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Mr. NORTON. Well, although this is perhaps digressing, I believe we can not produce too much. We may have a faulty system of distribution, and may poorly distribute our economic efforts, but I do not believe we can ever produce too much of the good things of life.

Mr. DOUGHTON. You would not apply that to every line, would you?

Mr. NORTON. Well, that is a problem of distribution of products and of effort. I think the more intelligent human effort you have in producing things the richer we are.

Mr. LOWREY. A gentleman in the Department of Commerce who has just returned from Germany told me that the men in the wheat and grain business there told him that Germany would have used 50,000,000 bushels more of American wheat this year than she did use, if she could have gotten it, if it could have been arranged so she could pay for it, so she could get it; so the thing is there is not too much wheat but there is too little ability to pay for it. There is not too much production.

The CHAIRMAN. You may proceed, Mr. Norton.

Mr. NORTON. According to the Federal census we had something over a million child workers between 10 and 15 years old.

The CHAIRMAN. You do not claim that is due to the lack of education, do you?

Mr. NORTON. I believe that is a part of the whole educational program; that is, if these child workers had been given an educational opportunity they could not have been workers.

The CHAIRMAN. I do not see that point.

Mr. NORTON. It is a national educational liability to have these children working when they should be in school.

The CHAIRMAN. The first step to stop that is to have the national child labor law.

Mr. NORTON. But after it is passed you have to take care of the children; but at the present time that is the problem.

The CHAIRMAN. But you can not make the States pass a compulsory education law.

Mr. HASTINGS. If their parents were all educated, perhaps they would take a greater interest in sending their children to school and keeping them at school.

Mr. NORTON. The next fact is that 1,437,000 children, according to the Federal census, between the ages of 7 and 13, were not attending any kind of an educational institution. That quotation is from the Federal census. They were not attending any kind of an educational institution” between the dates of September 1, 1919, and January 1, 1920. I use those dates, because the question the census enumerators asked is something like this: "Were you in school (addressing parents of children) between September 1, 1919, and January 1, 1920, in any kind of an educational institution a single day?If they say yes, then they are not included in this million and a half; but if they say they were not, then they are included in these figures.

Mr. Robson. I am wondering what part of that number we include in those physically unable, or mentally unable, to attend

any school.

Mr. NORTON. That is relatively a small percentage. In our better organized schools, such, for instance, as Cleveland, Ohio—and I merely mention that as one example that I happen to know of-they find a very small percentage of children that can not be educated. For example, if a child has some physical defect that would ordinarily prevent him from attending school, they provide for transportation.

Mr. ROBSION. But that does not cover the whole country?

Mr. NORTON. Well, it could be done in the whole country. The fact that we are not doing it is a national educational liability. We would be richer if most of these children were given the opportunity to attend school.

Now, remember that is the minimum number. There are millions of children, literally, that do not attend regularly, but these figures show children who are not in school at all, who do not go to school a single day or did not over that period, a period of four months.

Those are some of the outstanding facts behind the statements that have been made by some of the people that have appeared before you. I have passed around tables that deal with physical inefficiency, giving facts and details, and tables that give considerable data relative to educational inequalities. Practically all of these tables are based on Federal sources and Bureau of Education figures.

The CHAIRMAN. Are you going to see that all of these go into the record properly corrected?

Mr. NORTON. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. I think it would be of value to the record to have all these charts in the record.

Mr. NORTON. These charts have all been presented and are appearing in the hearings of the Senate.

The CHAIRMAN. And will appear in these hearings?

Mr. NORTON. I understand that it has been authorized that they appear here.

The CHAIRMAN. Have they been printed?
Miss WILLIAMS. I think the copy is in the hands of the printer,

Mr. Norton. There are some tables here of which I regret I did not have sufficient copies so that I can give all of you one. I believe it would be valuable to put these tables in with the others. It is a table showing the Federal aid provided for in the Sterling-Reed bill. It gives the amount that each State would receive under the provisions of the Sterling-Reed bill, provided they qualify in full. I may illustrate: $7,500,000 of the $100,000,000 is distributed among the States on the basis of the native-born illiterates under 14 years of age. You can see how much each State would get to tackle that particular problem; also for each of the other provisions, and then a summary table showing how much the States would receive under all the provisions, provided they qualify.

