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TABLE VI.---State quotas possible under terms of Sterling-Reed bill (S. 1337;
H. R. 3923).
United States. $7,500,000.00 $7,500,000.00 $50,000,000 $20,000,000 $15,000,000 $100,000,000.00
666, 802. 50 9, 712. 50 | 1, 156, 775
43, 402. 50 153, 175
897,600 25, 507, 50 408, 180,00 1, 363, 325 23, 017. 50 64, 185.00
475, 450 9,780.00 203, 895.00 576, 600 18, 187. 50 10, 725.00
90, 925 22, 312. 50 15, 825.00 155, 750 165, 660.00 29, 025.00 498, 575 785, 715.00 8, 925.00 1, 441, 375
2, 325, 00 21, 952. 50 258, 775 104, 362. 50 652, 222. 50 2, 808, 500 87, 562. 50 81, 532. 50 1, 303, 350 23, 850.00 121, 755.00 1, 476,000 28, 687.50 59, 782. 50 1,067, 625 379, 215.00 16, 650.00 1, 135, 900 683, 115.00 25, 012. 50
2, 752. 50 51, 502. 50 356, 200
412, 50 8,617. 50 39, 425
480, 700 117, 285.00 366, 607. 502, 407, 275 107, 467, 50 21, 780.00 1, 150, 675
5, 100.00 57, 997. 50 459, 425 133, 800.00 750, 262, 50 3, 680, 275
7, 762. 50 94, 387. 50 236, 975 540, 937. 50 3, 547, 50 875, 375
3, 667. 50 44, 467.50 456, 600 439, 702. 50 8, 430.00 1, 139, 200 437,355, 00 196, 020.00 2, 382, 575
2, 355.00 31, 897. 50 263, 000
9, 232. 50 24, 007. 50 177,850 468, 502. 50 17, 085.00 1, 163, 775
6, 420.00 142, 927. 50 646, 650 135, 615, 00 33, 457. 50 812, 175 26, 280.00 248, 092. 50 1, 231, 900 1, 207. 50 14, 310.00 126, 150
63, 220 331, 520 648, 340 177, 780 261, 220 42, 200 82, 780 183, 240 547, 880
81,700 1, 226, 980
554, 420 454, 840 334, 740 457, 220 340, 280 145, 300 274, 280 728, 840 694, 040 451, 640 338, 760 644, 020 103, 840 245, 260
14, 640 83, 840 597, 080
68, 180 1, 964, 840
122, 380 1, 089, 660
148, 220 1, 649, 800
114, 340 318, 560 120, 440 442, 320 882, 260 85, 020 66, 680 436, 880 256, 660 276, 930 497, 980 36, 780
44, 595 238, 950 441, 195 159, 450 171, 630 25, 860 46, 920 151, 695 363, 135
90, 825 834, 780 392, 520 557, 700 387, 495 304, 455 204, 510 130, 740 152, 250 435, 300 540, 630 446, 475 272, 835 481, 860 141, 750 325, 095 15, 390 59, 160 382, 230
63, 705 221, 220 178, 590 302, 835 661, 470 86, 235 61, 035 325, 500 219, 375 255, 930 369, 720 50, 565
2, 563, 975.00
312, 845. 00 1, 763, 967. 50 2, 886, 547. 50
899, 882. 50 1, 223, 125.00
187, 897. 50
323, 587. 50 1,028, 195.00 3, 147, 030.00
455, 577. 50 5, 626, 845.00 2, 419, 385.00 2, 634, 145.00 1, 878, 330.00 2, 293, 440.00 2,095, 542. 50
737, 220.00 1, 194, 855.00 3, 295, 130.00 3, 354, 645. 00 2, 480, 367. 50 2, 141, 570.00 2,978, 855.00
656, 045. 00 1,515, 577. 50
386, 890.00 2, 744, 895.00
411, 685.00 9, 021, 282. 50 2, 841, 367. 50
861, 020.00 4,697, 107. 50 2,013, 477. 50
848, 147.50 7, 220, 247.50
517, 170.00 1, 959, 640.00
803, 765.00 2, 332, 487. 50 4, 559, 680.00
338, 805.00 2, 411, 742. 50 1, 271, 932. 50 1,514, 097. 50 2, 373, 972. 50
The CHAIRMAN. I understand Miss Williams has no other witnesses to go on to-day, and we will continue a week from to-day at 10 o'clock.
Miss WILLIAMS. Doctor Maroney was one of the speakers that did not get to be heard, and I would like to put a short statement by him in the record.
