy among the foreign-born white

population, 1920 census, Volume III

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40 14 45 9 18 10 35 42 36 47 37

Alabama
Arizona.
Arkansas
California
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Delaware
District of Columbia.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa.
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine..
Maryland..
Massachusetts.
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri.
Montana
Nebraska.
Nevada.
New Hampshire..
New Jersey.
New Mexico
New York..
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio.
Oklahoma.
Oregon.
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Texas.
Utah,
Vermont.
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia.
Wisconsin
Wyoming

1,893 19, 291

10.9
27.5

23

17,393 70, 053 13, 834 664,983 114, 285 371, 666 19, 541 28, 292 42, 057 16, 028

4 16 24 23 38 25 22 20

1, 145
69, 768
14, 224
63, 131
3,373
1, 728
2,657

861
2, 501
131, 996
17, 555
11, 004
11, 291
2, 244
9, 707
11, 604
13, 575
135, 720
70, 535
26, 242
1,057
17, 669
5, 178
9, 468
1, 241
13, 746
111, 595

7, 250
389, 603

474 7, 238 84, 387 5, 456

5, 172 258, 812 28, 169

391 3,848

1, 263 112, 417

3,504 4,837 2, 150 11, 630 14, 548 38, 359 2, 233

8 13 46 15 30 26 44 19

6 27

8.3 10.5 12.4 17.0 17.3 6.1 6.3 5.4 6.5 11.0 11.8

4.9 10.5

7.3 21.9 11.1 13.4 12.8 9.9 5.4 13. 3 9.6 5.6 6.4 8.5 15. 4 15. 3 27.1 14. 2 6.8 5. 6 12.6 14.0

5.1 18.9 16.5 6.2 4.7 8.3 33.8

6. 3 11.3 7.1 4.7 24.0 8.4 9.0

2 32 24 18 8 7 41 38 44 36 22 19 47 25 33

5
21
14
16
26
45
15
27
42
37
29
10
11

3
12
35
43
17
13
46
6.
9
40
49
31

1
39
20
34
48

4 30 28

38, 379 1, 194, 979

149, 239 223, 752 108, 006 30, 603 44, 244 104, 585

101, 155 1,063, 572

713, 228 482, 230

7,918 184, 394

91, 729 148, 209 14, 586 89, 472 729, 799

26, 786 2,752, 055

6,981 129, 951 669, 924 39, 020

100, 672 1, 371, 402 171, 032

6, 327 81, 781 15, 297 332, 955 55, 724 42, 701 30, 325 244, 881

60, 679 456, 420 24, 762

48
28

7
29
31

2 12 49 33 43

5 34 32 41 21 17 11 39

Now, let us consider the next problem-Americanization. I have some of the striking facts that are brought out from our census reports. There are practically 14,000,000 foreign-born citizens in the United States at the present time.

Mr. ROBsion. You say that many foreign-born citizens. You mean foreign-born residents, do you not—that many foreigners in the country?

Mr. Norton. Yes; residents, I should have said.

The next line, 8,000,000, represents the number that comes from nations where the percentage of illiteracy is comparatively high, from 25 to 80 per cent.

THE AMERICANIZATION PROBLEMS

13,920,692 – FOREIGN

FOREIGN BORN

8,218223 - PART ILLITERATE 1,763,740 – CONFESSED 1,488,948 – NON-ENGLISH

SPEAKING

The figures given above refer to foreign-born population only. The “8,218,223— Part illiterate,” is the number of foreign-born citizens in the United States from countries where 25 to 80 per cent of the total population is illiterate.

You might describe this 8,000,000 as people coming from countries where education is at a very low ebb and where there is a likelihood that a large percentage of the people are not fitted for citizenship in a democracy; 8,000,000 from countries in which practically no schooling is given except to a few elite. In 1920, of the 14,000,000 foreign born, 1,763,000 confessed that they were illiterate. Of course, the census does not give a test, it merely inquires: "Have you had any schooling can you write?" If the answer is yes” it is accepted. And this, many (1,763,000) of the foreign börn confessed. When one realizes the stigma given illiteracy I think it would be safe to include a good many more who really belong in that class, but who did not confess to it. Anyway, that is what the census shows.

The CHAIRMAN. Are you connected with the National Education Association ?

Mr. NORTON. I am director of the research division of the National Education Association.

The CHAIRMAN. Have you ever given any thought as to the advisability of requiring that foreigners must be able to read and write in the English language before they come over here?

Mr. NORTON. Yes. Not a great deal of thought to it.
The CHAIRMAN. I mean before they land on our shores?

Mr. NORTON. I have been interested, as all citizens are, in that problem in a general way; yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. When you say “illiterate,” you mean they can not read or write in any language, do you?

Mr. NORTON. Yes. That is, if they can write in German or French or Italian, for instance, they are not included in this figure.

Those are some of the outstanding figures dealing only with people born in foreign countries.

I have a series of tables dealing with this problem in all the States, arranged by States. If you wish the exact facts as based on the figures of the census, you can get them from these tables, which will also appear in the record.

THE AMERICANIZATION PROBLEM

The following four tables give figures pertinent to a consideration of the Americanization problem in the United States.

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United States... 13, 920, 692
Alabama

18, 027 Arizona

80, 566 Arkansas.

14, 137 California

757, 625 Colorado

119, 138 Connecticut.

378, 439 Delaware

19, 901 District of Columbia

29, 365 Florida..

53, 864 Georgia.

16, 564 Idaho.

40, 747 Illinois.

1,210, 584 Indiana

151, 328 Iowa..

225, 994 Kansas.

110, 967 Kentucky

30, 906 Louisiana

46, 427 Maine.

107,814 Maryland..

103, 179 Massachusetts. 1,088, 548 Michigan.

729, 292 Minnesota.

486, 795 Mississippi.

8, 408

841 1,074 48, 358 6, 039 4, 567 1, 259

590 1,927 6, 773 3, 917 64, 053 36, 549 9, 202

653

58, 824 62, 850 30, 231

92, 453
2,025, 819

368, 659
629, 981
289, 524
110, 646
110, 016
162, 566

209, 472
1,495, 217
1, 204, 545
1,055, 145

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19, 181

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