TABLES BASED UPON FEDERAL-AID PROVISIONS OF STERLING-REED BILL

The following six tables show the bases upon which the several States could receive funds under the terms of the Sterling-Reed bill and the maximum amounts that each State might receive for each specific purpose:

TABLE I.-State quotas on basis of native-born illiterates

SECTION 7

States

Number Per cent of native- of native

born born illiter illiterates 14 ates 14 years of

years of age and

age and over

over

tates

Number Per cent of native- of nativeborn born

Quota for illiter

illiter native-born ates 14 ates 14 illiterates 14 years of years of

years of age age and age and

and over over

over

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

2. 1968

. 0367

258, 338

3, 275 111, 688

9, 882 8, 917 3, 790 7, 047

8. 8907

. 1127 3. 8437 . 3401 . 3069

1304 2425

2975 2. 2088 10. 4762

1290 . 0055 . 0666

5222 .8493 1. 1095 7.8533

.0418 1. 5638 1. 4329

0680 1. 7840

1035 7, 2125

Missouri Montana. Nebraska. Nevada. New Hampshire New Jersey. New Mexico. New York North Carolina North Dakota.. Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina.. South Dakota. Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont. Virginia. Washington. West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

63,832
1, 068
3, 748

159
1, 936
15, 174
24, 677
32, 238
228, 194

1, 215 45, 441 41, 636

1,975 51, 837

3,008 209, 574

1,421 170, 355 169, 444

912 3,577 181, 513

2, 488 52, 541 10, 183

467

8, 643 64, 180 304, 409

902 40, 433 33, 923

9, 240 11, 113 146, 918 264, 658

8, 074 49, 159

9, 864 15, 927

5, 747 210, 971

. 0310

$164, 760.00

2, 752. 50 9, 675.00

412. 50 4,995.00 39, 165.00 63, 697. 50 83, 212. 50 588, 997. 50

3, 135.00 117, 285.00 107, 467.50

5,100.00 130, 800.00

7, 762, 50 540, 937. 50

3, 667. 50 439, 702. 50 437, 355.00

2, 355.00

9, 232. 50 468, 502. 50

6, 420.00 135, 615.00 26, 280.00 1, 207. 50

. 0489

1. 3915 1. 1675 . 3180 . 3825 5. 0562 9. 1082

. 2779 1. 6918 . 3395 . 5481 . 1978 7. 2606

5. 8627 5. 8314 . 0314

1231 6. 2467

. 0856 1. 8082 . 3504 .0161

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Quota for native-born illiterates 14 years of age and over

United States ... 2, 905, 711

100.0000 $7,500,000.00

666, 802. 50

8, 452. 50 288, 277.50 25, 507. 50 23, 017. 50

9, 780.00
18, 187. 50

Alabama..
Arizona.
Arkansas.
California
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Delaware
District of Co-

lumbia..
Florida.
Georgia
Idaho.
Illinois.
Indiana
Iowa..
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland.
Massachusetts
Michigan..
Minnesota
Mississippi

22, 312. 50
165, 660.00
785, 715.00

2, 325.00 104, 362. 50 87, 562, 50 23, 850.00 28, 687. 50 379, 215.00 683, 115.00

20, 842. 50 126, 885.00 25, 462. 50 41, 107.50

14, 835. 00 544. 545. 00

(Illiteracy figures from 1920 Federal Census.)