I also have here a short statement from an address by Sir Auckland Geddes, before the National Citizens Conference in Boston in May, 1923.
The question was raised to-day as to how many nations hud educational departments. I think as a matter of interest it would be well to include that information. Mr. Norwood has written
splendid article published in our journal, and I think it would be interesting to have that printed.
The CHAIRMAN. You may put that in as part of his remarks.
Miss WILLIAMS. The next time we come before the committee we expect to show who is for this bill. We have shown the reasons for it, and I believe this committee is satisfied with the presentation of the various phases of this bill. Now, we expect to show you at the next meeting who wants this bill passed.
The CHAIRMAN. I understand you are going to have representatives of different organizations that are to indorse the bill come before the committee?
Miss WILLIAMS. Yes.
STATEMENT OF FREDERICK W. MARONEY, M. D., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
INSTRUCTION, Atlantic City, N. J. Physical education is the outstanding contribution to health activities which we have in our schools. For years it bas formed an intricate part of the private, normal school, and college training of our students. Progressive public-school systems of education have incorporated some physical education activities in their curricula.
The people of America are physically unfit. This is a startling statement of fact, and yet life insurance companies, the Life Extension Institute, and reputable physicians all testify that it is true. The survey which Doctor Fisher made covering health conditions in the United States during the first year of Mr. Roosevelt's administration pointed out, first, that a billion and one-half dollars could be saved annually if the people of the United States would lead a sound physiological life; second, that one-half of the 3,000,000 beds in hospitals and sanitaria would be unoccupied if we followed the regular rules of health; third, that from 10 to 15 years would be added to our lives if we followed out the principles of health which are known to the medical profession and to educators at large.
The startling statistics of the draft showed the necessity of “physical education for all.” The State of Massachusetts, according to Doctor Smith, Massachusetts commissioner of education, rejected 46 per cent of its young manhood at the time of its first draft. Only 1 out of every 3 men, on an average, was accepted throughout the United States.
Physical education is not a panacea. It does not do away with the necessity for medical inspection, school nursing service, the care of eyes and teeth, the carrying through of a sound nutrition program, or the teaching of hygiene; but it is the most important phase in the health education program. It accentuates the importance of all other health activities. Among other things it will, first, inculcate health habits; second, tend to correct remedial defects; third, develop and energize the play spirit; fourth, give a fund of recreation material; fifth, afford opportunities for the development of those characteristics which we enumerate as courage, presence of mind, loyalty, and self-sacrifice; sixth, teaching Americanization positively through the response which the pupils must give to commands and to the opportunities which physical education affords for con.structive leadership.
In the past we have accepted championship teams, Olympic contenders, and commercialized recreation as evidence of general participation in physical, athletic and recreational activities.
Twenty-eight of the States in the Union have now permissive laws in physical education. Only a few of these States seriously recognize the importance of physical education by helping local districts to finance the programs.
New Jersey in 1917 had some 250 physical education teachers. The Pierson physical education law, passed in 1917, made two and one-half hours of supervised physical education compulsory each school week for all the children in the public schools from the primary to and including the high school.
The State subsidizes each special physical training teacher with an appropriation of $400. This year we have over 500 physical training teachers in New Jersey. In citing this as an example of what might be done throughout the Nation, have national legislation encourage local communities to carry on this important school work.
There has never been any State control of our local physical education program.
EXCERPT FROM ADDRESS DELIVERED BY SIR AUCKLAND GEDDES BEFORE NA
TIONAL CITIZEN'S CONFERENCE IN WASHINGTON in May, 1923
It ultimately matters more to your State Department than anything else in the whole range of their manifold duties to know the color of the education given in the British Empire, in France, in Germany, in all the countries of South America-yes; in all the countries of the world—for, if your Secretary of State knows, let us say, the French color of education he will well know how that Nation will be thinking 10 years hence.
EDUCATION'S FIGHT FOR RECOGNITION
(By John K. Norton)
The United States is unique among the civilized nations of the world in that it fails to recognize education as one of the fundamental interests of the Nation.
When the President of the United States calls his Cabinet together for conference and advice, agriculture is so recognized. The one concern of the Secretary of Agriculture is the advancement of the Nation's agricultural efficiency. Congress, in 1923, authorized appropriations for the use of the Department of Agriculture to the amount of $145,500,000. The 1923 Digest of Appropriations lists in detail the specific purposes for which this sum was voted by Congress. The following are representative: Over a half million was appropriated "for nvestigating the disease of hog cholera and for its control or eradication by uch means as may be necessary-either independently or in cooperation with armers' associations, State or county authorities.” Six hundred thousand dollars was voted "for the payment of indemnities on account of cattle slaughtered in connection with the eradication of tuberculosis from animals.” Over a half million was provided "for investigating the food habits of North American birds and other animals in relation to agriculture, horticulture, and forestry” and for similar investigations.
