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TABLE II.-The States and the problem of the illiterate immigrant, 1920 census

Volume III

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8 18 11 36 35 29 42 41

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Alabama. Arizona... Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware. District of Columbia Florida.. Georgia. Idaho.. Ilinois Indiana. Iowa. Kansas Kentucky Louisiana. Maine. Maryland. Massachusetts. Michigan.. Minnesota Mississippi Missouri. Montana Nebraska. Nevada.. New Hampshire.. New Jersey. New Mexico. New York, North Carolina. North Dakota. Ohio. Oklahoma. Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina.. South Dakota. Tennessee Texas.. Utah. Vermont. Virginia. Washington West Virginia Wisconsin. Wyoming

7, 900 66, 602

4, 607 299, 303

55, 631 121, 898 11, 728 12, 321 22, 528 8, 192

43.8 82.7 32.6 39. 5 46.7 32. 2 58.9 42.0 41.8 49.5 21.3 49.9 45.4 16.3 39. 2 30. 2 56.6 12. 7 57.7 35. 7 41.5 23. 6 52. 5 39.5 26. 1 33. O 44. 1 20.3 60.0 80. 1 61.3 42. 7 31. 9 60. 6 49. 3 25.9 66.7 36. 3 49. 3 22.9 43. 9 81.3 18.8 20.9 48.4 20. 7 75. 5 34. 2 41. 7

18, 027 80, 566

14, 137 757, 625 119, 138 378, 439

3 14 24 22 39

9 24 25 14 43 13 19 48 30 38 10 49 11 32 27

8, 688 604, 458 68, 775 36, 780 43, 457

9, 324 26, 288 13, 675 59, 581 388, 417 302, 776 115, 103

4,415 73, 807 25, 216 49, 753

7,050 18, 581 445, 176

23, 876 1,731, 382

3, 104 42, 115 412, 104 19, 916 27, 908 929, 484 63, 533

3, 242 18,883

6, 866 295, 679 11, 113

9, 313 15, 342 54, 827 46, 886 157, 374 11,091

12 29 39 34 20 46 8 3 6 23 37

7 15 40

5 31 16 42 21

19, 901 29, 365 53, 864 16, 564

40, 747 1, 210, 584

151, 328 225, 994 110, 967 30, 906 46, 427 107,814

103, 179 1,088, 548

729, 292 486, 795

8, 408 186, 835

95, 591 150. 665 16, 003 91, 397 742, 486

29, 808 2, 825, 375

7, 272 131, 863 680, 452

40, 432 107, 644 1, 392, 557 175, 189

6, 582 82, 534 15, 648 363, 832 59, 200 44, 558 31, 705 265, 292

62, 105 460, 485 26, 567

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31
45

9 37 40 33 19 21 10 38

47 44 17 45

4 33 26

TABLE III.-The States and non-English speaking white population, 1920 census,

Volume III

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13, 497,886.

17,393. 70, 053 13, 834 664, 983 114, 285 371, 666 19, 541 28, 292: 42, 057 16, 028

1 36 14 22 16

6 45

49 35 17 24 37 12 47 25

1, 956 121, 965 13, 269 9, 559 12, 027

688 3,683 10,333

7, 765 96, 426 68, 105 28, 311

445 11, 126 3,098 9, 186 1, 509 11, 339 73, 409 13, 225 290, 200

190 10, 189 81, 161 5, 362

3, 342 162, 240 21, 620

116 4, 861

506 172,057

2, 303 3,065 1, 135 77, 796 11, 121 44, 481 2,003

4 15 24 17 44 31 22 28 5 9 13 46 19 33 25 39 18

7 16

1 48 23

6 29 32

3 14 49 30 45

2 36 34 40 27 20 10 37

21 33 34 31 41 30 15

8 18

3 13 46 27 10

5. 6 6.0 3.4 6. 2 10.3 12. 7 10.1 49.4 10.5 2. 7 7.8 12.1 13.7

3.3 11.8 12.6 1.8 5. 9 3.3 51.7 4. 1 7.2 3.7 3. 2 18.3 9.7 8. 1

38, 379 1, 194, 979

149, 239 223, 752 108, 006 30, 603 44, 244 104, 585.

101, 155 1,063, 572

713, 228 482, 230

7,918 184, 394

91, 729 148, 209 14, 586. 89, 472 729, 799

26, 786 2,752, 055

6,981 129, 951 669, 924

39,020 100, 672 1, 371, 402 171, 032

6,327 81, 781

15, 297 332, 955 55, 724 42, 701 30, 325 244, 881

60, 679 456, 420 24,762

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TABLE IV.-The States and the Americanization problem among native-born adults,

1920 census, Volume III

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48, 137, 216 1, 127, 056

115, 215 *853, 971 1, 619, 716

456, 887 492, 444 118, 227 278, 252

497, 754 1, 406, 503

194, 517 2, 823, 127 1, 639, 011 1, 213, 648

921, 989 1, 259, 918

882, 040 380, 232

768, 379 1, 419, 853 1, 548, 314

913, 476

867, 992 1, 864, 641

227, 617 595, 190

34, 302 198, 869 1, 221, 177

154, 033 3,975, 396 1, 199, 323

198, 681 2,934, 814

961, 076

392, 343 3,762, 834.