TABLE II.- State quotas on basis of foreign-born population

SECTION 8
(Figures as to foreign born from 1920 Federal census)

States

Foreign

born population

Quota for foreign-born population

United States - 13,920, 692 100.0000 $7,500,000.00

1. 3422

.6867 1. 0823

1149

18, 027 80, 566

14, 137 757, 625 119, 138 378, 439

19, 901

1295
5787

1016
5. 4424

.8558 2. 7186

.6566

9, 712. 50 43, 402. 50

7, 620.00 408, 180.00

64, 185.00
203, 895.00
10, 725. 00

5. 3336
. 2141

20. 2962

. 1430

. 0522
. 9472

4. 8881
. 2904

Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas.
California
Colorado.
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Co-

lumbia.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho.
Illinois
Indiana
lowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland.
Massachusetts
Michigan.
Minnesota
Mississippi.

29, 365
53, 864
16, 564

40, 747
1, 210, 584

151, 328
225, 994
110, 967
30, 906
46, 427
107,814

103, 179
1,088, 548

729, 292
486, 795

8, 408

. 7733

2110 . 3870 . 1190

2927
8. 6963
1. 0871
1. 6234

7971
2220
3335
7745

7412
7.8197
5. 2389
3. 4969
0604

15, 825.00 29, 025. 00

8, 925. 00 21, 952. 50 652, 222. 50

81, 532, 50 121, 755, 00 59, 782. 50 16,650.00 25, 012. 50 58, 087. 50 55, 590.00 586, 477. 50 392, 917. 50 262, 267. 50

4, 530.00

186, 835

95, 591 150, 665 16, 003 91, 397 742, 486

29, 808 2, 825, 375

7, 272 131, 863 680, 452

40, 432 107, 644 1, 392, 557 175, 189

6, 582 82, 534

15, 648 363, 832 59, 200 44, 558 31, 705 265, 292

62, 105 460, 485 26, 567

$100, 665. 00

51, 502. 50 81, 172. 50

8, 617. 50 49, 245, 00 400, 020.00

16, 057. 50 1, 522, 215.00

3, 915.00 71, 040.00 366, 607. 50 21, 780.00 57, 997.50 750, 262. 50 94, 387. 50

3, 547.50 44, 467.50

8, 430.00 196, 020, 00 31,897. 50 24, 007. 50

17, 085.00 142, 927. 50 33, 457.50 248, 092. 50 14, 310.00

10. 0035
1. 2585
. 0473
. 5929
. 1124
2. 6136

4253
3201

2278
1. 9057

. 4461 3. 3079 . 1908

TABLE III.—State quotas for equalization of educational qualifications

SECTION 9

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United States.

Alabama Arizona. Arkansas. California. Colorado Connecticut Delaware... District of Columbia Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa. Kansas Kentucky Louisiana. Maine. Maryland Massachusetts. Michigan.. Minnesota Mississippi. Missouri Montana Nebraska. Nevada. New Hampshire. New Jersey New Mexico. New York North Carolina. North Dakota. Ohio Oklahoma. Oregon. Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota, Tennessee Texas. Utah. Vermont Virginia. Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

30, 903, 031

100.000 $25,000,000

100.000 25,000,000 $50,000,000

839, 810

97, 479 617, 259 776, 295 259, 208 359, 156 59, 117 95, 865 303, 772 1,033, 595

132, 760 1,751, 845

802, 433 675, 533 521, 402 776, 870 620, 243 203, 159 410, 519 980, 916 970, 240 693, 502 650, 410 969, 659 148, 269 386, 353

17, 016 112, 548 852, 134

119, 085 2, 659, 112

913, 852

215, 611 1, 500, 005

701, 675

202, 415 2, 476, 462

161, 676 626, 322 196, 478

784, 276 1, 582, 390 147, 452

94, 085 767,963 347, 259 476, 681 761, 101 51, 764

2. 7176

.3154 1. 9974 2. 5120

.8388 1. 1622 . 1913 . 3102

9830 3. 3446

4296 5. 6688 2. 5966 2. 1860 1. 6872 2. 5139 2. 0071

.6574 1. 3284 3. 1742 3. 1396 2. 2441 2. 1047 3. 1378

.4798 1. 2502 . 0551 .3642 2. 7574

.3854 8. 6047 2. 9571

.6977 4. 8539 2. 2706

.6550 8. 0137

. 5232 2. 0267

.6358 2, 5379 5. 1205

679, 400

78, 850 499, 350 628, 000 209, 700 290, 550 47, 825 77, 550 245, 750 836, 150

107, 400 1, 417, 200

649, 150 546, 500 421, 800 628, 475 501, 775 164, 350 332, 100 793, 550 784, 900 561, 025 526, 175 784, 450 119, 950 312, 550