In the President's Cabinet, commerce is recognized as a paramount national interest. The Secretary of Commerce speaks for the business interests of the Nation. Congress, in 1923, appropriated $21,000,000 for the work of this department. Nearly a half million dollars was provided “to investigate and report on domestic as well as foreign problems relating to production, distribution, and marketing.”. Nearly a million dollars was appropriated for the "collection of statistics
including "semimonthly reports of cotton production"-and quarterly reports of tobacco." "For protecting the sponge fisheries,” $549,000 was provided.
When the President's Cabinet meets, one member is present whose sole interest is the welfare of labor. Nearly nine million dollars was provided for the work of the Department of Labor by Congress in 1923. There was an appropriation of $225,000 "to foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage earners of the United States. The sum of $242,000 was appropriated for the maintenance of a bureau to collect statistics of peculiar significance to the wage earners of the Nation.
Why is the Federal Government so generous in making appropriations for the advancement of the Nation's agricultural interests, in assisting in the solution of the great problems of modern business and industry, and in guarding the welfare of labor—while at the same time the most niggardly appropriations are made for investigations which would profoundly influence public school practice in the direction of greater efficiency? Is it because the people of the Nation fail to appreciate the crucial part played by the public school in a democracy? Those who know the sentiment of the Nation would not accept this explanation..
The answer is found in the organization of our Federal Government. Commerce and industry have a voice in the Nation's government. A Herbert Hoover constantly keeps the welfare and the problems of the Nation's great business interests before the President and his Cabinet. When the Secretary of Commerce discusses the Nation's business interests, the Nation listens. His prestige and ability command the attention of Congress. His recommendations for legislation designed to advance industry are not lightly passed by. A Wallace and a Davis similarly stand ever ready to speak for agriculture and for labor.
Education has no such representation. Education is submerged in the Department of the Interior, which includes a diversity of national interests. Of the 1923 appropriation of $328,000,000 for the Department of the Interior, $161,990 was for the use of the United States Bureau of Education as such-or less than one-twentieth of 1 per cent. This figure is roughly representative of the percentage of the time and thought that education may expect to receive from Secretaries of the Interior. Is it not too much to expect that any Secretary of the Interior, selected because of his touch with a miscellany of great questions, such as the reclamation service, the industry of mining, and Indian affairs, will be in close touch with the vital problems of education?
Only a department of education with a secretary in the President's Cabinet can expect to command the resources and respect that will lift education to the rightful place among the Nation's primary interests. It is too much to expect that the people of the Nation, that the Congress of the United States, or that the 800,000 teachers of the Nation will be satisfied with a submerged bureau enjoying a smaller appropriation than is made available for the use of the offices of some of our State superintendents of schools.
Why is education a primary national interest? Why does education deserve to rank with agriculture, commerce, and labor? Education directly concerns all of our 110,000,000 people. Each year 25,000,000 children come under the direct influence of our 275,000 public schools. Close to $1,500,000,000 is being expended yearly for the maintenance of these schools. These schools affect every phase of our increasingly complex civilization. The results of good schools or of poor schools are not confined to the localities in which schools exist. The ignorance that results in hookworm in Alabama makes raw cotton more expensive
Massachusetts. Tuberculosis in Massachusetts adds to the cost of an Iowa farmer's. overalls. The negro illiteracy of the South almost overnight becomes the problem of Pennsylvania. We are all affected, we are all poorer, when any of our population is physically or educationally below par.
The education bill would (1) create a department of education with a secretary in the President's Cabinet; (2) create a national council of 100 representative educators and laymen; (3) encourage the States, by Federal aid, to meet five educational needs of national importance: (1) The removal of illiteracy; (2) the Americanization of the foreign-born; (3) the promotion of physical education; (4) the training of teachers; (5) the equalization of educational opportunities.
It is for the public interest that tubercular hogs should be destroyed and that the owners of such hogs should be indemnified from Federal funds. But is the eradication of tubercular hogs of less national concern than the prevention of illiteracy among thousands of our native-born citizens? Is a half million dollar Federal appropriation "for investigating the disease of hog cholera and for its control or eradication by such means as may be necessary more of a national function than the appropriation of a similar amount to a department of education to "conduct studies in the field of education”? Is the provision of “quarterly reports” on tobacco production more of a national function than the provision of adequate school statistics for the guidance of local school boards in their expenditure of a billion and a half of school money each year?