211, 470 773, 785

258, 155 1, 200, 520 2, 161, 980

172, 479

178, 784 1, 178, 503

607, 296

696, 786 1,087, 991

90, 690

Here is another chart. This gives the foreign-born population by states. You will notice here that New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and some of our northern States have the bulk of the foreignborn problem. None of those States have any choice as to whether they shall accept foreigners, the Federal Government determines that. In New York they have nearly 3,000,000; Pennsylvania has 1,392,000; Illinois, 1,210,000 foreigners; Massachusetts, a little over a million; California, about three-quarters of a million; New Jersey, three-quarters of a million; and so on.

This indicates somewhat the size of the Americanization problem.

The CHAIRMAN. Have you given any attention or consideration to the idea of having this Americanization work done by the Department of Labor in connection with the naturalization law?

Mr. NORTON. Well, I understand the Department of Labor has done some work in that direction.

The CHAIRMAN. Of course no constitutional question would arise there because the Federal Government has absolute control over the admission of aliens to this country, and to citizenship.

Mr. REED. The work, however, that has been done by the Department of Labor, is not very comprehensive, is it?

Mr. NORTON. No; the Americanization problem has not been adequately dealt with in this country in any State, even in the State of Massachusetts, which has made an attempt at it, they have not really touched the whole problem, they have only skimmed it.

Mr. REED. The policy they have pursued was more to enable a person to get by the court?

Mr. NORTON. I believe that has been one of the main considerations, and that has been rather easy to do in many cases, perhaps easier than it should have been.

The next chart_will deal with teacher training.

Mr. Robson. Before that, just a minute. I notice this Table No. 2 of the last batch you handed around shows New York as having 2,825,375 foreign-born population.

Mr. NORTON. Yes. If you will look on Table No. 1 you will find the same figures.

Mr. Robson. On Table 2, however, you have 2,786,112.

Mr. NORTON. No; that is not what Table No. 2 says; Table 2 says, if you look at the heading of Table 2, the number of foreign born from countries where over 25 per cent of population is illiterate. That is, of those 2,800,000 foreign-born residents in New York, 1,700,000 come from countries in which somewhere between 25 and 80 per cent of the total population is illiterate.

Mr. ROBSION. But in your last column you say “Total foreignborn population,” and I am reading from that, “2,786,112.” Now, I would like to know how that discrepancy arises.

Mr. NORTON. I can explain that discrepancy. I would have changed that if I had had time to do it. If you will notice on Table No. 1

Mr. ROBSION. And a similar discrepancy as to Pennsylvania.

FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION

-1920

2,825,375 I NEW YORK 2 PENNSYLVANIA

1,392,557 3 ILLINOIS

1210,584 4 MASSACHUSETTS

1,088,548 5 CALIFORNIA

757,625 6 NEW JERSEY

742 486 7 MICHIGAN

729,292 8 OHIO

680,452 9 MINNESOTA

486,795 10 WISCONSIN

460,485 Il CONNECTICUT

378,439 12 TEXAS

363,832 13 WASHINGTON

265,292 14 IOWA

225,994 15 MISSOURI

186,835 16 RHODE ISLAND

175, 189 17 INDIANA

151,328 18 NEBRASKA

150, 665 19 NORTH DAKOTA

131,863 20 COLORADO

119, 138 21 KANSAS

110, 967 22 MAINE

107,814 23 OREGON

107,644 24 MARYLAND

103, 179 25 MONTANA

95,591 26 NEW HAMPSHIRE

91,397 27 SOUTH DAKOTA

82,534 28 ARIZONA

80,566 29 WEST VIRGINIA

62,105 30 UTAH

59,200 31 FLORIDA

53,864 32 LOUISIANA

46,427 33 VERMONT

44,558 34 IDAHO

40,747 35 OKLAHOMA

40,432 36 VIRGINIA

31,705 37 KENTUCKY

30,906 38 NEW MEXICO

29,808 39 DIST. OF COL.

29,365 40 WYOMING

26,567 41 DEL AWARE

19,901 42 ALABAMA

18,027 43 GEORGIA

16,564 44 NEVADA

16,003 45 TENNESSEE

15,648 46 ARKANSAS

14,137 47 MIS SIS SIPPI

8,408 48 NORTH CAROLINAI

7,272 49 SOUTH CAROLINAI

6,582 Tlie figures given in this chart as the number of foreign-born residents by States are From the 1920 Federal census.

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