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PER CENT RURAL TEACHERS UNTRAINED

23 UNLTED STATES 1. ARKANSAS 2. SOUTH CAROLINA 3. GEORGIA

54 A. FLORIDA

52 5. MISSISSIPPI

47 6. KENTUCKY 7. WEST VIRGINIA

40 8. ALABAMA

37 9. TEXAS

35 10. NORTH CAROLINA

34 11. OHIO

34 12. TENNESSEL

34 13. INDIANA

30 14. LOUISIANA

29 15. MISSOURI

29 16. WASHINGTON

29 17. COLORADO

27 18. OKLAHOMA

26

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19 IOWA

25 20 MICHIGAN

24 21. ILLINOIS

22 22. PENNSYLVANIA

22 23 SOUTH DAKOTA

22 24. VIRGINIA

22 25 WYOMING

18 26. CONNECTICUT

'17 27 NEBRASKA 28 IDAHO

15 29 NEW YORK

15 30. MINNESOTA 31. OREGON

10 32 UTAH

10 33 WISCONSIN

10 34 KANSAS

१ 35 NEW MEXICO

8 36. ARIZONA

7 37. MAINE 38 NORTH DAKOTA 39 MASSACHUSETTS

5 40. MONTANA

4 41. CALIFORNIA

2 42. MARYLAND

2 43. NEW JERSEY

2 44. NEW HAMPSHIRE 45. VERMONT

“ Untrained " teachers refers to those who have not had more than two years of schooling of any kind beyond elementary school. If “ untrained ” also included those who have had no normal-school training, as it well might, the percentages given would be greatly increased in all States.

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The next table has to do with facts on wealth and income in the United States. Those who have studied this problem in detail realize that the fundamental weakness of our educational system is a financial weakness. Remake our method of getting school money and you will remake our school system automatically.

Here is a situation as revealed in some studies recently completed. There are three States in the Union in which the wealth behind each child from 5 to 20 years old is $11,656, nearly $12,000. The wealth per child in three States is under $2,571 per child.

The CHAIRMAN. What are the States?

Mr. NORTON. These States on a very low tax rate can maintain splendid schools.

Mr. ROBSION. What are those States?

Mr. Norton. I can give those States in detail and will put them in the record.

The CHAIRMAN. I thought perhaps you could remember them.

Mr. Norton. That probably includes Nevada and probably New York or California-some of the rich States; a good many of the industrial States and a few of the Western States. These [indicating on chart) are probably all Southern States, or at least rural States. (Pointing to table), the State that ranks first in wealth per child is Nevada. So that is one of those three. No. 3 is California. No. 2 is Iowa. The poorer States, those that rank along 46 and 47, South Carolina is 47 in wealth per child and North Carolina is 49 and Georgia is 46. They can all be studied in detail in this table which I am placing in the record.

The CHAIRMAN. Did you take the same three States in each of those compilations?

Mr. Norton. No; I merely took the tables and picked out the three States that were highest and the three States that were lowest.

The CHAIRMAN. No; I asked if you took the same three States in each of those three computations?

Mr. NORTON. No, I took the highest States and the lowest States. I wanted to point out the extremes in these tables, the yearly income

Some authorities state that income is a better basis on which to estimate the ability to pay than wealth, as estimated by the Census Bureau. The yearly income per child in three States is over $3,100; that is, every year there is an income behind every child of $3,100 or more. These are the extremes; and the yearly income in three States is under $991. Some States have wealth per child that is considerably more than three times as great as that of others.

per child.

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Wealth per child in 3 states over -11,656

under-2,571

11

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under - 9.71

These figures are for the year 1920, the last for which complete figures are available. THE WEALTH OF THE STATES

The subsequent three tables give figures on the wealth of the States and their ability to support public education.

The calculations are based on the 1912 Federal Census of Wealth: Distribution of Income by States, National Bureau of Economic Research, and 1920 Federal Census of Population.

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17 40 45 36

49 21 46

4 22 12 5 1 41 43 23

9 28 14 24 44 39 26

18

Alabama.
Arizona.
Arkansas.
California
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Delaware..
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Maine.
Maryland.
Massachusetts
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska
Nevada.
New Hampshire
New Jersey -
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina..
North Dakota.
Ohio
Oklahoma..
Oregon..
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island.
South Carolina.
South Dakota
Tennessee.
Texas.
Utah
Vermont.
Virginia..
Washington.
West Virginia
Wisconsin.
Wyoming

1, 164
1, 943
1, 337
3, 121
3, 245
2, 079
1, 756
2, 338
1, 397
1, 058
1, 825
3,001
2, 250
4, 125
3, 311
1, 188
1, 525
1, 789
1, 842
1,985
1,878
2,984

973
2, 173
2, 704
3, 709
7, 603
1, 846
2, 265
1, 856
2, 813

909
4, 198
1, 979
2,840
3, 138
2, 162
1, 969
1, 031
2, 787
1,046
1,874
2, 158
1,880
1, 256
3, 002
1,985
2, 169
2, 365

37 35 26 31 11 48 20 15 4 1 34 18 33

345 664 379 820 639 717 792 884 420 394 604 765 581 706 602 392 429 583 689 788 704 581 351 535 512 702 850 597 758 408 874 383 515 689 534 711 683 720 437 685 365 538 517 529 429 786 448 557 789

7 15 27 48 31 36 16 3

10 42

2 45 35 17 32 13 20 11 38

19

47 30 34 33 40

8 37

29

6

TABLE 2.-Wealth and income per child by States

[graphic]

49 22 46

3 21 12 7 1 38 44 27

9 25 16 26 42 40 24 17

5 14 27 48 31 32 19

20 10 41

4 47 36 15 35 11 18 13 43 23 45 33 34 28 39

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