13, 775 91, 050 689, 350

96, 350 2, 151, 175

739, 275

174, 425 1, 213, 475

567, 650

163, 750
2,003, 425

130, 800
506, 675
158, 950

634, 475
1, 280, 125
119, 275

76, 125
621, 275
280, 925
385, 625
615, 700
41, 875

657, 646
12, 558

1,955
10, 476
19, 343
6, 991
7, 525
1, 134
2,057
6,651
15, 921

3,982
36, 599
17, 209
24, 451
16,989
13, 348
8, 966
5, 732
6, 675
19, 085
23, 703
19, 575
11, 962
21, 126

6, 215
14, 253

675 2, 594 16, 758

2, 752 54, 253 16, 852

8,057 31, 404 15, 337

7, 778 44, 111 2,793 9,699 7,830 13, 277 29, 001 3, 781 2, 676 14, 271

9, 618 11, 221 16, 210 2, 217

1. 9095

2973 1. 5930 2. 9413 1. 0630 1. 1442 . 1724 .3128 1. 0113 2. 4209

.6055 5. 5652 2. 6168 3. 7180 2. 5833 2. 0297 1. 3634

.8716 1. 0150 2. 9020 3. 6042 2. 9765 1. 8189 3. 2124

. 9450 2. 1673 . 1026 .3944 2. 5482

. 4185 8. 2496 2. 5625 1. 2251 4. 7752 2. 3321 1, 1827 6. 7074

4247 1. 4748 1. 1906 2. 0189 4. 4098

5749

4069 2. 1700 1. 4625 1.7062 2. 4648

3371

477, 375

74, 325 398, 250 735, 325 265, 750 286, 050 43, 100 78, 200 252, 825 605, 225

151, 375 1,391, 300

654, 200 929, 500 645, 825 507, 425 340, 850 217, 900 253, 750 725, 500 901, 050 744, 125 454, 725 803, 100 236, 250 541, 825 25, 650 98, 600 637, 050

104, 625 2,062, 400

640, 625

306, 275 1, 193, 800

583, 025

295, 675 1, 676,850

106, 175 368, 700 297, 650

504, 725 1, 102, 450

143, 725 101, 725 542, 500 365, 625 426, 550 616, 200 84, 275

1, 156, 775

153, 175

897, 600 1, 363, 325

475, 450 576, 600

90, 925 155, 750

498, 575 1,441, 375

258, 775 2,808, 500 1, 303, 350 1, 476,000 1,067, 625 1, 135, 900

842, 625 382, 250

585, 850 1,519, 050 1, 685, 950 1, 305, 150

980, 900 1,587, 550

356, 200 854, 375

39, 425 189, 650 1, 326, 400

200, 975 4, 213, 575 1, 379, 900

480, 700 2, 407, 275 1, 150, 675

459, 425 3,680, 275

236, 975 875, 375

456, 600 1, 139, 200 2,382,575

263, 000

177, 850 1, 163, 775

646, 550

812, 175 1, 231, 900

126, 150

.4771
. 3045

2. 4851
1. 1237
1. 5425
2. 4628

1675

Number of children from 1920 Federal Census.
Number of teaching positions, Bulletin 1922, No. 29, United States Bureau Education.

TABLE IV.-State quotas for promotion of physical education

SECTION 10

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Alabama. Arizona.. Arkansas. California. Colorado.. Connecticut DelawareDistrict of Col

umbia. Florida.. Georgia. Idaho Illinois. Indiana Iowa.. Kansas. Kentucky Louisiana. MaineMaryland. Massachusetts. Michigan Minnesota Mississippi.