Public education is to-day a more important national interest than forest supervision, concrete highways, fish propagation, game preserves, or the control of cattle tick or bovine tuberculosis. All of these we accept to-day as proper national functions. We generally accept the principle of an equalization of advantages and burdens throughout wide areas by ordering common railway rates; common charges for electric light and power, water, gas, and telephone services; common costs for health and agricultural services and common postal rates. It costs the same to send a letter from Key West to Seattle as from Minneapolis to St. Paul. If rural residents paid the actual cost of the rural mail service, the cost of this service in many country districts would be prohibitive. It is only by a pooling of costs on a large scale, as expressed in common service rates, that common and universal services can be provided. These new services have come recently, after better ideas as to equalization have come to prevail
. We accept an equalization of costs for them as perfectly proper. Education began much earlier, in the days of little things and local effort, and we often fail to-day to see that the same principle of equalization should apply.
These fundamental facts are recognized in the education bill. In one of its first sections, it provides for the establishment of a department of education with a secretary of education in the President's Cabinet. Thus, education would be given the recognition which its primary importance in our democracy justifies.
The education bill also creates a national council on education, an agency through which the best educational thought of the Nation could be pooled. In the national council each year would be brought together the following citizens to consider “subjects relating to the promotion and development of education": (1) The State superintendents or commissioners of the 48 States; (2) 25 persons not educators interested in the results of education from the standpoint of the public; (3) 25 educators representing different phases of education.
This national council on education would be a tremendous force for better schools. To this body the secretary of education would present the results of the investigations of the department of education. Experience would be pooled. The mission of the public school in a democracy would receive careful thought. The results of this great annual conference on education would be carried back to the States by the State superintendents to be adopted by the local school boards in their direction of the schools—in making these schools better meet their local, State, and national purposes.
“From the very beginning public education has been left mainly in the hands of the States. So far as schooling youth is concerned the policy has been justified, because no responsibility can be so effective as that of the local community alive to its task. I believe in the cooperation of the national authority to stimulate, encourage, and broaden the work of the local authorities. But it is the especial obligation of the Federal Government to devise means and effectively assist in the education of the newcomer from foreign lands, so that the level of American education may be made the highest that is humanly possible." (President Harding's message to Congress, December 8, 1922.)
The education bill would further recognize the primary importance of education by authorizing substantial appropriations of Federal money to encourage the States to correct five outstanding educational deficiencies of national significance. Is education submerged? —Some appropriations for the Department of the Interior,
1923 Bureau of Pensions.
$254, 246, 362. 67 Reclamation Service.
14, 800, 021, 01 Construction and maintenance of Alaska Railroad
4, 510, 210.00 Protection and survey of public lands and timber.
1, 175, 000.00 Investigating mine accidents.
378, 000.00 Support of Indians in Arizona.
185, 000.00 Bureau of Education -
161, 990.00 Note.--These figures are from the Treasury Department's Digest of Appropriations, 1923. The figures given for the Bureau of Education do not include appropriations made for "education of natives in Alaska,” nor similar outside work. It also does not include a sum of approximately $50,000 for printing and supplies, which is available, but not specifically appropriated for bureau use.
This principle of Federal aid is not new. Education is receiving Federal aid now and has since the very beginning of our history. In 1785 Congress set aside lot No. 16 in every township “for the maintenance of public schools.” Since then Congress has repeatedly granted land and money for the encouragement of education.
The education bill would extend this principle by authorizing further Federal appropriations to be used by the States in the solution of five specific educational problems fundamental to worthy citizenship both in the States and in the Nation.
The first of these problems is illiteracy. Five million illiterates were enumerated in the 1920 census. The majority of them-over 3,000,000—were nativeborn Americans. These 5,000,000 according to the census “should be understood as representing only those persons who have had no schooling whatever." In the draft one man in every four could not write a letter home or read a newspaper in English. Such a condition in a democracy is a menace. Economically it costs us nearly a billion annually according to an estimate made by Franklin K. Lane. Illiteracy and ignorance constitute a national problem and can be met successfully only by a national approach. This the bill recognizes by authorizing annually an appropriation, so long as the illiteracy problem continues, not to exceed $7,500,000 from the Federal Treasury to be apportioned among the several States for use in stamping out illiteracy.