[blocks in formation]

Missouri.
Montana..
Nebraska.
Nevada.
New Hampshire
New Jersey.
New Mexico
New York.
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio.
Oklahoma.
Oregon..
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Carolina
South Dakota...
Tennessee.
Texas
Utah..
Vermont.
Virginia
Washington.
West Virginia.
Wisconsin
Wyoming-

3, 404, 055

548, 889 1, 296, 372

77, 407

443, 083 3, 155, 900

360, 350 10, 385, 227 2, 559, 123

646, 872 5, 759, 394 2,028, 283

783, 389 8,720, 017

604, 397 1, 683, 724

636, 547 2, 337, 885 4,663, 228

449, 396

352, 128 2, 309, 187 1, 356, 621 1, 463, 701 2, 632,067

194, 402

9.8242 2. 4209

.6119 5. 4483 1.9187

7411 8. 2490

.5717 1. 5928

.6022 2. 2116 4. 4113 .4251

$644, 020

105, 840 245, 260 14, 640 83, 840 597, 080

68, 180 1,964, 840

484, 180

122, 380 1,089, 660

383, 740

148, 220 1, 649, 800

114, 340 318, 560 120, 440 442, 320 882, 260 85, 020 66, 680 436, 880 256, 660 276, 920 497, 980 36. 780

[graphic]

.3334

2. 1844 1. 2833 1. 3846 2. 4899

1839

Population figures from 1920 Federal Census.

TABLE V.–State quotas for preparation of teachers

[graphic]

SECTION 11

States

Quota on
Per cent
Number

basis of of teach

of teach-
ers em-

number of ers em

teachers ployed in ployed in

employed teaching teaching positions,

in teachpositions

ing posi1920

tions

657, 646 100.0000 $15,000,000

12, 558

1,955 10, 476 19, 343 6,991 7, 525 1, 134

1. 9095

. 2973 1. 5930 2. 9413 1. 0630 1. 1442 . 1724

286, 425

44, 595
238, 950
441, 195
159, 450
171, 630
25, 860

United States.-
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Colum-

bia..
Florida
Georgia.
Idaho
Mlinois
Indiana
Iowa...
Kansas
Kentucky.
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland.
Massachusetts
Michigan..
Minnesota
Mississippi.

2,057
6,651
15, 921
3,982
36,599
17, 209
24, 451
16, 989
13, 348
8,966
5,732
6, 675
19, 085
23, 703
19, 575
11,962

3128 1. 0113 2. 4209

.6055 5. 5652 2. 6168 3. 7180 2. 5833 2. 0297 1. 3634

.8716 1. 0150 2. 9020 3. 6042 2. 9765 1. 8189

46, 920 151, 695 363, 135

90, 825 834, 780 392, 520 557, 700 387,495 304, 455 204, 510 130, 740 152, 250 435, 300 540, 630 446, 475 272, 835

21, 126

6, 215 14, 253

675 2, 594 16, 758

2, 752 54, 253 16, 852

8,057 31, 404 15, 337

7, 778 44, 111 2, 793 9, 699 7,830 13, 277 29, 001 3, 781 2, 676 14, 271

9, 618 11, 221 16, 210 2,217

3. 2124

9450 2. 1673

1026 . 3944 2. 5482

. 4185 8. 2496 2. 5625 1. 2251 4. 7752 2. 3321 1. 1827 6. 7074

. 4247 1. 4748 1. 1906 2. 0189 4. 4098

5749

4069 2. 1700 1. 4625 1.7062 2. 4648

3371

$481, 860 141, 750 325, 095 15, 390 59, 160 382, 230

62, 775 1, 237, 440

384, 375 183, 765 716, 280 349, 815

177, 405 1,006, 110

63, 705 221, 220 178, 590 302, 835 661, 470

86, 235 61, 035 325, 500 219, 375 255, 930 369, 720 50, 565

Figures as to number of teachers, Bulletin, 1922, No. 29, U. S. Bureau of Education.

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